Cognitive Daily

On our recent trip to Europe, we had a hard time getting the kids to smile for pictures. Most of our pictures of Nora ended up looking something like this (actually this one’s a self portrait, but you get the idea):

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i-eca0cf2af9fc3ac4445c7dff7d8aab70-research.gifHere her expression is basically neutral, and if it wasn’t such a dramatic shot, it would be a bit boring.

When we could get her to smile, often the smile was inauthentic — posed, or even sarcastic, like in this shot:

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Here she’s expressing mock excitement over her parents’ excitement about the figure depicted in the statue: Leonardo Fibonacci, the great mathematician (click on the photo for a closer view).

Authentic smiles generally came at inopportune moments for photography, such as this one:

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Why couldn’t Nora have smiled like this in front of the Parthenon and saved her inauthentic smile for laughing at the irony of being served water in a vodka glass?

The primary feature of a genuine smile was identified by Duchenne de Boulogne in 1862: “crow’s feet,” or wrinkles in the outside corner of the eyes (click on the picture above to see them on Nora). Subsequent research has found that people readily differentiate between real and posed smiles, and like the people in pictures better when they’re sporting a real smile. Other research has found that people respond more positively to advertisements when the models in the ad are smiling — but until now no study has examined the difference between real and posed smiles in models.

Victoria Peace, Lynden Miles, and Lucy Johnston filled that gap by asking female volunteers to rate T-shirts modeled by women with different facial expressions. The t-shirts were actually identical except for a color manipulation in Photoshop, and the different facial expressions were made separately by pulling from a database of emotional expressions. The same model was either smiling genuinely, smiling artificially, or showing a neutral expression. Thanks to some nifty Photoshop work, viewers saw her wearing each shirt, and with each facial expression. After each photo, they indicated whether they liked the shirt. Here are the results:

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Significantly more viewers preferred the shirts when they were attached to the authentically smiling face than either the posed smile or the neutral face. In fact, there was no difference in responses to a posed smile or a neutral face.

Next Peace’s team decided to see how quickly the effect occurred. In a new experiment they flashed each picture for just 150 milliseconds, then asked whether viewers liked each shirt. While some shirts were preferred over others, there was no effect of facial expression. So while facial expression has an impact on preferences, it takes at least 150 milliseconds for that impact to be observed.

But if facial expression can’t affect preferences quickly, perhaps it’s not a lingering effect. Maybe if we’re distracted by another task, the authenticity of the smile won’t matter. In a third experiment, the team told viewers they simply needed to identify the color of each T-shirt as quickly as possible. This time there were just three shirts, and each viewer saw only one facial expression with each shirt. As soon as the color was identified, the picture disappeared. At the end of the test, viewers were asked to say which shirt they preferred. Even though the facial expressions were evenly distributed among all three shirts, significantly more viewers preferred the shirt worn by the genuinely smiling model compared to the neutral or posed smile.

So even when distracted by another task, we still prefer items paired with a genuine smile compared to posed smiles.

And that gets me thinking…. You know what I’d like right now? A nice, cold glass of vodka! (It’s 5 o’clock somewhere, right?)

Peace, V., Miles, L., & Johnston, L. (2006). It doesn’t matter what you wear: The impact of posed and genuine expressions of happiness on product evaluation. Social Cognition, 24(2), 137-168.

Comments

  1. #1 Warren
    August 15, 2007

    On our recent trip to Europe, we had a hard time getting the kids to smile for pictures.

    You know why, right?

    Transport yourself back in time to the age of ten or so. Imagine yourself trying to pretend to like being dragged all over hell and back by parents committed to the idea of exposing you to culture, without listening to whatever your objections might be. Imagine your schedule being set, being extremely full, and loaded with all sorts of enrichment opportunities.

    Some of it, you can admit to yourself, doesn’t totally suck; a few of the statues are pretty cool and some of the paintings are interesting, and the funky old buildings have some real class. And then, just as you think maybe it’s not the worst way to spend a day, your parents begin insisting that, rather than simply admire what’s before you, you stand still in front of every damn thing they see and smile, and pose, and say cheeeeeeeese.

    Now, would you really feel very inclined, after even one day of that, toward offering an authentic smile? Would you even be able to dredge one up?

  2. #2 Dave Munger
    August 15, 2007

    Oh, sure –

    I don’t blame them for not wanting to smile (though they’re actually 14 and 15, not 10). In fact most of the time we were happy to just let them express themselves however they wanted — sticking out their tongues, you name it.

    I even think for the most part they enjoyed the trip. I just thought it was interesting when they decided to smile and when they didn’t, and I thought it made a good segue to the research on genuine versus posed smiles.

    Dave

  3. #3 tekel
    August 15, 2007

    I wonder if there are similar studies about facial expressions and pr0n. I would predict that hetero men viewing salacious photos of women prefer photos where the models have genuine smiles.

  4. #4 RfP
    August 15, 2007

    Have you seen this smile recognition test? It uses video.
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/smiles/

  5. #5 Jen
    August 16, 2007

    That test linked to by RfP is pretty cool. I got a 16 out of 20. How’d other people do?

  6. #6 ...tom...
    April 17, 2008


    15 of 20 correct. Missed 4 genuine and one fake.

    Pretty cool indeed.

    …tom…
    .

  7. #7 atheea
    April 18, 2008

    I got 17 and could’ve gotten 18 – but was fooled by how quickly the person stopped smiling and got back to a neutral expression. Anyone else use that as an indicator for fake/real smiles?

  8. #8 atheea
    April 18, 2008

    I mean I mistook that smile for a fake one. (sorry for the double comment)

  9. #9 Sat
    April 18, 2008

    I got 17 out of 20 correct (all 3 were on genuine smiles that I thought were fake). I kind of psyched myself out though because I had a bunch of fakes in a row and I was like “argh, what am i missing?” Thanks for the link RfP!

  10. #10 gloria
    September 17, 2009

    I only got 14 out of 20. This test is not easy.

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