Columbus Day has become a holiday of disdain, and there are many people who feel it should be taken off the books. It is a little like the Martin Luther King Jr. day maneno in reverse. If you were a progressive thoughtful American you’d have supported having a state-wide Martin Luther King Jr. day, and probably also a street named after the highly influential slain civil rights leader. If, on the other hand, you were a Republican and/or racist white supremacist type (and there are a lot more of those than gentile people like to admit) than you’d have come up with some lame excuse for not having a Martin Luther King Jr. day or a Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue in your state or town. When the Federal version of MLK day was being debated in congress, it was the likes of Jesse Helms who opposed it. Numerous states resisted adding MLK day, and it was not until the year 2000 that all states in the US celebrated the only US holiday for the birth of a famous person who was not white by actually taking the day off.

Columbus Day is a little more complicated. Columbus day is the celebration of the Discovery of America by Europeans and marks the beginning of the Conquest of the Americas by said Europeans. Ironically, Columbus day has a lot more to do with Mexico and south and of course the Caribbean than it has to do with the United States. Also, as by now everyone knows, the actual “Discovery” of America by Europeans did not consist of Columbus landing in the new world; Europeans on boats had bumped into the New World a bunch of times earlier. But, Columbus had a publicist. Also, many of the earlier events of discovery were probably done by people with only a vague sense of larger scale geography (or no sense of it at all), people who were sneaking around and did not want to share their knowledge, or people who were not part of the great Western Machinery of self legitimizing rhetoric we call “History” and thus could have wanted to take credit for this “Discovery” but we ignore them.

And, of course, the Americas was totally full of people before Columbus was born, thousands and thousands of years before he was born, and other than one of the Pre-Columbian discoverers I allude to vaguely above, all came after the peopling of the New World by the folks now known as Native Americans in the land of Columbus Day, as First Nation people in Canada, and as Citizens south of the Rio Grand.

There are two other reasons that Columbus Day is complicated that many of my Midwestern friends, colleagues, and family are unaware of or only know vaguely of, and that may be mostly an East Coast thing, and really, concentrated in the Northeast. One has to do with ethnic identity the other with economics. Ethnic identify first…

Columbus may have sailed for Spain, but he was Italian. Perhaps Americans have a hard time remembering this now, but Italians were a denigrated suppressed immigrant minority at one time. Most Italian-Americans come from Ellis-Island scenario ancestry, and most Italian Americans can trace their genealogy to the ghettos of the East Coast (most famously New York, Boston and a few other cities, but with patches all up and down the coast). Italian Americans were not viewed as fully human by some, were exploited as a low paid working class by all. The initial phases of the Industrial Revolution in the United States (which followed the English Industrial Revolution by quite a few decades) was fueled by water power and young women from failing farms from the New England hinterland, and ethnically they were mostly English. But that was not enough. The total amount of cloth and other product made in New England’s mills with water power became minuscule by the end of the 19th century, and the most numerous hands operating the finger-slicing arm-removing machinery of these mills became almost entirely immigrant, with a large percentage being Italian. Conjure up in your mind the worst stuff that people say and think today about “Mexicans” (many of whom are actually from Mexico, but really, anybody from south of the Rio Grande). Take that and sharpen it, make it more explicit, and imagine it expressed in the highly radicalized culture of the late Victorian and Edwardian period, and that is what people thought about Italians. By the middle of the 20th century, it was still fashionable to make fun of Italians. It didn’t help that Italy was an Axis Power during World War II, and when they turned on the Nazis (sort of) they were instantly subjugated. From an American point of view, the liberation of Italy following the landings on the Mediterranean was fundamentally different than the landings at Normandy. The former was a bit more like letting a guy out of jail who you felt sorry for, the latter was a true liberation of an ally, even if in truth neither perspective is accurate. When I was a kid, Italian jokes (jokes at the expense of Italians, that is) were common, insulting, and referred to the characteristics of incompetence and cowardice.

