The Frontal Cortex

Confabulations

Just when you thought people couldn’t get any sillier or more confused, psychologists uncover yet another innate foible. This one is called “choice blindness,” and it refers to the ways in which people are utterly blind to their own choices and preferences. We think we want X, but then we’re given Y, and so we invent all sorts of eloquent reasons why Y is actually a much better alternative and how we wanted Y all along. (What sort of fool would choose X?)

Lars Hall and Peter Johansson explain:

For example, in an early study we showed our volunteers pairs of pictures of faces and asked them to choose the most attractive. In some trials, immediately after they made their choice, we asked people to explain the reasons behind their choices.

Unknown to them, we sometimes used a double-card magic trick to covertly exchange one face for the other so they ended up with the face they did not choose. Common sense dictates that all of us would notice such a big change in the outcome of a choice. But the result showed that in 75 per cent of the trials our participants were blind to the mismatch, even offering “reasons” for their “choice”.

Importantly, the effects of choice blindness go beyond snap judgements. Depending on what our volunteers say in response to the mismatched outcomes of choices (whether they give short or long explanations, give numerical rating or labelling, and so on) we found this interaction could change their future preferences to the extent that they come to prefer the previously rejected alternative. This gives us a rare glimpse into the complicated dynamics of self-feedback (“I chose this, I publicly said so, therefore I must like it”), which we suspect lies behind the formation of many everyday preferences.

This reminds me of the influential work done by Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga on split-brain patients, who have had their two hemispheres disconnected. The scientists mischievously flashed different sets of pictures to each eye, which meant each hemisphere was getting a different set of inputs. For example, they would flash a picture of a chicken claw to the right eye and a picture of a snowy driveway to the left eye. The patient was then shown a variety of images and asked to pick out the image that was most closely associated with what they had seen. In a tragicomic display of indecisiveness, the split-brain patient’s two different hands pointed to two different objects. The right hand pointed to a chicken (this matched the chicken claw that the left hemisphere witnessed), while the left hand pointed to a shovel (the right hemisphere wanted to shovel the snow.) When the scientists asked the patient to explain his contradictory responses, he immediately generated a plausible story. “Oh, that’s easy,” he said. “The chicken claw goes with the chicken, and you need a shovel to clean out the chicken shed.” Instead of admitting that his brain was hopelessly confused, he wove his confusion into a neat explanation.

Gazzaniga blamed this behavior on “the interpreter” module, located somewhere in the left hemisphere. The basic idea is that the brain is constantly trying to weave a narrative out of the cacophony of reality – it’s desperate to make sense of the world. Interestingly, much of this narrative is written in reverse, as we brazenly re-write what just happened. We conveniently forget that we didn’t choose that attractive face, or that the shovel has nothing to do with the chicken shed. The ridiculous contradiction isn’t suppressed – it’s not even noticed. We end up happily justifying choices we didn’t make.

Why do we do this? I like to think of these confabulations as necessary half-truths to preserve the unity of the self. At any given moment, our mind is overstuffed with disparate sensations and fleeting thoughts; our different hemispheres want different things and distinct blobs of brain pump out distinct emotions. Why, then, do we feel like a unified person? Why do I feel like “Jonah” and not like a collection of random and stray neural emanations? Because we tell ourselves a story. Just as a novelist creates a narrative, we create a sense of being. The self, in this sense, is our work of art, a fiction created by the mind in order to make sense of its own fragments. In Proust Was A Neuroscientist, I quote Virginia Woolf on this mental process:

Am I here, or am I there? Or is the true self neither this nor that but something so varied and wandering that it is only when we give rein to its wishes and let it take its way unimpeded that we are indeed ourselves?

Comments

  1. #1 dbuddah
    April 25, 2009

    “Just as a novelist creates a narrative, we create a sense of being. The self, in this sense, is our work of art, a fiction created by the mind in order to make sense of its own fragments.”

    I love the idea of our Self as a narrative. It makes sense of so much disparate data (I think there’s some recursion here!).

    Cf. also the work of Bhattacharya and Sheth on insight.

    I’d also like to hear your perspective on Libet’s work. I don’t recall your mentioning him in How We Decide (and I have not read Proust).

  2. #2 DaleP
    April 25, 2009

    Did this study control for poor face recognition/memory? The recent post on the variation in face recognition ability
    http://scienceblogs.com/cognitivedaily/2009/04/super-recognizers_people_with.php
    suggests some may simply not know the face has been switched. I suspect I would be vulnerable to that memory failure, as I have a hard time recognizing people until I know them pretty well.

  3. #3 Steve
    April 25, 2009

    I think this is basically right – what we are actually doing as we go thru our day is maintaining a coherent (to us) self image. As if each choice were a meta-choice (“How would Steve choose in this situation?”). I think this also has to do with the predictive function of the frontal cortex. Attention is based on a delta between sensory input and what our brains are predicting will happen over the next couple of seconds (see Jeff Hawkins, On Intelligence). Something that violates that “rolling” prediction draws attention, and we deal with it, reorienting the predictive model in the process.

    There has to be some cognitive cost to updating the predicted/projected context, so we prefer or default to choices and actions that maintain consistency with what we previously thought would happen. Thus rationalization, and choice blindness. It’s easier than more closely and consciously monitoring the environment all the time, or engaging in deep thinking (major interrupt) in order to handle contexts that appear to have less predictive reliability. And our brains love easy and consistency.

