Neurophilosophy

The incredible case of Phineas Gage

PHINEAS GAGE (1823-1860) is one of the earliest documented cases of severe brain injury. Gage is the index case of an individual who suffered major personality changes after brain trauma. As such, he is a legend in the annals of neurology, which is largely based on the study of brain-damaged patients.

Gage was foreman of a crew of railroad construction workers who were excavating rocks to make way for the railroad track. This involved drilling holes deep into the rock and filling them with dynamite. A fuse was then inserted, and the entrance to the hole plugged with sand, so that the force of the explosion would be directed into the boulder. This was done with a crow bar-like tool called a tamping iron.

On 13th September, 1848, 25-year-old Gage and his crew were working on the Rutland and Burlington Railroad near Cavendish in Vermont. Gage was preparing for an explosion by compacting a bore with explosive powder using a tamping iron. While he was doing this, a spark from the tamping iron ignited the powder, causing the iron to be propelled at high speed straight through his skull. It entered under the left cheek bone and exited through the top of the head, and was later recovered some 30 yards from the site of the accident.

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John Martin Harlow, the doctor who attended to him, later noted that the tamping iron was found “several rods [1 rod= 5.02m] behind him, where it was afterward picked up by his men smeared with blood and brain”. The tamping iron was 3 ft. 8 inches in length and 1.25 inches in diameter at one end, not 1.25 inches in circumference, as reported in the newspaper report on the left. It tapered at one end, over a distance of about 1 ft., to a blunt end 0.25 inches in diameter, and weighed more than 6 kg.

Whether or not Gage lost consciousness is not known, but, remarkably, he was conscious and able to walk within minutes of the accident. He was then seated in an oxcart, on which he was transported three-quarters of a mile to the boarding house where he was staying. Here, he was attended to by Harlow, the local physician. At the boarding house, Harlow cleaned Gage’s wounds by removing small fragments of bone, and replaced some of the larger skull fragments that remained attached but had been displaced by the tamping iron. He then closed the larger wound at the top of Gauge’s head with adhesive straps, and covered the opening with a wet compress. Gage’s wounds were not treated surgically, but were instead left open to drain into the dressings.

Within a few days of his accident, Gage’s exposed brain became infected with a “fungus”, and he lapsed into a semi-comatose state. His family prepared a coffin for him, but Gage recovered. Two weeks after the accident, Harlow released 8 fluid ounces of pus from an abscess under Gage’s scalp, which would otherwise have leaked into the brain, with fatal consequences. By 1st January 1849, Gage was leading an apparently normal life.

Harlow’s case report of Gage’s injuries appeared as a letter to the editor of the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. The report of the “hitherto unparalleled case” contains few neurological details, and was at first met with skepticism, because it was thought that no-one could survive such an extreme injury. Harlow describes Gage’s injury as follows:

[The tamping iron] entered the cranium, passing through the anterior left lobe of the cerebrum, and made its exit in the medial line, at the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures, lacerating the longitudinal sinus, fracturing the parietal and frontal bones extensively, breaking up considerable portions of the brain, and protruding the globe of the left eye from its socket, by nearly half its diameter.

Harlow goes on to describe how, while examining Gage, he determined that no bone fragments remained inside the skull:

…in searching to ascertain if there were other foreign bodies there, I passed in the index finger its whole length, without the least resistance, in the direction of the sound [of the hemorrhaging?] in the cheek, which received the other finger in like manner.

A second report was published in 1850 by Henry J. Bigelow, a professor of surgery at Harvard University. Bigelow emphasised Gage’s lack of symptoms, and reported that Gage was “quite recovered in faculties of body and mind”. Because of the disbelief with which Harlow’s 1848 report was met, it was, for the next 20 years, Bigelow’s account that came to be generally accepted by the medical community.

Gage did, according to Harlow, retain “full possession of his reason” after the accident, but his wife and other people close to him soon began to notice dramatic changes in his personality. It wasn’t until 1868 that Harlow documented the “mental manifestations” of Gage’s brain injuries, in a report published in the Bulletin of the Massachusetts Medical Society:

His contractors, who regarded him as the most efficient and capable foreman in their employ previous to his injury, considered the change in his mind so marked that they could not give him his place again. He is fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which was not previously his custom), manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint of advice when it conflicts with his desires, at times pertinaciously obstinent, yet capricious and vacillating, devising many plans of future operation, which are no sooner arranged than they are abandoned in turn for others appearing more feasible. In this regard, his mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was “no longer Gage.”

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On the right is one of three figures from Harlow’s 1868 paper. The legend reads:

Front and lateral view of the cranium, representing the direction in which the iron traversed its cavity; the present appearance of the line of fracture, and also the large anterior fragment of the frontal bone, which was entirely detached, replaced and partially re-united.

