1925 – Scopes Trial: In Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution in class and fined $100.
1969 – Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin become the first men to walk on the Moon, during the Apollo 11 mission.
1983 – The world’s lowest temperature is recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at −89.2°C (−129°F).
1620 – Jean Picard, French astronomer
1710 – Paul Möhring, German physician
1810 – Henri Victor Regnault, French chemist
1923 – Rudolph A. Marcus, Canadian chemist, Nobel laureate
2004 – Edward B. Lewis, American geneticist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate