In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, increasing age, female sex, nonwhite race/ethnicity, diabetes, current smoking, and higher body mass index were all independently associated with higher odds of 25(OH)D deficiency…while greater physical activity, vitamin D supplementation, and nonwinter season were inversely associated. During a median 8.7 years of follow-up, there were 1806 deaths, including 777 from CVD. In multivariate models (adjusted for baseline demographics, season, and traditional and novel CVD risk factors), compared with the highest quartile, being in the lowest quartile…was associated with a 26% increased rate of all-cause mortality…and a population attributable risk of 3.1%. The adjusted models of CVD and cancer mortality revealed a higher risk, which was not statistically significant….
ScienceDaily, Low Vitamin D Levels Pose Large Threat To Health; Overall 26 Percent Increased Risk Of Death. Death due to ateriosclerosis probably isn’t the strongest evolutionary force; most people who die of heart disease are past reproductive peak. But, it is noted in this, and other, research that Vitamin D levels seem to have a global influence on fitness, probably mediated through immune robusticity.
Related: Evolution of human skin color.