Thus, the damage to Gage’s frontal cortex had resulted in a complete loss of social inhibitions, which often led to inappropriate behaviour. In effect, the tamping iron had performed a frontal lobotomy on Gage, but the exact nature of the damage incurred to his brain has been a subject of debate ever since the accident occurred. This is because the damage can only be inferred from the path of the tamping iron through Gage’s skull, which in turn can only be inferred from the damage to the skull.

Gage’s skull was damaged in three places: there is a small wound under the left zygomatic arch (cheek bone) where the tamping iron entered; another is located in the orbital bone in the base of the skull behind the orbit of the eye; and the third, and largest, wound is in the top of the skull, where the tamping iron exited. The exit wound was enormous, and never healed. It can be seen today in Gage’s as an irregularly-shaped triangular hole, about 2 inches wide and 4 inches in circumference, and another, nearly 3 inches in circumference. These are separated by one of the flaps of skull that was replaced by Harlow upon arriving at Gage’s boarding house. Because the circumference of the wound in the frontal bone is much larger than the maximum diameter of the tamping iron, it is difficult to determine precisely the trajectory of the iron and where it exited Gage’s skull.

In 1994, Hannah Damasio and her colleagues at the University of Iowa used neuroimaging techniques to reconstruct Gage’s skull. The conclusion of this study was that Gage incurred damage to both the left and right prefrontal cortices. But according to computer-generated three-dimensional reconstructions of a thin slice computed tomography scan of Gage’s skull performed by Ratiu et al (see image and film clip above), the damage to Gage’s brain was limited to the left hemisphere.

Nevertheless, the case of Phineas Gage made important contributions to early modern neurology. The opposition to Harlow’s 1848 report was due in no small part to the popularity of phrenology at that time. The publication of Harlow’s 1868 report of Gage’s personality changes was significant, as it coincided with reports from other neurologists of the effects of specific lesions on behaviour.

This was a time when modern neuropsychology had begun to replace phrenology. In 1865, Paul Broca (1824-1880) described the speech centre in the left hemisphere of right-handed people; that brain region, in the inferior frontal gyrus, is now known as Broca’s area. Also in the 1860s, John Hughlings-Jackson (1835-1911) and David Ferrier carried out (1843-1928) physiological studies which pointed to the localization of cerebral function.

Jackson had been the first to hypothesize that psychopathological conditions could be correlated to brain damage. He also localized the auditory cortex and in 1864, confirmed Broca’s findings that, in right-handed people, speech was localized to a specific area of the left temporal lobe. Ferrier, an early proponent of the localization of cerebral function, used Gage’s case as the highlight of his famous Goulstonian lecture in 1878. In the same lecture, he also described experiments on monkeys, which led him to the conclusion that:

There are certain regions in the cortex to which definite functions can be assigned; and that the phenomena of cortical lesions will vary according to their seat and also to their character…removal or destruction…of the antero-frontal lobes is not followed by any definite physiological results…And yet, notwithstanding this apparent absence of physiological symptoms, I could perceive a very decided alteration in the animal’s character and behaviour, while it is difficult to state in precise terms the nature of the change…while not actually deprived of intelligence, they had lost, to all appearance, the faculty of the attentive and intelligent observation [Regarding the trajectory of the tamping iron through Gage's brain]…the absence of paralysis in this case is quite in harmony with the results of experimental physiology.

Gage’s case, therefore, had confirmed Ferrier’s findings that damage to the prefrontal cortex could result in personality changes while leaving other neurological functions intact. Gage’s case is one of the very first which provides evidence that the frontal cortex is involved in personality. Today, the role of frontal cortex in social cognition and executive function is relatively well established; however, this area of research is yet to blossom, and neuroscientists know little more about the relationship between the mind and the brain than did the early neurologists of the 19th century.

So, what of Phineas Gage himself? Unable to return to his previous job as a foreman after his accident, Gage is said to have travelled around New England, and even to Europe, with his tamping iron trying to earn money. It is also said that he even displayed himself as a curiosity at Barnum’s Museum in New York. However, the story of Phineas Gage is as much folklore as it is fact. Not only the exact nature of the neurological damage Gage sustained, but also the details of his life after the accident, are disputed to this day.

It is known that, from 1851 until just before his death, Gage worked as a coach driver, first in a livery stable at the Dartmouth Inn, in Hanover, New Hampshire, for about 18 months, and then in Chile for some 7 years. At some point in 1859, with his health deteriorating, Gage went to live with his mother. He died in San Francisco on 20th May, 1860, some 12 years after his accident, of complications arising as a result of epileptic convulsions. An autopsy on Gage’s brain was not conducted.

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In 1867, Gage’s body was exhumed from its burial place in San Francisco’s Lone Mountain Cemetery. Gage’s brother-in-law took the skull and the tamping iron to Dr. Harlow, who was then living in Woburn, Massachusetts. They are now housed in the Warren Anatomical Museum at Harvard University School of Medicine.