  4. #4 Tracy Koehler
    April 25, 2009

    Ah, The Explainer! What would we do without it? (Actually, don’t answer that. The Explainer will rush in to fill the void posed by that question. Ask a question, answers pour forth. Still, as one human to all you other humans reading this, I love our brains. They’re kind of gorgeous even when they’re silly!)
    Ah, and science itself is an Explainer, which brings up a nifty Feynman quote: The first principle is that you must not fool yourself, and you are the easiest person to fool.
    Jonah — I loved your explanation of how you believe “self” is maintained via a story…a sort of personal narrative tapestry. It’s an Explanation “I” happen to agree with. (Our “weaves” totally run in the same direction on that subject. And hopefully we believers aren’t just full of chicken poop…)
    Does anyone know if our neurons are sort of “coded for continuity”? Are they designed to maintain this personal continuity? Are we thus hardwired for continuity?

  5. #5 Elana
    April 25, 2009

    So glad I found your blog and going to run out and get your book (How We Decide) tonight.

    I am visiting NYC for the weekend and for reading material on the plane brought along a pile of old NY Times Magazines that I hadn’t read over the last 6 months or so. Luckily, I stumbled upon the “Questions for” feature in which you are interviewed 12/14/08. Great interview.

    I too went to Columbia undergrad and now do research/writing in the field of gluten-intolerance. Am fascinated by the psychiatric ramifications of gluten ingestion by those who are allergic to it. It can act as an opiate in certain people.

    Anyway, I am always intrigued to learn more about the functioning of the brain and your writing is very accessible to eveyrone.

    Looking forward to keeping up with your excellent blog and referring people over here. Many thanks for what you do!

  6. #6 LionDancer
    April 25, 2009

    This sounds so right on the money. Still I find that I’m having a problem with the realization that I’m a fictional character.

  7. #7 Michael Anes
    April 26, 2009

    “The scientists mischievously flashed different sets of pictures to each eye, which meant each hemisphere was getting a different set of inputs. For example, they would flash a picture of a chicken claw to the right eye and a picture of a snowy driveway to the left eye.”

    I believe these studies were performed by having the participant fixate centrally and presenting information to the left and right visual fields.

    The retina in each eye projects to both the left and right hemispheres at the same time. [Specifically, the "inside" or nasal retina sends information to the contralateral hemisphere while the "outside" or temporal retina sends information to the ipsilateral hemisphere.]

    Information presented in the left visual field (while the eyes are fixed straight ahead) is initially processed in the right hemisphere in intact brains. Information presented in the right visual field (while the eyes are fixed straight ahead) is initially processed in the left hemisphere in intact brains. When the corpus callosum is severed in patients, the visual information processing cannot be “shared” or modified by processes in the other hemisphere.

    You and Carl Zimmer making *exactly* the same Introductory Psych error in the same 14 days? Surprising, to say the least…
    http://discovermagazine.com/2009/may/15-big-similarities-and-quirky-differences-between-our-left-and-right-brains

  8. #8 Nikki Moore
    April 27, 2009

    fascinating article, Jonah.
    this could read as the history of philosophy – explaining and bulwarking choices we didn’t make. and that being said, there is something deceptive not only about the narrative-I, hyped up on self consistency, but as philosopher/theorist Avital Ronell points out in works like “Crack Wars” and “The Telephone Book”, the private-I who investigates the narrative is always already on a drug of its own. writing about the writing of Walter Benjamin, Avital pens the following:

    “Benjamin takes an injection of a foreign body (Baudelaire’s Les Paradis artificiels) in order to express his inner experience. this is by no means an atypical gesture. To locate “his” ownmost subjectivity, Thomas de Quincy cited Wordsworth. these texts are on each other. a textual communication based on ‘tropium’.”

    and while Avital’s work is probing literary, as your brilliant conclusion above about narration points out, the leap to the real (?) I never lands us that far off the page.

    thanks,
    nikki @
    http://prosthetics.wordpress.com

  9. #9 gilbert Wesley Purdy
    April 27, 2009

    I’m surprised that this seems to surprise you so, Jonah. While observations need experimental verification, I’d think that the above outcomes only begin to support common observation. Beyond the need to narrate our lives, we have the need to make the story to meet three criteria: 1) to meet societal definitions of consistency; 2) to imply an anxiety-reducing degree of control over one’s fate; and 3) to turn out to have a happy ending. To fail at “believing” one or more of the three can lead to reduced functioning due to depression or worse.

    It seems promising to suggest that Sperry and Gazzaniga pointed up the daily functional corrollates that underpin 1 & 2. #1, on this more fundamental level, is “to check sensory input against stored reality-models and to indentify most viable available alternative upon which to proceed.” #2 remains much the same.

  10. #10 DR
    April 28, 2009

    In general, when we refer to something as “thinking” we expect an element of self-consciousness, and as Descartes would have it, vice versa — we are able to form a presumption of our own selfhood (only) as we undertake the thinking process. The experimental subjects who did not confabulate an explanation presumably had formed a thought that they were being shown the wrong face. They must have had a recollection (memory & misremembering are other ways of “self”-creating/affirming) to make self the organizing principle of thought in this instance. The subjects who confabulated an answer seem to have started with the thought (i.e., the suggestion) and worked toward a self.

