ResearchBlogging.orgIndeed, the evolutionary history of the mammalian way of providing nutrients for young is difficult to ascertain on the basis of the usual techniques: Fossils and comparative anatomy. The soft parts involved don’t fossilize well, and there are not enough “intermediates” living today to develop a plausible story of the evolutionary transitions linking egg-laying to live birth and lactation.

A new study recently published in PLoS Biology brings us a long way towards understanding this set of evolutionary events.

PLoS provides an “Author Summary” for published papers, which are sometimes, sadly, only slightly rewritten technical abstracts. But the Author Summary for this paper is nice and clear:

Egg yolk contains the nutrients required for the development of the nonmammalian vertebrate embryo. These nutrients derive by and large from a single set of proteins, vitellogenins, which are produced in the liver and provide or transport amino acids, lipids, phosphorous, and calcium to the egg. Mammals have evolved new nutritional resources for their developing and early offspring, such as lactation and placentation. However, the evolutionary timing and molecular events associated with this major phenotypic transition are not well understood. In this study, we have investigated the evolutionary fate of the three ancestral vitellogenin-encoding genes in mammals. Using detailed evolutionary analyses of genomes from the three major mammalian lineages (eutherian “placental” mammals, marsupials, and monotremes), we found that these genes progressively lost their functions and became pseudogenes relatively recently during mammalian evolution (the most recent inactivation event occurred roughly 30-70 million years ago). Monotremes, which lactate yet lay small parchment-shelled eggs, even retained a functional vitellogenin gene, consistent with their intermediate reproductive state. Our analyses also provide evidence that the major milk resource genes, caseins, which have similar functional properties as vitellogenins, appeared in the common mammalian ancestor ∼200-310 million years ago. Based on our data, we suggest that the emergence of the alternative resources for the mammalian young–lactation and then placentation–only gradually reduced the need for egg yolk resources (and hence functional vitellogenin genes) in mammals.

200–310 million years ago is a LONG time ago. But that is in accord with the slit between living mammals and their nearest non-mammalian relatives. These early “mammal like reptiles” known as the Therapsids, arose between about 250 and 300 million years ago. This does not mean that Therapsids had mammary glands, but it might mean that the earliest glandular transfer of nutrients to young could have been found among these early critters.

Th timing of the loss of egginess would be, according to this study, much later, perhaps prior to 70 million years ago. By 70 million years ago, mammals had already diversified, so this finding conforms to expectations from other genetic studies and the fossil record. (see this)

Regarding the timing, the authors suggest:

… while placentation, … appears to have allowed for the complete loss of egg yolk resources … the emergence of nutritive lactation may have reduced the selective pressure on yolk-dependent nourishment ever since early in the last common mammalian ancestor. Thus, the initial driving force for the reduction in nutrient content of the mammalian egg was probably lactation, the key feature of mammals.


Brawand, D., Wahli, W., Kaessmann, H. (2008). Loss of Egg Yolk Genes in Mammals and the Origin of Lactation and Placentation. PLoS Biology, 6(3), e63. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060063

Comments

  1. #1 Mike Haubrich, FCD
    March 19, 2008

    This is a popular article!

  2. #2 Greg Laden
    March 19, 2008

    Why do you say that?

  3. #3 StuV
    March 19, 2008

    I guess because many others are blogging about it (e.g. PZ).

  4. #4 Coturnix
    March 19, 2008

    Oh, yes, it is!

  5. #5 Matt Penfold
    March 19, 2008

    If I recall correctly the Duck Billed Platypus both lays eggs and lactates, albeit not through a breast as normally found in mammals but rather a modified sweat gland.

    This would seem to support the idea that lactation appeared before placentas.

  6. #6 Greg Laden
    March 19, 2008

    Matt: Yes, and this is discussed in the paper, though I did not highlight it because there is a confusing issue that they do not adequately address and that I cannot adequately critique. There is evidence that eggs in the echidna are secondarily evolved. Maybe.

  7. #7 Emory K.
    March 19, 2008

    All this reminds me of another interesting set of facts. I’ve heard that a marsupial embryo has a thin, permeable shell that sure looks like a vestigial egg shell. The shell dissolves away a few days before the marsupial is born. Also, marsupials have a vestigial egg-tooth for the no-longer-needed task of breaking out of the egg. The egg tooth is absorbed back into the embryo shortly before birth.

    If I’ve told this story correctly, it’s yet another good thing to bother creationists with.

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