Boston Post newspaper report and Webster Wyman photo of skull and tamping iron reproduced with permission from An Odd Kind of Fame: Stories of Phineas Gage, by Malcolm Macmillan. MIT Press, 2000.

Comments

  1. #1 Romeo Vitelli
    July 6, 2007

    It’s hard to be certain what really happened to Gage or whether the personality changes were due to the brain injury directly or the meningitis that set in afterward. There were other cases similar to Gage’s reported in the 19th and early 20th century literature but hardly any of them dwelled on the long-term personality changes. It seemed enough that severe brain injury cases apparently made complete recoveries without loss of function.

  2. #2 Jonathan Lubin
    July 7, 2007

    The “sound in the cheek” would have been, according to my 1936 dictionary, “in surgery, an instrument to be inserted into a cavity, to detect a foreign body or dilate a stricture.”

  3. #3 Size
    July 7, 2007

    This is a very interesting writeup. I learned a little about Gage in psych classes in college, but appreciate the more in-depth information.

  4. #4 shani
    February 5, 2008

    I really enjoyed the video.

  5. #5 Becky
    June 4, 2008

    I remember learning about Gage in high school, and the story has stuck with me forever. Even now, seeing that photo of his skull next to the tamping iron, really brings it into reality! YIKES!

  6. #6 EGUONO
    December 9, 2008

    seeing Gage case it looks and sound so sever so therefore i think his recovering was from his mind in such cases let also investigate on how the patients mind work in accordance to the situation.i realy learnt from Gage accident

  7. Nice post. Enjoyed reading it. Yet another example of the brain working as a hologram rather than how our medical science usually explains.

    ~Shafin

  8. #8 mikele
    June 10, 2009

    Great post. It was interesting to learn new facts about Cage’s life after injury, especially that hi was exhumed and now in museum.

  9. #9 Captain Skellett
    July 19, 2009

    Loved it! Man, that looks extremely painful – that rod is huge! Poor guy!

  10. #10 Michael Spurlock
    August 4, 2009

    Romeo Vitelli’s quite right. If you read MacMillan’s analysis of the contemporary accounts, it’s pretty clear that most of the “evidence” we have for Gage’s behavior and its onset is hearsay. MacMillan’s book, “An Odd Kind of Fame” is a great read, by the way.

  11. #11 Matthew L Lena
    August 20, 2009

    The original posting does a good job of presenting a complex story. As a longtime researcher on Gage (and collaborator with Malcolm Macmillan) I particularly appreciate your points about resistance to localization due to revulsion at phrenology, and the continuing poor state of understanding, today, of what the frontal lobes do. But one thing needs correction:

    The idea that Gage had a “complete loss of social inhibitions” is a distorion by people eager to use Gage to illustrate blithe theories of what the frontal lobes are “for” (which regardless of what anyone tells you, nobody knows except in a vague way). Actually, Gage supported himself all his life at hard, honest work, in much of which he dealt with the public, and while he may have been difficult and frustrating to be around (at least for several years) there’s no evidence whatsoever he ever did anything criminal or dishonest — in fact, nothing that could be described in terms more serious than “unpleasant” or “ill-advised.”

    Beyond that, Macmillan’s and my research is beginning to show that Gage’s most serious behavioral changes lasted only a limited time — in short, that by a few years after his accident he had recovered to a large extend. At the end of this paper by Macmillan is an outline of that evidence as of a year ago:
    http://www.thepsychologist.org.uk/archive/archive_home.cfm/volumeID_21-editionID_164-ArticleID_1399-getfile_getPDF/thepsychologist/0908look.pdf

    We have many clues that need following up across the US and in Chile; anyone interested in helping should visit http://www.deakin.edu.au/hmnbs/psychology/gagepage/PgQuestn.php .

    Some minor things:

    What happened to Gage was nothing like a lobotomy (and did not inspire the development of lobotomy, as often stated). The paper you cite to “Liebert” was actually by Ratiu, Talos, et al. Gage was not at Barnum’s circus but rather his (quite different) American Museum. I know of no evidence Gage went to Europe (but if you know of any, we want to hear about it!). Dynamite had not been invented, and Gage had no wife.

  12. #12 ramen
    November 2, 2009

    Very interesting article and following comments. I agree, it’s hard to tell if the personality changes were due to the hit or the following disease. Great food for though. I first learned about him in psychology class and many were wondering if we could still say it was the same person. Either way, i would be hungry for more info on the case, as a person who didn’t know him before could say he had a full physical and psychological recovery, but was it really the case. Great article!