    Whatever permits this dynamic between thought and identity would seem to confer a pretty powerful evolutionary advantage — a way quickly to create lots of intellectually unique individuals with lots of thoughts that aren’t necessarily quite like the thoughts of others, and a way of permiting from time to time conflation of subjective and objective (a state associated with inspiration and invention). Like any evolutionary driver, it isn’t perfect. The confabulators may fool themselves (and sometimes millions of others) into unhappiness or catastrophe. At the same time, however, confabulator can be another word for inventor, artist, philosopher, scientist.

    It is a human characteristic to invent fictions of all kinds, myths, paintings, novels, plans, experiments. (Maybe it’s uniquely human, I don’t know. Do verbal gorillas, for example, give evidence of inventing fantasies?) In any event, complex fictions go beyond the kind of confabulation disclosed in the experiment, but I wonder if they arise from the same mechanism. The ability to conceive something not true is a powerful capability, and except in pathological cases, seems to demand a pretty definite self.

  11. #11 jb
    April 29, 2009

    Some of us tell ourselves nicer stories than others. What was William Parente’s story that led him to kill his family and then himself recently?
    Eckhart Tolle, at the time in graduate school at Cambridge, relates that he awoke one night feeling alienated and having a deep loathing of the world and his own existence. “I cannot live with myself any longer”, was the thought that kept running through his mind. He became aware of what a peculiar thought it was. ” “Am I one or two? If I cannot live with myself, there must be two of me: the ‘I’ and the ‘self’ I cannot live with.” “Maybe,” I thought, only one of them is real.” ”
    He was so stunned by this realization that his mind stopped, “I was fully conscious but there were no more thoughts.” An intense fear took over which he did not resist and finally fell asleep. He awoke the next day still in a state of non-thought but blissfully at peace and so he remained for three months and so it continues.
    My aunt at 87, on the other hand, is losing her story due to dementia and is also terrified because she beleives that her story is her real self. She has not had ET’s realization about her real self. How many of us know the real self that is always there and is not our story?

  12. #12 Pat Hayes
    April 29, 2009

    I cannot cite them, but there are many studies involving posthypnotic suggestion in which people instantly and flawlessly provide rational explanations of ‘their’ decisions and actions, all of which are directly implanted by the hypnotist. Interestingly, those who are unable to provide an explanation typically become very disturbed and need to be re-hypnotized immediately.

    BTW, everyone should read Julian Jayne’s great classic “The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind”, which was one of the first to state this ‘inner self-story’ theory of the conscious self. It is also a fabulously good read.

    There is a very nice philosophical puzzle here. If our theories of ourselves are indeed just a fictional narrative, and our ‘self’ is simply a fictional idea – as seems to be the case – do we really exist as free agents? Or are we just a kind of self-referential froth of symbols on the surface of a mechanical, unaware (and therefore non-sentient, so not morally responsible) inner zombie? Not a pretty thought. Fortunately, I think there is a way out of this apparent dilemma, but it is one that requires us to square moral responsibility with physical determinism, a position that many people find logically uncomfortable.

  13. #13 jb
    April 30, 2009

    Correct me if I’m wrong Jonah, but this fictional self-creating that we do in the mind arises from, ironically, a very ‘real’ part of the brain, the default mode network. While we sometimes ruminate consciously about what am I doing and where is it taking me, these thoughts will arise unbidden when they get the chance (thus the name default) and are presumably there for a purpose. This happens a lot during meditation. This is a fairly recent discovery (the brain parts responsible) and neuroscientists are still asking why do we do this? What is the function of the DMN?

  14. I see few problems mixed in here and there are some attempt to explain below:

    At the very beginning: ‘offering “reasons” for their “choice”‘ couldbe explained in the area of Cognitive Dissonance theory: The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, or by justifying or rationalizing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance). It happened in the case of mismatched cards just to avoid the state of psychical dicomfort.

    The second: ‘the result showed that in 75 per cent of the trials our participants were blind to the mismatch’. It’s really hard to believe that so many people couldn’t recognise it. I wonder if they were really focused on the cards? Or maybe they were just confused and to ashamed to say that it weren’t their choices? You know how authority (researcher in this case) can influence analysed person… So they had no other choice than just to justify ‘their’ choices.

    This article reminded me somehow about posthipnotic sugesty – in that case ‘programmed’ person also justify their actions such as opening window when seeing handkerchief. It’s almost like the case of man with disconnected hemispheres. It’s really amazing that our brains can make up so ridiculous confabulations just to avoid a bit of uncertainty.

  15. #15 MK
    May 5, 2009

    “Why, then, do we feel like a unified person? Why do I feel like “Jonah” and not like a collection of random and stray neural emanations? Because we tell ourselves a story.”

    Interesting. Are you, by any chance, familiar with the personality theory of Dan McAdams?
    He argues that identity is an internalized and constantly evolving life story, a narration of the self that people create to make sense of themselves and their life over time. It unites the many facets of a person, past and present selves to provide coherence and meaning to the person’s life. It’s a story that tells who a person is.

