Gene Expression

No Virginia, evolution isn’t ending

Updated: Follow up post End Update

I’ve already the covered Steven-Jones-evolution-is-ending story at my other weblog. I notice that John Wilkins has also objected to Jones’ exaggerations. When I initially read the quotes from Jones in The Times I was alarmed, but wondered if his position was being taken out of context or misinterpreted. I emailed a prominent evolutionary biologist who I suspected would know Jones well enough to clarify this issue. My correspondent responded that Jones really does believe this, and he finds Jones’ ideas as ludicrous as I do (adding for good measure he doesn’t get the sense that Jones has a really good grasp of population genetics).

Since the quotations in The Times were rather spare, and the comments somewhat inchoate I didn’t really air many of my criticisms in my other post. So below are some extended thoughts….

First:

Professor Jones added: “In the old days, you would find one powerful man having hundreds of children.” He cites the fecund Moulay Ismail of Morocco, who died in the 18th century, and is reputed to have fathered 888 children. To achieve this feat, Ismail is thought to have copulated with an average of about 1.2 women a day over 60 years.

One anecdote does not an argument make. The genetic and anthropological data suggest that polygyny is somewhat common in our species, but Moulay Ismail is a once a century phenomenon.

Jones’ point here is that in the past old men with many mutations produced many offspring. Today, young men with fewer mutations produce fewer offspring. All things controlled the power of natural selection to drive evolutionary change is proportional to extant genetic variation. That variation is ultimately driven by new mutations injected into the population every generation. As I noted above, it really isn’t established that old men had so many more children in the past. Secondly, one could imagine a scenario where most potentially beneficial mutations are in “excess.” Consider a situation where you have a phenotype X, and there are 10 beneficial mutations on that phenotype per generation within a population. If one of them is picked up by positive selection, then the fitness of the others may decrease because fitness is measured against the genetic background. In other words, the response to selection might be rather the same for a population with 5 vs. 10 mutations. Of course, you need large populations to have so many good mutations produced per generation, but as Jones observes we do have large populations now.

Next:

Another factor is the weakening of natural selection. “In ancient times half our children would have died by the age of 20. Now, in the Western world, 98 per cent of them are surviving to 21.”

First, the high mortality rates that Jones alludes to makes me wonder why he’s so confident about the ubiquity of fecund gerontocrats. But in any case, evolution does not occur unless there is reproduction. For evolution driven by natural selection to occur there needs to be a correlation between genetic variation and a trait and fitness due do variation on that trait. In other words, death is sufficient to reduce fitness, but it is not necessary. You might notice that many Westerners are now childless. Why? It may be that personality traits which are genetically controlled correlate to a great extent with reproductive variance; then evolution will occur.

To make this explicit, imagine a society with a fertility below replacement. But, within this population there is variance. Some individuals for whatever biobehavioral reason prefer to have many children as possible as opposed to investing their income in consumption. Over a few generations the personality types which result in the production of more children will spread at the expense of those which do not result in reproduction. That is evolution.

Additionally, the fixation on death seems overdone. Consider the wave of advance across the American West during the 18th and 19th centuries. Among siblings some stayed put, while others moved West. Because of surplus land one might posit that those who left for the frontier had more offspring. As the frontier hit the Malthusian limit there might be more migration West, and again selection for “bold” personality types. And so on. Allele frequencies would change even though the population was rapidly expanding because there was a bias in the expansion (also, Mark Ridley would make the case that there’s plenty of mortality, it is just pre-natal. Human spontaneous abortion rates are very high).

The last part is really hard to unpack:

Decreasing randomness is another contributing factor. “Humans are 10,000 times more common than we should be, according to the rules of the animal kingdom, and we have agriculture to thank for that. Without farming, the world population would probably have reached half a million by now – about the size of the population of Glasgow.

“Small populations which are isolated can evolve at random as genes are accidentally lost. World-wide, all populations are becoming connected and the opportunity for random change is dwindling. History is made in bed, but nowadays the beds are getting closer together. We are mixing into a glo-bal mass, and the future is brown.”

It seems that here Jones is alluding to the shifting balance theory. Basically the model is that adaptive evolution will occur more rapidly when there is population substructure because then the full adaptive landscape can be explored. Random genetic drift can shift populations across fitness “valleys” before ascending up to a new peak. In a large population stochastic forces are much weaker vis-a-vis selection so that drift could never drag a population across a fitness valley.

