I found the below from historian and writer Ramachandra Guha’s book India After Gandhi to be of interest given the current US election campaign (Note that Mr Guha was talking within the context of Partition).
“The world over, the rhetoric of modern democratic politics has been marked by two rather opposed rhetorical styles. The first appeals to hope, to popular aspirations for economic prosperity and social peace. The second appeals to fear, to sectional worries about being worsted or swamped by one’s historic enemies.”
India has, I think, held up pretty well with Mr Guha’s observation over the decades. The secular political parties can still be – albeit with much strain – identified with the Hopefuls. The nationalist political parties work with Fear (needless to say, all Nationalistic parties do this, world over).
As for the US election campaigns, I don’t know if this observation is true. While Democratic campaign can be clearly identified with Hope and Peace, I think it would be unfair to identify Fear with Republican campaign wholly, regardless of the posture assumed by some in it. I could be wrong. I haven’t really understood Republican campaign in this election.