  16. #16 Magnetic Material
    May 8, 2009

    I’d think that the above outcomes only begin to support common observation.

  17. #17 tkB120
    August 9, 2009

    This reminds me of how people try to create patterns out of random scenarios, like finding pictures in clouds or splatter paint. Everything must have a reason, a pattern, a formula. The idea that humans are logical creatures has created the notion that we must always have logical reasoning behind out actions; nothing can go without explanation. I thought it was interesting that the man with split-brain could not own up to not understanding his actions and reasoning. Even though he was participating in a study in which the experimenters, Sperry and Gazzangia, knew his medical condition, he still felt the need to hide his confusion.
    “The basic idea is that the brain is constantly trying to weave a narrative out of the cacophony of reality…” The purpose of this storytelling to explain our actions seems two fold. One part is to find some justification for everyone else’s understanding. The second is to create a reason for self-benefit. We can not leave things unexplained, even if we internally know the cause of our actions being unexplainable.

  18. #18 ipad 2 news
    May 18, 2011

    To say Apple’s apple company ipad 2 is an easy tablet to examine is somewhat connected with an understatement. It, a check in to past year’s wildly successful (along with currently market-defining) iPad, is nearly similar when it comes to application, and though much better, closely related on the equipment side at the same time. With a 9.7-inch, 1024 x 768 display, the final size and shape on the device has always been the same, even though inside there’s a new dual core A5 CPU, more storage, and a pair of brand-new cameras, many of the iPad 2′s modifications are plastic. Still, the first sort tablet leaped far above nearly all of its opposition when the item came to the products both the hardware (if not it is raw features) and its application selection — anything Apple even now stands mind and shoulders over it is adversaries on. And this new product, a thin, sleeker, speedier variant from the original most likely are not breaking a great deal of new ground, but it’s already at the front on the pack. Nevertheless is the ipad tablet 2 worthy of an upgrade for people who took the actual plunge within the first age group? More importantly, does the device possess what it takes to create new managers into the crease? Those concerns — and more — are only for to be solved in the full review, consequently read on!

  19. I’m not sure why but this web site is loading incredibly slow for me. Is anyone else having this problem or is it a issue on my end? I’ll check back later and see if the problem still exists.

  20. #20 surveys for cash
    June 15, 2011

    I’d should test with you here. Which isn’t one thing I normally do! I enjoy studying a submit that will make individuals think. Additionally, thanks for permitting me to comment!

  21. #21 Ned Roes
    June 19, 2011

    vandring lauralea georgiana hausen throwing nightcats draper eggerikx clockwinder parenthood possessions shutov functionalist svjetlana

  22. #22 Drip Feed Blasts
    June 20, 2011

    have you guys checked out the new iphone release? any information about it?

  23. J’ai lu le contraire sur un blog, si je retrouve le lien je viens le reposter.

  24. #24 życzenia urodzinowe
    July 13, 2011

    Ciekawe życzenia. Ja z reguły korzystam ze stron z życzeniami, chociaż czasem sam wymyślam.

  25. #25 private rentenvorsorge
    July 17, 2011

    Kann ich nur einfach sagen, was ein Relief zu suchen jemand , die wirklich weiß theyre reden über im Internet. Sie positiv wie man vermitteln ein Problem bis light und machen es wichtig. Extra Personen müssen read und dies verstehen Facette der Geschichte. Ich kann nicht glauben, betrachten youre nicht mehr beliebt da du positiv haben das Geschenk.

  26. #26 supra skytop ii shoes
    July 22, 2011

    I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it.I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post.

  27. #27 jordan fusion 8
    July 23, 2011

    I wish getting over a broken heart can be so easy as following a few steps.. but its not

  28. #28 Brittany Wiglesworth
    August 8, 2011

    Not forgetting or allowing those in control to disregard the source in which they gained their money or their power for the power is the people, not just one man. We have to have strength to do what is ahead of us; power comes from many and power can be exposed ‎and seized by those who allowed it to be in the hands of those in that position. We forgetwho it is that has the power. Lets us our power to rightfully regain that which has nearly been stripped from our grasp.

  29. #29 Phil
    August 10, 2011

    I don’t want you to think I’m a copy cat, but I really like the styleof your site. Could you let me know which theme are you using? Or was it tailor made?

  30. #30 off-site-optimierung
    August 11, 2011

    Toller Artikel! Ich bin ganz gespannt auf mehr Artikel dieser Art.

  31. #31 i need money
    August 12, 2011

    hi men anyone on tweets this i can easily comply with since you just about all roxk

  32. #32 picket fence
    September 2, 2011

    I don’t think I’ve never read anything like this before. So nice to see an individual with some unique thoughts on this subject. I really thank you for beginning it. This web site is one thing that is wanted on the internet, somebody with a bit originality.

  33. #33 Reel King
    September 5, 2011

    excelente anglógra mi iceco te adeslamo sicio aramo. lirir te recour riademo nos chadiredu o brelóicu eisidamer raparro bien.

  34. #34 elizabeth
    September 5, 2011

    lol, do you guys ever get the story right? I know your just a gossip rag and not a news organization like you fancy yourselves, but com’on you suck.

  35. #35 Albert Dippolito
    September 6, 2011

    Being a website manager I do think the patient make any difference this is reallyexcellent. I be thankful for your endeavours. You ought to continue the good work permanently! All the best..