  13. #13 MMO
    November 16, 2009

    seeing Gage case it looks and sound so sever so therefore i think his recovering was from his mind in such cases let also investigate on how the patients mind work in accordance to the situation.i realy learnt from Gage accident

  14. #14 Graham King
    November 22, 2009

    Fascinating and wonderful story.
    ‘Sound’ (‘in the cheek’) is surely simply a typo for ‘wound’?
    I see ‘S’ is just below ‘w’ on the qwerty layout of typewriter and computer keyboards, so thought it a likely finger-placement error.
    On checking, though, I read that Gage’s case predated introduction of that layout.
    Was the medical report handwritten? Or was it typed, or transcribed for publication, on an earlier machine? Or was there a printsetting error? When and how did the typo arise.. if it is one? When did ‘wound’ become ‘sound’?

  15. #15 Graham King
    November 22, 2009

    In discussing whether it was the brain damage in the accident or the ensuing infection that brought about any changes that there may have been in Mr Gage (which is disputed anyway), let’s not be reductionist or mechanistic. Surely it’s pertinent also to consider what the experience meant to Gage, and how others behaved towards him at the time of his accident and years later. Was he treated with awe, fear, superstitious reverence or dread? Did he feel thankful to be alive, and/or aggrieved at his injury or at his employers? Did he decide to live a safer or riskier life thereafter? All could be factors affecting his personality and behaviour, apart from the direct brain trauma.

  16. #16 Derekmb
    December 30, 2009

    I think that if you lose a part of your brain, that’s pretty much the same as losing a part of yourself, but in the case of accidents or injuries, you don’t always know what that is due to the still lacking knowledge on brain systems. You sort of just have to find out as you go along. I guess what I’m saying was, this guy was probably just extremely lucky.

    Additionally, I would also cite Alien Hand Syndrome. Interestingly, If you sever the Corpus Collosum connecting the two brain hemispheres a condition known as Alien Hand Syndrom may result. Alien Hand Syndrome (AHS) is an unusual neurological disorder in which one of the sufferer’s hands seems to take on a mind of its own. It can also occur naturally from stroke or infection so long as the Corpus Collosum is damaged in someway.

  17. #17 Jamie Lombardi
    January 22, 2010

    I just started college and was looking up research on a project when I came across this on google. This was a very interesting read, I was surprised to see how someone could survive that kind of injury, I would think it would cause the brain would swell and cause further problems. It’s amazing what the mind can do.

  18. #18 HSA
    January 28, 2010

    I learned about this story in my Psych 101 class in college. So crazy how someone’s whole personality can alter with a physical change to the brain.

    interesting story!

  19. #19 sao paulo architect
    January 28, 2010

    Crazy story. I think this happens often today, in the case of car accidents doing brain damage and altering personalities.
    take care of your head!

  20. #20 Roberto Casagrande
    February 4, 2010

    Uncovered another portrait of Phineas Gage? It’s on you to decide if the picture on this site may be attributed to the younger Phineas Gage. Please consult and see some comparison studies and the opinions of some of the leading experts on Phineas Gage

  21. #21 sakshi
    April 4, 2010

    its a really interesting case. i have learned a lot from it abut neurology.

  22. #22 brother-in-law
    May 19, 2010

    Very thoughtful of the brother-in-law to exhume the skull and make it available for display as a nice decorative piece.

  23. #23 Pat Boffy
    May 29, 2010

    What an interesting descriptive article on P Cage I, also heard about this event, when doing an Open University course on Psychology , last year.I find all your information from the Posit Science web site really interesting. Looking forward to the next letter
    Yours with interest Pat.

  24. #24 Shadow
    September 13, 2010

    Hmm…. well, I read a book recently on Phineas Gage, and on the history of brain science….I kind of think that his personality changes were due to the brain damage, seeing as other people who have had (it is very rare to find someone who has) brain surgery afecting the front lobe, often also have behavior changes of the same kind.

  25. #25 rofflecopter
    September 21, 2010

    poopacac penis

  26. #26 costa bingo
    October 28, 2010

    I did read this one passage about Phineas the brain fascinates me…the frontal lobe is supposed to be from whence we create our future.

  27. #27 James Kundart
    November 6, 2010

    Have you all seen there are now two known portraits of Phineas Gage? You can see them here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phineas_Gage

  28. #28 James Kundart
    November 6, 2010

    Have you all seen there are now two known portraits of Phineas Gage? You can see them here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phineas_Gage

  29. #29 Milford T. Pharquar
    December 8, 2010

    I have tertiary syphilis.

  30. #30 becky
    January 18, 2011

    becky farted while reading this!!

  31. #31 Houston Lawyer
    March 18, 2011

    Gage did, according to Harlow, retain “full possession of his reason” after the accident, but his wife and other people close to him soon began to notice dramatic changes in his personality.

  32. #32 pahuwayan suites
    May 24, 2011

    America is a country which produces citizens who will cross the ocean to fight for democracy but won’t cross the street to vote.

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