I have written quite a bit about Cytotoxic-T-Cell-based HIV-1 vaccines here on ERV. Though antibodies can target HIV-1 viruses, and HIV-1 infected cells, CTLs should be the go-to workhorses for killing HIV-1 infected cells.
- Pimped-up Souped-up Bionic Assassin Lethal Weapon Killer T-Cells as a cure for AIDS?
- HIV-1 CTL Vaccine: OH SHI-
- HIV-1 Vaccine: Again, OH SHI-
- HIV-1 CTL Vaccine: lol, we are screwed.
- HIV-1: Humans are all pink on the inside. Pink, and CD4+ T-cells.
- HIV-1 CTL Vaccine: $%@#!
Found another one:
Because HIV-1 is a virus, it uses all of the host cells machinery to produce babby viruses. Because of that, host cells process and present pieces of HIV-1 proteins in their MHC Class I molecules. CTLs should cruise by, take one look at those chunks of HIV-1 proteins and say “THAT AINT RITE!” and persuade the infected cell to commit suicide.
But I just had a horrible thought while reading a paper on CTL-based HIV-1 vaccines… What if some people will never be able to train their immune systems to look for HIV-1 with a CTL-based vaccine?
This paper isnt about what Im going to talk about at all– But the data in this paper is what got me thinking about this topic.
They looked at the MHC Class I alleles of people who had gotten a CTL-based HIV vaccine– we all have different kinds of MHC I. I might present Chunk A of HIV, you might have a different kind of MHC I and present Chunk B, and someone else might present Chunk C. It might turn out that presenting Chunk B means you can control HIV-1 infection really well, compared to Chunk A and Chunk B people.
But apparently, some MHC I alleles ignore HIV-1 proteins. They dont present Chunk Anything. There is no chance in hell of ‘training’ those individuals CTLs. I mean, certainly an aspect of vaccines is that some people have more/less protective response to the same vaccine than others… but this is extreme. What if there is a percentage of the population that would never make a protective response from your vaccine, while others might benefit greatly from it?
You have more than one flavor of MHC I– but about 45% of us worldwide have some kind of an allele A*02. Only 22% of the A*02 people who received the CTL vaccine presented a chunk of HIV-1 in that MHC. B*07, only 11% presented HIV chunks, B*08 0%. Zero. Other flavors of MHC I presented just super– 100%. Others, ZERO.
We are so screwed on so many levels.