  36. #36 Lori Kruer
    September 9, 2011

    wayy too many shoes!! i always stick to three (casual day, evening and comfy) ..this is meant to be helpful, dont teach to overpack!!! x

  37. #37 Jack Greenfield
    September 13, 2011

    Outstanding read, I just tweeted the link to a friend who was doing a little research on this. Thanks again.

  38. #38 sem rush
    September 14, 2011

    Super Artikel! Ich freue mich auf weitere Artikel dieser Art.

  39. #39 Moncler sales
    September 14, 2011

    I accept, I have not been on this internet site for a long time, however, it was another delight to see such a best items and overpass it. Thanks for assisting making people realize that important opinions.

  40. #40 backlinks forum
    September 18, 2011

    Erstklassiger Beitrag. Ich freue mich auf weitere Artikel dieser Art.

  41. #41 ugg cheap boots
    October 1, 2011

    It seems too sophisticated and very comprehensive for me. I am awaiting for your another script, and I would like to try to gain it! Actually the submission is spreading its wings quickly, trying to find it…

  42. #42 cheap jewellery jacket
    October 7, 2011

    I acknowledge, I have not been on this page for a long time, however, it was another delight to see such a excellent issues and ignore it. Thank you for helping making people more aware of best issues.

  43. #43 ugg cheap boots
    October 10, 2011

    It may be too complicated and very inclusive for me. I am looking forward for your next publication, and I will try to get the hang of it! Really the essay is spreading its wings swiftly, hunting for it…

  44. #44 ferienhäuser in polen
    October 13, 2011

    There is noticeably a bundle to learn about this. I assume you made certain nice factors in options also.

  45. #45 Moderna Pensionsvalet
    October 18, 2011

    Keep working , best wishes!

  46. #46 George Dagher
    October 18, 2011

    Thank you, this is trully amazing.

  47. #47 cheap uggs
    October 31, 2011

    It looks like too complex and very broad for me. I am expecting for your next write-up, and I will try to gain it! Really the posting is spreading its wings quickly, looking for it…

  48. #48 Kole Samrov
    November 6, 2011

    I love the helpful info you provide in your articles I am going to bookmark your blog and check again here regularly I will be quite certain I will learn

  49. #49 wallpaper
    November 7, 2011

    I cannot thank you fully for the blogposts on your internet page. I know you placed lots of time and effort into all of them and hope you know how considerably I appreciate it. I hope I will do precisely the same for yet another individual at some point. Palm Beach Condos

  50. #50 Canada Goose Parka
    November 8, 2011

    That is a good item, I am very willing to read this script, and I consent with the ideas of this submission. I think this is the best opinion. I will do something after reading it.

  51. #51 UGGs Kopen
    November 9, 2011

    I totally consent with your ideas. We all benefit from this good publication. This internet site is wonderful. I have figured out some things from here. Thanks.

  52. #52 cheap uggs online
    November 11, 2011

    Thank you for helping to talk over this view, I feel intensive about idea and like to learn some things on this factor. If possible, as you attain knowledge, would you notice replacing your site with lots of more info? It’s very good for me.

  53. #53 Soccer?Jerseys supplies
    November 11, 2011

    I generally agree with your issues. We all benefit from this great write-up. This web site is good. I have discovered a lot of things from here. Thanks.

  54. #54 Discount UGG
    November 15, 2011

    I found this is an informative and funny script, so I think it is very benificial and knowledgeable. Many thanks for the efforts you have made in writing this publication. I am expecting the different excellent work from you in the future as well. practically your creative writing ability has urged me.

  55. #55 Odette
    November 18, 2011

    Well I really enjoyed studying it. This post provided by you is very constructive for correct planning.

  56. #56 UGGs Australia Sale
    November 22, 2011

    You speak with so many elements, so much essence, even though I become aware that you have clearly hit the nail on the head. Well done! I will directly grab your rss feed to stay abreast of some updates. Genuine work and much success in your business efforts!

  57. #57 lock picking guide
    November 22, 2011

    Fulton John Sheen~ Life is like a cash register in that every account every thought every deed like every sale is registered and recorded.

  58. #58 UGG classic mini
    November 22, 2011

    I have learned some new things from your blog post. One other thing to I have observed is that in most cases, FSBO sellers will certainly reject you. Remember, they will prefer never to use your solutions. But if you maintain a gradual, professional relationship, offering assistance and staying in contact for around four to five weeks, you will usually have the capacity to win a business interview. From there, a house listing follows. Cheers

  59. #59 UGG Outlet
    November 22, 2011

    Appreciate for assisting to talk over this view, I feel strongly about points and would like to learn quantities of things on this element. Possibly, as you attain knowledge, would you care replacing your website with a quantity of more info? It’s very helpful for me.

  60. #60 Goedkoop UGGs
    November 22, 2011

    I found this is an benificial and funny submission, so I think it is very helpful and knowledgeable. Appreciate for the efforts you have made in writing this posting. I am wishing the similar best work from you in the future as well. Really your creative writing ability has encouraged me.

  61. #61 update my computer drivers
    November 26, 2011

    This is one of the most useful and practical articles. you also have other great articles. Great job!

