The Moon goes around the Earth, the Earth goes around the Sun, and the Sun goes around the center of the Milky Way. We know the Moon takes about 4 weeks to make its trip around the Earth, and that causes the Moon phases:
We also know that the Earth takes one year to go around the Sun, and that causes the seasons:
We also know that the Earth has been around for about 4.5 billion years, which means it has gone around the Sun about 4.5 billion times. Well, now I ask the question(s):
How long does it take the Sun to go around the Milky Way? How many times has it done that so far, and how many times will this happen before the Sun finally dies?
Well, we know that we travel in (roughly) a circle around the center of the Milky Way, and that our radius from the center is about 8 kiloparsecs, or roughly 26,000 light years. That means our Solar System (including the Sun) needs to travel a distance of 1.55 x 1018 kilometers to go around the Milky Way once. If we know how fast the Sun is moving, we can figure out how long a Galactic Year is. Well, we can both measure and calculate its velocity to be 220 kilometers/second, and so we can just do the math, knowing that there are 31,556,952 seconds in a Gregorian Year, and we find that it takes about 223 million years to make one galactic year.
So, if the Sun is 4.5 billion years old, that makes it about 20 galactic years old. If the Sun has a total lifetime of around 10 billion years, then it has a total galactic age of around 42 galactic years.
What? Did I just say the answer is 42?! Well, this means that one possible question is “What is the Sun’s lifetime in Galactic Years?”