Researchers in Peru have discovered four new species of tiny so-called “glass frogs” (family: Centrolenidae).
Centrolene charapita: with the yellow splotches on its back, this species was aptly named after little yellow chili peppers. Their hindlegs also had fleshy little zigzag-like protuberances whose purpose is unknown.
Cochranella guayasamini: This species is mostly green with yellow encircling its eyes. Interestingly, the tadpoles begin as a reddish pink color. Since they live in streambeds that are low in oxygen, this coloration may reflect the numerous blood vessels in their skin, although that remains just a hypothesis as studies of glass frog tadpoles are rare.
Chimerella corleone: Yes, it is indeed named after the famed character from The Godfather. This tiny frog is only 2cm long and has green bones, which they suspect may arise from build-up of the green pigment in bile, biliverdin.
Hyalinobatrachium anachoretus: This new species was discovered in the cloud forest of Peru at 2,050 meters (6,725 feet), which is reportedly an unusually high altitude for other frogs in this genus.
What is currently unknown is why these species evolved transparent bodies.
Twomey E, Delia J, Castroviejo-Fisher S. A review of Northern Peruvian glassfrogs (Centrolenidae), with the description of four new remarkable species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3851.1.1