In the 1960s, Italians became more famous and in some ways more liked by other Americans for a dubious reason. An Italian Author, Mario Puzo, wrote the Godfather, which became a best seller, and led to three blockbuster movies. This book was written in the context of contemporary cyclic rise in media attention to the Italian Mafia, which had shifted in and out of the public limelight over time as internal (to the Mafia) struggles made them more and less overt. The way that works is this: There really was a Mafia run by traditional “families” (patrilines) mostly in the greater New York City area. They really did have fights now and then that involved shooting. Typically, the fights would emerge on a generational basis, and this meant that the soldiers in those fights were inexperienced. Really, it meant that they were bad shots. So a fight emerges, there is a lot of bad strategy, bad tactics, and bad shooting until enough of the operatives climb high enough on the learning curve, and the issues at hand that started the fighting move closer to resolution. The rate of adding to the death toll goes up, then the rate goes down. I remember when a similar mob war (but not Mafia) happened in Boston and the number of deaths per week formed a perfect bell curve centered on the first of the year. As the curve trailed off everyone took credit; the Mayor, the Governor, the Police Chief, various church leaders, and so on all claimed a stake in the effort to stop the crime wave. The irony is that it was a Federal Prosecutor (who shall remain nameless here) in New York who started the crime wave by pushing an entire crime syndicate out of Long Island and on to Boston where, in order to settle in, they had to make a lot of offers that people could not refuse, as it were. The ironies pile up beyond that but I shall not go into them here. The point is, being Italian in the first part of the 20th century meant being exploited and often viewed as subhuman. Being Italian in the middle of the 20th century meant, in part, being viewed as a criminal, and this on top of the post World War II legacy mentioned above.

I remember when Mario Cuomo became governor. It was a very big deal because in the minds of the Italian Community in the upstate New York, this was one of the first times an Italian had risen to great political power, and over the years that Cuomo reigned in New York, he was paid great attention to by politicos across the country. He gave one of the most memorable convention speeches ever, not eclipsed by Obama’s 8 years ago, and only equalled by Clinton’s of last month, if that. That Mario Cuomo was great is his own doing. That he was sainted by the Italian American community is proof of their ethnic solidarity, their prior low position, and of a palpable rise to normalcy that can happen when one of one’s own becomes a hero to others.

I have not done this in years and have no idea if it still pertains, but there was a time when the Columbus Day celebration in Little Italy was a very big deal. I know this was true for New York’s and Boston’s Little Italy neighborhoods. But they were only barely celebrations of Columbus Discovering America. Rather, they were celebrations of Italian Catholic religious themes together with a celebration of Italian Ethnic legitimacy. If the Italians could have Columbus, and later, Cuomo, they had value. Plus, the celebration itself, like all periodic celebrations positioned with certain degree of social centrality, had a life of its own and served many purposes in the community. I’m pretty sure that it is true that dissing Columbus Day is still seen by many as dissing Italians, and when one diss’s Italians, one should think of the fact that Italian Americans have gone through hell as an ethnic group.

I promised an economic side to this maneno, and I’ll be brief about it. In climates where Autumn is often summer like and summer tourism is king, Columbus day is seen as one last chance for people get to the shore, or the lake, or some other tourist venue before winter sets in. The thing is, this is often a cold or snowy weekend, or in the case of the East Coast, there are subtropical storms and nor’easters around this time. So, if you run a business on Cape Cod, for instance, a good vs. bad Columbus Day weekend meant not needing a loan vs. needing a loan to get through the winter when your Clam Shack was closed down for the season. This is true of course, of all holidays; the world or retail marketing seems to always absorb and incorporate holidays into its ultimate plan to sell everything to everybody and Columbus Day in no exception. Here, I just wanted to point out that one somewhat more obscure role the holiday takes, in marginal tourist areas. I’m sure you already knew about the Columbus Day Sales.

So, in the end, we in Modern America recognize Columbus Day as problematic because it marks the beginning of one of the worlds largest and most awful genocides, of Native Americans by Europeans. But as a more local and historically shortened level, Columbus Day represents a focal point of perfectly reasonable ethnic solidarity by a repressed group. The former is of course a national issue and beyond, while the latter is geographically spotty and more restricted, but should still be remembered.

I have a solution, of course. This solution resets on the premise that we do not have enough holidays anyway, and we should add more until there are at least two per month. Here’s what we do: Re replace Columbus day…that is, the Monday that is called Columbus Day…with a holiday celebrating Native Americans. Then, we add a second day that celebrates diversity. That would be a good day for communities to have their Ethnically Diverse Food Available In Small Booths In The City Park day that we all have already and that there are probably not enough of.

So, Happy Columbus Day. Or Not.

Mario Cuomo’s 1984 Convention Speech:

And this to amuse you (Hat tip: Rebecca)

(from here)

More falsehoods HERE.