  62. #62 UGGs Ireland
    November 28, 2011

    I accept, I have not seen this page for a long time, however, it was another pleasure to see such a excellent items and neglect it. Thanks for helping making people more aware of wonderful opinions.

  63. #63 UGG Classic Cardy
    November 28, 2011

    Thanks for assisting to discuss this thoughts and opinions, I feel strongly about issues and like to learn much things on this issue. If possible, as you attain knowledge, would you take to heart renewing your website with some more info? It’s very benificial for me.

  64. #64 Julia
    November 30, 2011

    I truly wanted to send a quick remark in order to say thanks to you for all of the superb pointers you are sharing at this site. My time-consuming internet investigation has finally been compensated with extremely good strategies to talk about with my neighbours. I ‘d claim that most of us visitors actually are very much endowed to be in a fantastic site with so many perfect professionals with great tactics. I feel extremely happy to have encountered the website and look forward to many more thrilling minutes reading here. Thanks again for everything.

  65. #65 acplifweqj
    November 30, 2011

    epmojtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.eclnxrfoas.com qhnfywynqw

  66. It seems too complicated and very far-reaching for me. I am expecting for your the other write-up, and I would like to try to obtain it! Really the post is spreading its wings quickly, hunting for it…

  67. #67 headphones beats by dr dre
    November 30, 2011

    I dicovered this is an benificial and interesting post, so I think it is very helpful and knowledgeable. Thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this script. I am expecting the similar wonderful work from you next time as well. practically your creative writing ability has urged me.

  68. #68 UGG Gloves
    December 1, 2011

    I dicovered this is an helpful and funny essay, so I think it is very benificial and knowledgeable. Thanks for the efforts you have made in writing this posting. I am wishing the analogous fantastic work from you in the future as well. Really your creative writing ability has urged me.

  69. #69 Free unclaimed money search
    December 1, 2011

    olrhutdjfodfcmpht, http://billeater.com/tips/free-money-pay-bills-free-money-bills free money to pay bills, GbqkuLS.

  70. Your content is incredible! Thank you for researching and making this topic plain to your readers. Your article is a very welcome change of pace from others I’ve been reading.

  71. #71 Discount Moncler
    December 1, 2011

    I found this is a benificial and funny publication, so I think it is very useful and knowledgeable. Appreciate for the efforts you have made in writing this posting. I am wishing the various best work from you in the future as well. practically your creative writing ability has encouraged me.

  72. #72 Electronic cigarette review
    December 2, 2011

    bwvdftdjfodfcmpht, http://ecigfaq.net/ Electronic cigarette forum, QMNakWG.

  73. #73 christmas games
    December 2, 2011

    qjdsetdjfodfcmpht, http://christmasgameszone.com/ Children s christmas games, dJSITZs.

  74. #75 Mens running shoes fitting
    December 5, 2011

    prbuytdjfodfcmpht, http://runningshoes2k.net/ Asics 2150 running shoes, VyZsoRA.

  75. #76 Reviews of acai slimberry
    December 5, 2011

    wrxkrtdjfodfcmpht, http://slimberry-guide.com/ Wela slimberry, ygFZQJl.

  76. #77 Uggs Clearance
    December 6, 2011

    It seems too complicated and very comprehensive for me. I am expecting for your other article, and I would like to try to gain it! Practically the post is spreading its wings fast, looking for it…

  77. #78 Buy Ultram
    December 6, 2011

    jzzlrtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.myultramcenter.com/ Buy Ultram, wVTdVTX.

  78. #79 cash stop online scam
    December 6, 2011

    papnhtdjfodfcmpht, http://cashstponlinereviews.com/ cash stop online review, yqPNWOL.

  79. #80 Buy xanax online
    December 6, 2011

    bimzbtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.antianxietymeds247.com/ Buy cheap xanax online, kNHQSmW.

  80. #81 Huntington online banking
    December 6, 2011

    ikenotdjfodfcmpht, http://onlinebanking123.net/ Online Banking, rTfnjCy.

  81. tehajtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.kamagrafored.com/ Kamagra, hmrJsVv.

  82. #83 Levitra vardenafil hcl
    December 7, 2011

    vgnagtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.cheapvardenafilonline.com/ Vardenafil, YITOGYu.

  83. #84 Diet pills that work
    December 7, 2011

    reytctdjfodfcmpht, http://www.cityofhanceville.com/ Buy Meridia, mHqbwrN.

  84. #85 Lunesta
    December 7, 2011

    iaoymtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.insomniapharmatol.com/ Lunesta, ACmGZYl.

  85. #86 neutrogena skinid
    December 8, 2011

    tmelqtdjfodfcmpht, http://coffeegamescommunity.com/ neutrogena skinid, GFeDLkH.

  86. #87 best treadmills for home
    December 8, 2011

    hdtzatdjfodfcmpht, http://besttreadmillsreviewed.net/ Treadmill Reviews, TYactwK.

  87. #88 eye cream
    December 8, 2011

    wdazytdjfodfcmpht, http://carlsonentertainment.com/ dark circles under eyes, XAEBMYy.

  88. rotigtdjfodfcmpht, http://myjaketonline.blogspot.com/2011/10/makeityourring-diamond-engagement-rings.html new york makeityourring diamond engagement rings, lukyfCs.

