By Elizabeth Grossman

It’s now a month since the Deepwater Horizon well exploded, and the oil continues to flow. By official count, the response now involves 27,400 civilian and military personnel, 11,000 volunteers, more than 1040 boats, dozens of aircraft, and multiple offshore drilling units.

As more and more people become involved, health and safety precautions for responders are becoming increasingly important. “How many lessons have we not learned from the Exxon Valdez experience and how many mistakes are being repeated in a worse way?” asks Mark Catlin, who has set up a Facebook group to discuss these concerns.

Based on what we know about the substances being used and released, risks to workers’ health exist and must be controlled. Yet thus far the Occupational Safety and Health Administration seems to be playing only a limited role in this effort. We have several questions about the training and protection cleanup workers are receiving – and who’s ensuring that they’re adequate.


Health concerns arise for those coming into contact with oil and chemical dispersants directly or through water, air, boats, booms, and other equipment. Crude oil contains a mix of toxic volatile compounds, some carcinogenic. Oil also presents skin contact and respiratory hazards. Some 655,000 gallons of dispersants with potential adverse health impacts have now been used – most sprayed aerially. There are ongoing controlled burns of oil. On May 19th controlled burns lasted for more than 9 hours. There’s also flaring of gas coming the surface via a tube that’s been inserted into the well.

This all prompts air contamination concerns, particularly for those working near the rig site, a hive of response activity. (“Although it can be effective in some situations, in-situ burning is rarely used on marine spills because of concerns over atmospheric emissions and uncertainty about its impacts on human and environmental health,” says a 2005 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers report.) OSHA’s oilspill factsheet, however, does not mention respiratory hazards.

Meeting Training and Protection Needs
OSHA has posted the health and safety training requirements for various response activities. Work on contaminated shorelines and boats requires a 4-hour course. “Contract Supervision of those who will have direct contact with petroleum for shoreline and vessel operations” and “Direction and management of workers performing spill related cleanup activities,” requires 40-hour HAZWOPER certification. BP states that each of the currently engaged 950 Vessels of Opportunity must have a HAZWOPER certified crewmember. But, according to OSHA, “BP will not be supporting training in this area” – and HAZWOPER training is “Not available through BP.” If BP hasn’t provided the training, who has?

We would also like to know more about workers’ exposures and steps taken to protect them, specifically:

  • What exactly are workers being exposed to?
  • Is health exposure monitoring being done?
  • Is all personal protective equipment – including gloves and respiratory protection – compatible with materials and exposures?
  • Is adequate medical surveillance being conducted for health problems that workers may experience during or after the cleanup?

These questions apply to work on shore and on the water; to workers involved in skimming, laying and cleaning boom, cleaning and decontaminating boats and equipment; to those handling debris, and all those in contact with air affected by spill-related oil and gas burning. They apply to the oil coming from the Deepwater Horizon well – analysis of which is not yet publicly available – and to chemical dispersants that contain proprietary ingredients in addition to those with known human health hazards. (The dispersant now planned for use in beach cleaning, COREXIT 9580, is essentially 100% kerosene.)

Oil is turning up in various forms: tar balls, oily sheen, emulsified oil, and what’s described as “weathered oil.” Age and form alters toxicity, but questions about precise toxicity of each have yet to be answered. Tar balls and weathered oil have been described as both hazardous and of limited toxicity, raising additional questions about safety precautions.

OSHA’s Limited Role
OSHA has announced that it is distributing thousands of its fact sheet/safety guide for oil spill responders and that the agency is monitoring training and clean-up activity. But as Liz noted yesterday, BP is in charge of the overall operation.

If OSHA is letting BP take charge, does that mean that OSHA will refrain from issuing citations if violations of workplace health and safety laws occur? How much of a role will OSHA play in ensuring that all responders are adequately trained? According to an OSHA press officer I spoke to, OSHA is working, not in “enforcement mode,” but in “compliance assistance mode.” We want to know what this means in practical terms.

The oil sheen has now entered the Loop Current that sweeps around Florida from the Gulf to the Atlantic where it meets the Gulf Stream near Cuba. Yesterday, heavy oil was sighted in the Louisiana marshlands at the mouth of the Mississippi River. The further the oil spreads, the more urgently we need to ensure responder health is not jeopardized.

Elizabeth Grossman is the author of Chasing Molecules: Poisonous Products, Human Health, and the Promise of Green Chemistry, High Tech Trash: Digital Devices, Hidden Toxics, and Human Health, and other books. Her work has appeared in a variety of publications including Scientific American, Salon, The Washington Post, The Nation, Mother Jones, Grist, and the Huffington Post. Chasing Molecules was chosen by Booklist as one of the Top 10 Science & Technology Books of 2009 and won a 2010 Gold Nautilus Award for investigative journalism.

Comments

  1. #1 Woody Tanaka
    May 20, 2010

    The probable answer is no one is ensuring the workers’ safety. BP doesn’t. Like all companies, they literally don’t care if someone loses their life if it saves the company a dollar. The US Government doesn’t. The Republicans have destroyed the workers’ protections that used to exist (meager as they were) and the Democrats are all to weak and wussified to actually stand up and fight for the people.

    So these workers will die miserable deaths, BP will make millions, your average crook will get reelected to congress and the American people will be preoccupied by idiotic talent shows on television and news report of what famous people are doing with their genitalia.

    Remember, the average person is an idiot and he’s smarter than half the people around. We’re doomed.

  2. #2 Abel Pharmboy
    May 20, 2010

    Thanks so much for posting this and to Liz for coming over to comment on my post about Key West CC offering HAZWOPER certification. KWCC is charging $575 for a 24-contact hour session. If BP can’t foot the bill of $575 for each worker, we’re in much bigger trouble than I imagined.

  3. #3 JLowe
    May 21, 2010

    http://www.epa.gov/bpspill/air.html

    Looking at EPA’s air monitoring data from the oil spill, there’s low but persistent hydrogen sulfide concentrations that are consistently higher than the RfC http://www.epa.gov/ncea/iris/subst/0061.htm.

    Of course, these are also consistently below the PEL, so I’m sure everyone is looking at this as something that’s not of concern, right? (How old is the PEL again?)

    So, yes, workers are getting exposed and are probably experiencing symptoms and who knows what’s going to be done about that because you don’t want the work to stop. . . .

  4. #4 mistah charley, ph.d.
    May 21, 2010

    According to this video, the placing of booms is not being done correctly (warning – salty language), so adequate training is, in general, not characteristic of the BP response

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W_enCDXmVj0&feature=player_embedded

  5. #5 Steve
    May 29, 2010

    I am working with BP vessels of oppurtunity. I have been employed for 17 days and asked several times about the hazwoper traning and been told we are working on it. There is a crew of about 40 of us and noone is certified except the guy in charge of VOO. I would attend and pay for my own class but can’t afford to take off because wea are working every day. Wow, what a screwed up system

  6. #6 Perry
    May 30, 2010

    I was involved in providing the training course for the oil cleanup workers after the Exxon Valdez. The OSHA required 4-hour course was mandatory for everyone doing anything on the site. I hope that this has been addressed, but I have not seen anything about this training. Certainly there seem to be an even greater need for such training for this job!

  7. #7 red pepper
    May 31, 2010

    I am working with BP vessels of oppurtunity. I have been employed for 17 days and asked several times about the hazwoper traning and been told we are working on it.

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