  1. #1 Eric Lund
    October 8, 2012

    If you’re in a tourist-type business in a place where fall foliage is a Big Deal (rural New England, upstate New York, and to a lesser extent Wisconsin and the UP of Michigan), Columbus Day weekend is one of your busiest weekends. I’m told this has been a particularly good, if late-running, year for foliage (I haven’t had time to get out and about into the places with peak foliage), and the weather this weekend was mostly pretty nice (a cold front moved through, but that was pretty quick). So this has been a good year for such people. Last year was a bad year.

    Today also happens to be a bank holiday in Canada. They call it Thanksgiving. For a New Englander it’s a more sensible time for a harvest celebration than late November: depending where you are, the growing season normally ends between mid-September and mid-October.

  2. #2 Dan Milton
    October 8, 2012

    “Maneno”. Apparently it means “words” in Swahili, so I suppose it’s something you brought back from your time in Africa. But could you explain what it means in the context you’ve used here twice?

  3. #3 Joseph Tendling
    October 8, 2012

    Columbus technically did not discover America. No one is eally quite sure exactly who did. There is evidence in Ohio and Illinois and in the Southwest that Manassa, one of the 12 tribes of Israel may have come this far either to settle or to trade/visit. Then again, Egyptian artifacts have been found in deep caverns in California and Arizona and all over the Southwest. Europeans may have not been the first here.

    I think people knew of this land alot longer ago than we realize.

  4. #4 Greg Laden
    October 8, 2012


  5. #5 Michael Kelsey
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
    October 8, 2012

    @Greg: “Um….” Just out of curiosity, do you suppose the golden tablets count as “Twelve Tribes” relics, or Egyptian? Or do think the “Egyptian artifacts” previously mentioned are actually Thetan? The possibilities are endless!

  6. #6 John Moeller
    Salt Lake City
    October 8, 2012

    I liked that speech a lot, thanks for linking it. It saddens me though, that it fits so well today. I’d have hoped that we would have made some progress over the last 28 years.

    Now that the person calling himself Joseph Tendling has commented, the message will be lost in a stew of silliness about Mormon claims to archaeological legitimacy.

  7. #7 mandas
    October 9, 2012


    You are partly correct – no-one is exactly who did ‘discover’ the Americas. Bu there are some clues in the original article.

    The oldest existing evidence for human habitation is some 12,000 years old. But it may have been as far back as 40,000 years that the first humans moved into what is now Alaska.

    There is no doubt that Europeans were not first – but Egyptians and tribes of Israel wouldn’t have been either – even if they had made the journey.

  8. #8 Zeke Hoskin
    October 9, 2012

    Cuomo the first politically powerful Italian-American? Fiorello LaGuardia might disagree.

  9. #9 Greg Laden
    October 9, 2012

    I’m sure you’re right! I overstated that. Adjustment made.

  10. #10 tonylurker
    October 10, 2012

    While many other people made it from Europe to America before Columbus, they didn’t tell enough people about it. If nobody knows about it, it hasn’t been discovered, at least as far as the general public is concerned.

    So, for the Europeans, Columbus “discovered” America, even if it was an accident. Prior to Columbus, the people and nations of Europe had no knowledge of the Americas; after Columbus, the people of Europe knew of the Americas and swarmed to this heretofore mostly unknown land.

  11. #11 Mal Adapted
    October 10, 2012


    If, on the other hand, you were a Republican and/or racist white supremacist type (and there are a lot more of those than gentile people like to admit)

    Those lost tribes of Israel, OTOH, are far more forthright.

  12. […] Greg Laden has said, “Columbus had a […]

  13. #13 Greg Laden
    October 12, 2013

    Maneno means problem, argument, dustup, anything along those lines.

  14. #14 Jim G
    October 13, 2014

    I am a registered Republican and I am neither a racist nor a white supremacist. I would even go as far as to consider myself both progressive and thoughtful. I’m guessing Mr. Laden’s article may contain some valid points but I didn’t make it past his first ignorant, biased paragraph.

  15. #15 Hengist McStone
    October 14, 2014

    At the risk of an accusation of pedantry Columbus was not Italian because Italy didn’t form as a nation until 1861. Columbus was Genoese.

  16. #16 Brandon
    October 14, 2014

    I stopped reading your post after reading the line “thoughtful progressive american vs. republican/white supremeist”. You do know that the KKK was created by democrats and as of 2010 there was still a democrat grand dragon with the kkk still in congress. Lincoln was republican as well as Martin Luther King and Jr. Someone needs to study up and learn some more facts.

  17. #17 Greg Laden
    October 14, 2014

    Brandon, you stopped reading after the third sentence? That approach will get you the muddled view of history you seem to have! 🙂

  18. #18 dean
    October 14, 2014

    Martin Luther King and Jr … Republican

    Some quotes from MLK Jr.

    “I don’t think the Republican party is a party full of the almighty God nor is the Democratic party. They both have weaknesses … And I’m not inextricably bound to either party.”

    The Republican Party geared its appeal and program to racism, reaction, and extremism. All people of goodwill viewed with alarm and concern the frenzied wedding at the Cow Palace of the KKK with the radical right. The “best man” at this ceremony was a senator whose voting record, philosophy, and program were anathema to all the hard-won achievements of the past decade.
    Senator Goldwater had neither the concern nor the comprehension necessary to grapple with this problem of poverty in the fashion that the historical moment dictated. On the urgent issue of civil rights, Senator Goldwater represented a philosophy that was morally indefensible and socially suicidal. While not himself a racist, Mr. Goldwater articulated a philosophy which gave aid and comfort to the racist. His candidacy and philosophy would serve as an umbrella under which extremists of all stripes would stand. In the light of these facts and because of my love for America, I had no alternative but to urge every Negro and white person of goodwill to vote against Mr. Goldwater and to withdraw support from any Republican candidate that did not publicly disassociate himself from Senator Goldwater and his philosophy.

    It seems that Martin Luther King Jr. was no fan of Reagan:

    When a Hollywood performer, lacking distinction even as an actor can become a leading war hawk candidate for the Presidency, only the irrationalities induced by a war psychosis can explain such a melancholy turn of events.

    Finally, his son, said this:

    “It is disingenuous to imply that my father was a Republican. He never endorsed any presidential candidate, and there is certainly no evidence that he ever even voted for a Republican.”

    Your assertion, Brandon, that he was a Republican seems to be a blatant falsehood.

  19. #19 Mike Haubrich
    On the banks of the Mississippi
    October 14, 2014

    I think that perhaps we should change the name to Clovis People’s Day. Move it to the last Friday in November. We should take October 12 and make it Thanksgiving so that we are on par wtih the Canadians.

    The Italians, I am sorry, but they don’t get a holiday.

  20. #20 Greg Laden
    October 14, 2014

    So. You are anti Pre Clovis, then. Fine.

  21. #21 S
    November 19, 2014

    You really shouldn’t interject biased and vastly (frankly, insulting) generalizations into an article that should otherwise be written objectively. That comment about Republicans being racists is pretty ignorant- there are disgusting racists on any side and if you believe the Democratic party is full of saints, you’re wrong. Brandon was actually correct about Lincoln being a Republican, as it is a widely known fact that the Republican party was the party that freed the slaves and the Democrats were the ones who founded the KKK. Don’t drag ignorance into fact.

    “Its [the Ku Klux Klan] members waged an underground campaign of intimidation and violence directed at white and black Republican leaders. Though Congress passed legislation designed to curb Klan terrorism, the organization saw its primary goal–the reestablishment of white supremacy–fulfilled through Democratic victories in state legislatures across the South in the 1870s.”

  22. #22 Greg Laden
    November 19, 2014

    S, no, I can interject opinion.

    No, comparing the Republican Party prior to a few decades back with the current party, and doing the same for the Dems is wrong. The original KKK were Democrats, all those crazy super right wing jim crow Republicans in Congress (who have all died off) were Democrats. Put we can’t characterize the living, active members of these parties on the critter that 50 or 100 years ago things were different.

  23. […] was a citizen of New York when Mario Cuomo became governor. I’ve written before about the ethnic angle of that event, how Cuomo, who was Italian, was the highest ranking ethnic […]

  24. #24 Ellen
    United States
    October 12, 2015

    I am so happy to have learned the word maneno! Also, I agree that the second weekend in October should be Thanksgiving. Who came up with the fourth Thursday in November? It’s an awful time for a holiday.

  25. #25 Rick in Miami
    October 17, 2015

    First, using words that you know perfectly well the vast majority of readers will not know is insensitive and self-aggrandizing. “Maneno”? Puh-leez!
    Second, please take some classes is punctuation. You really need some help.
    Third, there is absolutely nothing complicated about dropping Columbus Day from the US calendar of holidays. All we need to do is drop it — that’s it. And NOT replace it with something stupid like a so-called Indigenous People’s Day.
    Frankly, I’m sick and tired of singling out this ethnic/racial group or that to “celebrate.” It’s very polarizing for all the other myriad ethnic groups we have in this great country.
    Okay, ’nuff said.