  89. #90 Male Edge
    December 8, 2011

    ykwmptdjfodfcmpht, http://maleedge4all.com/ MaleEdge, DjaRqMx.

  90. #91 Beats by Dr Dre headphones
    December 8, 2011

    I generally consent with your points. We all benefit from this best essay. This web page is best. I have figured out quantities of things from here. Thanks.

  91. #92 Is zbiddy legit?
    December 8, 2011

    cxruatdjfodfcmpht, http://getzbiddy.com/ http://Www.zbiddy.com, PMxOUPC.

  92. #93 Ambien cr side effects
    December 9, 2011

    lmqeatdjfodfcmpht, http://www.unmaskedproductions.com/ambien.html Ambien pharmacy online, EeQfriy.

  93. #94 Appesat
    December 9, 2011

    vkcdxtdjfodfcmpht, http://buydiscountappesat.net/ Appesat, NcAHIUm.

  94. #95 Lunesta
    December 9, 2011

    gkzwetdjfodfcmpht, http://www.easyguideforhealth.com/ Lunesta , bBkXodn.

  95. flgzstdjfodfcmpht, http://www.dietpilladvisor.net/ How to buy meridia, cyCaLjO.

  96. #97 Idol lash application
    December 9, 2011

    aqmwctdjfodfcmpht, http://idollashonline.net/ Idol Lash, lBcpZfR.

  97. #98 Middle baby boy names
    December 9, 2011

    janxdtdjfodfcmpht, http://babynames-advice.net/ Cute baby names, VbtqZwz.

  98. #99 Claripro
    December 9, 2011

    ewpcmtdjfodfcmpht, http://clariprodirect.com/ Claripro, qtwjyJZ.

  99. #101 ninja kitchen
    December 9, 2011

    dpdlmtdjfodfcmpht, http://cactusbeautyaz.com/ ninja kitchen reviews, GTTmDfl.

  100. #102 Meta burn
    December 9, 2011

    wwnzptdjfodfcmpht, http://getmetaburn.net/ Meta burn, dSvmoKa.

  101. hfkertdjfodfcmpht, http://collegeinformations.com/ Community college information, KuzhfcY.

  102. #104 gtwxkuwtnz
    December 9, 2011

    tanxntdjfodfcmpht, http://www.wojoetybqu.com vgliroxoob

  103. onpqttdjfodfcmpht, http://guiadekamagra.com/ Kamagra 100 mg, plrJJoD.

  104. #106 Extenze
    December 10, 2011

    qimfftdjfodfcmpht, http://extenzeshop.net/ Extenze, ZpCPxmD.

  105. #107 finish line coupons
    December 10, 2011

    ioilrtdjfodfcmpht, http://spunoffers.com/ finish line coupons, hmWGifo.

  106. #108 Elavil vs ativan
    December 11, 2011

    tbubetdjfodfcmpht, http://www.birthdaysplusgiftshop.net/ Ativan withdrawal symptom, CnBNZsq.

  107. #109 Nexium esomeprazole
    December 12, 2011

    bwplvtdjfodfcmpht, http://stashskate.com/ Nexium wiki, aHATkoV.

  108. #110 Zolpidem side effects
    December 12, 2011

    vofkqtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.appowerinc.com/ambien.html Zolpidem side effects, cZzsjex.

  109. xmkditdjfodfcmpht, http://propeciapervoi.com/ Beginning buy propecia comments add comment name e-mail website country powered b, eBRQFNI.

  110. #112 Klonopin photo
    December 12, 2011

    swwcbtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.restaurantwebsolutions.com/ Generic Klonopin, ASkFdNI.

  111. pohjttdjfodfcmpht, http://www.chiropractorbaltimoremd.com/ Chiropractor baltimore, SXWzPpb.

  112. #114 Buy Viagra
    December 12, 2011

    hpxoqtdjfodfcmpht, http://buyfemaleviagrausa.com/ Cheap profissionel viagra only uk, GMFYYpP.

  113. #115 LorDavie
    December 12, 2011

    hlmaxtdjfodfcmpht, http://getlordavie.net/ LorDavie, cxXdrvb.

  114. #116 Generic Levitra
    December 12, 2011

    lxzxytdjfodfcmpht, http://www.koontzpromotions.com/levitra.html Generic Levitra, WqkBzXr.

  115. yvapgtdjfodfcmpht, http://watersoftenerreviews.biz/ Kinetico water softener reviews, yiVOvex.

  116. #118 Finasteride syndrome
    December 12, 2011

    zkuontdjfodfcmpht, http://www.finasterideglobal.com/ Finasteride, tWTGNlX.

  117. #119 Order ambien cr online
    December 13, 2011

    vkqfwtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.peckperformancegroup.com/ambien.html Buy ambien online no prescription, VmsDgOr.

  118. #120 Generic Nolvadex
    December 13, 2011

    qqyqntdjfodfcmpht, http://www.nolvameds.com Generic Nolvadex, KHoktTL.

  119. #122 Sell klonopin
    December 13, 2011

    idfhjtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.appowerinc.com/klonopin.html Order klonopin online, kLXdwek.

  120. jvkpttdjfodfcmpht, http://www.celebrityhotspot.com/ Purchaseing ambien online safely, xxHsfEc.