There are many problems with coherency and clarity in regards to the shifting balance model. It is an interesting and perhaps illuminating model as a heuristic, but it has never truly been well fleshed out. Sewall Wright, the originator of the idea, wasn’t always clear about what he meant, and what the adaptive landscape was. So if Jones is alluding to the shifting balance to argue for the end of evolution, it is a weak leg to stand on. It is an interesting idea, but it is certainly not mainstream consensus theory.

But perhaps Jones doesn’t really have the shifting balance in mind. If that is so, I have to point to his contention that “Small populations which are isolated can evolve at random as genes are accidentally lost.” Yes, this is true. But this is also true of large populations according to neutral theory. In fact, one of the more counter-intuitive findings at first blush of neutral theory is that the rate of substitution simply equals the rate of mutation. Substitution is the process where at locus A allele 1 is replaced by allele 2 as the fixed variant in the population (between which there is a transient state where polymorphism exists). The reason for this is simple: drift is more powerful at churning new alleles in small populations, but large populations have many more new alleles! In other words, if the probability of fixation of a new mutant in a population of 100 is 1 out of 100, and in a population of 10000 is 1 out of 1000, there are likely to be an order of magnitude more mutants in the latter population than the former. So they cancel out.

Neutral theory is just a place to start. It isn’t the be-all-and-end-all, as some people would say. But the last sentence really jumps out at me and suggests that Jones hasn’t thought the whole issue through, “We are mixing into a glo-bal mass, and the future is brown.” It is true that there is a great deal of variation in skin color, and that admixture leads to a average outcome which can be modeled roughly in an additive fashion. That is, black + white → brown. But, there is a large variance around this expectation; so homogeneity is not the future. Skin color variation is controlled by only a few discrete genes. The phenomenon of black and white fraternal twins shows that the expected variance is large enough that the extremes of the tail can show up with enough “trials.” But all you have to do is talk to Brazilians to comprehend that admixture does not lead to elimination of variation (if the logic extended to hair color people in European villages should all have the same hair color because they are intermarried with each other).

The last is somewhat at a remove from the bigger picture of Jones’ assertions. But it goes to the point that for a “leading geneticist” he hasn’t thought about the population genetics in great deal.

I could really go on. For example, large population sizes were critical in the story of adaptive acceleration. But you don’t need to hinge your argument on just this model. An interconnected demographic model might also produce many more gene-gene interaction effects. Additionally, there is more extant genetic variation which is a normal part of the population distribution from which to select for. I’m sure readers can offer up other rejoinders, so I’ll leave it at that.

Comments

  1. #1 DDeden
    October 7, 2008

    No specific comment on Mr. Jones theory, however regarding skin color, it seems likely that human ancestors after dropping the anthropoid fur coat at the sea coasts had a seasonal skin tone spectrum from:
    (winter) pale|yellow (today: Sinitic)
    (spring/autumn) tan|apricot (today: KhoiSan)
    (summer) dark brown (today: Melanesian)
    while today’s black & white are both recently derived, probably within the last 50ka. The “permanent” skin colors were only selected for, once sedentary settlement overrode nomadism, due to establishment of trade & transit.

  2. #2 Tristram Brelstaff
    October 7, 2008

    I remember Jones talking about ‘the End of Evolution’ in one of his television programs a few years ago, so it’s not a new thing with him.

  3. #3 literarydeadkittens
    October 7, 2008

    I have had several thoughts, but I think this is a case for background reading (some of what you said went right past me on the express train to nowhere) and finding Jones’ presentation online if I can.

    Exam first however, duly noted in Google for perusal after next week.

    Am I wrong or is this not the first time Steve Jones has made a controversial statement?

  4. #4 Virginia Hughes
    October 7, 2008

    You spelled Virginia incorrectly in your title. :P

  5. #5 Tod
    October 7, 2008

    It was reported several years ago that a banker (can you make a living at that?) in New York had fathered thousands of children though a sperm donor program, his selling point was a claimed IQ of 180.

    From what I have read of Steve Jones I think you may be right, he would not be consciously suggesting that infra species variation was the key to evolution. He has lauded interracial mating for reducing the rate of genetic disease. Jones made his name for work on snails, he may be coming out with stuff related to the Gulick effect without intending to make the point that does seem to follow regarding the putative “shifting balance”. Very confusing.