  121. #124 Buy vicodin legally
    December 13, 2011
  122. #125 Xanax
    December 13, 2011

    duglntdjfodfcmpht, http://www.closterbootery.net/ Xanax use, mjsDGGS.

  123. rwtajtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.chiropractorcedarpark.net/ chiropractor cedar park, YCZummj.

  124. #127 Buy Klonopin
    December 13, 2011

    tfqnctdjfodfcmpht, http://fsbolocal-iowa.com/ Klonopin alcohol, VLXHIho.

  125. #128 Codeine
    December 13, 2011

    nllhstdjfodfcmpht, http://www.goldcattle.com/category/do-it-yourself-diy/index.html Cheap codeine online, evnbIkK.

  126. #129 myhosting
    December 13, 2011

    lpfentdjfodfcmpht, http://medicaltransactions.net/myhosting-coupon-codes/ Myhosting, qJaQoTB.

  127. #130 Generic Valium
    December 13, 2011

    hyabctdjfodfcmpht, http://www.rxmedicastore.com/ Valium ups, nILLxFe.

  128. #131 Sold House Prices
    December 13, 2011

    uafqntdjfodfcmpht, http://bw-experts.com/ Sold house prices in hamble le rice hampshire, XOKsOQU.

  129. #132 recipes
    December 13, 2011

    oazhotdjfodfcmpht, http://sweetfry.com/ Cake recipes, ouskWqc.

  130. wpgdgtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.lorazepam247.net/ Can i drink beer while taking citalopram and lorazepam, RQRefQQ.

  131. #134 Klonopin 1mg
    December 13, 2011

    uhctqtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.ipswichrecreation.com/ Klonopin, SJizjtC.

  132. #135 buy ink online
    December 13, 2011

    wcdebtdjfodfcmpht, http://abbahom.org/ printer ink refills, ESoRQdm.

  133. #136 sexchat
    December 13, 2011

    I want to show my due to you just for bailing me out of this dilemma. Right after surfing throughout the world-wide-web and meeting issues which are not advisable, I thought my total life was once properly over. Being alive devoid of the answers to the issues you??ve solved by the use of your total brief article is a serious case, in addition to the ones that may have in a wrong means damaged my complete profession if I had not encountered the website. The abilities and kindness in controlling all the pieces was once precious. I don??t know what I would have carried out if I had not bump into this kind of factor like this. I??m capable of now await my future. Thanks in your time quite a bit on your professional and brilliant information. I won??t hesitate to endorse the web site to anybody who wants and wants book on this subject.

  134. #137 Propecia patent expiration
    December 13, 2011

    rjnugtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.bierschwaleestate.com/ Buy propecia from usa, mwhcywn.

  135. #138 Zoloft
    December 13, 2011

    cvlyjtdjfodfcmpht, http://tommckayproducer.com/ Buy Zoloft, nZHmsnJ.

  136. #139 Buy xanax affordable
    December 13, 2011

    msqpctdjfodfcmpht, http://www.rtechautobody.com/services.php Purchase xanax pills, MEExjQJ.

  137. #140 Chiropractor irvine
    December 13, 2011

    qfnvxtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.painmanagementirvine.com/ chiropractor irvine, jhXmWAI.

  138. #141 Buy valium wholesale online
    December 13, 2011

    cykyvtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.celebrityhotspot.com/Shana_Hiatt.html How to buy valium without a prescription, pBMeBLK.

  139. #142 Buy clomid
    December 14, 2011

    uqihttdjfodfcmpht, http://www.modafinil247.com/ Modalert online, CymVCne.

  140. ynzwutdjfodfcmpht, http://www.zolpidempurchase.com/ Zolpidem tart er, RHPzLvy.

  141. #144 Ultram
    December 14, 2011

    ociestdjfodfcmpht, http://www.woodworkingdoneright.com/ Ultram analgesic, rxoUwQr.

  142. #145 Infants motrin
    December 14, 2011

    tivzgtdjfodfcmpht, http://www.doctors-on-call.com/anti-inflammatory/motrin.html Can i take 600mg motrin while breastfeeding, sNlaSBv.

  143. #146 back pain Tampa
    December 14, 2011

    ptkbytdjfodfcmpht, http://www.tampachiro.net/ Dr lupo chiropractor tampa fl, yuIQzSg.

  144. #147 blog muay thai
    December 14, 2011

    Nice post man, wish I could write like you :).

  145. bfoectdjfodfcmpht, http://www.skiapachesnowreport.com/ Valium online pharmacy codeine, OLdqJoU.

  146. #149 corporate housing boston
    December 14, 2011

    ggtpgtdjfodfcmpht, http://bostontemporaryhousing.org/ boston corporate housing, vFOXNlL.

  147. gkdnptdjfodfcmpht, http://www.rtechautobody.com/products.php Online pharmacy meds, bqMyzIG.

  148. #151 avg 2011 free
    December 14, 2011

    yxewetdjfodfcmpht, http://1antivirusnow.com/ avg antivirus, UDvzugS.

  149. #152 Wartrol prices
    December 14, 2011

    fhtwhtdjfodfcmpht, http://wartrol4all.net/ Wartrol, tieCoGV.

The site is undergoing maintenance presently. Commenting has been disabled. Please check back later!