  6. #6 David Marjanovi?
    October 7, 2008

    To achieve this feat, Ismail is thought to have copulated with an average of about 1.2 women a day over 60 years.

    Producing that much semen has to be… difficult. But of course the number 888 might be a little too round to believe in the first place.

  7. #7 Justin Loe
    October 7, 2008

    Hello,

    Just as an observation, I’ve heard the argument made that the HIV epidemic alone will exert substantial selection upon the human population (depending of course on whether a vaccine is developed in the near future). See this article from 2001 from UC Berkeley: http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2001/05/30_aids.html.

    Also, I think that the examples of Extreme Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis also suggests that the era of infectious diseases causing selection pressure in the human population is far from over.

    Just an additional observation.

  8. #8 windy
    October 7, 2008

    First, the high mortality rates that Jones alludes to makes me wonder why he’s so confident about the ubiquity of fecund gerontocrats.

    Exactly, and I wonder how he reconciles that historical claim with this (from the Telegraph :)

    ‘How far was your birthplace from that of your partner and how far apart were your mother and father, and your grandmother and grandfather on each side, born? In almost every case the distance has increased and continues to do so (my wife and I first saw the light 3,000 miles apart, my mother and father ten; and, as my students say, it shows).’

    Did Moulay Ishmail find his 500 wives/concubines down the street? What about Jones’ other examples of extremely polygynous men?

  9. #9 AG
    October 7, 2008

    This link might be relavent to this post. Black kid with blue eyes.

    http://terrygreen.smugmug.com/gallery/1280988#62728163_guhmW

  10. #10 jj
    October 7, 2008

    “‘one powerful man having hundreds of children.’ He cites the fecund Moulay Ismail of Morocco, who died in the 18th century, and is reputed to have fathered 888 children”

    I was always under the impression that fecundity is not measured in any way by males, but only females in a population, as females limit the overall possible population, where males do not limit

  11. #11 Sandra Porter
    October 7, 2008

    Razib: uh, I can’t believe no one remembered this, but all the kids I know have two parents.

    And, where we used to think that women were born with their alloted set of eggs, and never made any new ones, it turns out that notion wasn’t correct. Women make eggs until menopause.

    So, while a woman can’t produce the same number of offspring as a man, she can still contribute new mutations to the gene pool.

  12. #12 razib
    October 7, 2008

    I was always under the impression that fecundity is not measured in any way by males, but only females in a population, as females limit the overall possible population, where males do not limit

    demographers and evolutionary biologists have different interests. a few males can drive a lot of evolution via hyerpolygyny. demographics focus on females because they are the “rate limiting sex” in population changes.

    And, where we used to think that women were born with their alloted set of eggs, and never made any new ones, it turns out that notion wasn’t correct. Women make eggs until menopause.

    right, i thought of this. after all, women are having children later on average. OTOH, i didn’t want someone to “zing” me with the fact that males transmit an order of magnitude more mutations than females because of differences in gametogenesis.

  13. #13 keil
    October 7, 2008

    Have you tested yourself for the Genghis Khan haplotype Razib?

  14. #14 razib
    October 7, 2008

    Have you tested yourself for the Genghis Khan haplotype Razib?

    nyet. i’m sure that there are plenty of lines descent back to the universal ruler, why do i care for an unbroken patrilineage?

  15. #15 Alan Kellogg
    October 8, 2008

    Evolution is messy. Evolution is rude, unseemly, crude, icky, and involves much squick and yuck. Proper gentlemen do not engage in evolution Evolution is for the hoi polloi, lesser beings, and those unbearable Americans. The idea that humans have stopped evolving or are not evolving as much is a flavor of closet creationism promoted by ego and distaste.

    Easier travel alone means it’s easier for new allele variants to spread to locations they would otherwise only get to much later. That alone spreads up evolution. Better health, better nutrition, other factor assuredly help.

    Mr. Jones and his compatriots are worry warts and fuss budgets.

  16. #16 Jim Thomerson
    October 8, 2008

    I think human evolution has stopped in the sense that we are not going to see a speciation event, but rather a fairly minor shifting around of gene frequencies in the present species. My view is that we respond to environmental challenges mostly by cultural evolution rather than shift in gene frequencies. Secondly, fixing a new mutation in a large population is not an easy matter. Lotta luck and selection usualy involved.

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