White Coat Underground

A few months ago, attorney Ames Grawert and I wrote about a defamation case filed by noted anti-vaccine crank Barbara Loe Fisher against respected journalist Amy Wallace, vaccine expert Dr. Paul Offit, and Conde Nast. The suit arose from a statement by Offit in an excellent article by Wallace. At one point in the lengthy article, Offit is quoted as saying, regarding Loe Fisher, “She lies.”

Loe Fisher launched the defamation suit based on these two words, claiming they made her appear “odious, infamous, and ridiculous.” Anyone who has read Loe Fisher’s writing at her National Vaccine Information Center knows that she needs no help in this regard.

But the judge who drew the case didn’t comment on Loe Fisher’s idiocy, just her error in thinking that the law protects her from heated criticism. The case was dismissed today. In his ruling, US District Judge Claude Hilton stated that since it is nearly impossible to prove or disprove the statement “she lies”, something statute requires, and that since hyperbole uttered in heated debates is clearly protected free speech, the case cannot proceed.

Thank the US Constitution and our long history of protection of free speech for our ability to duke it out verbally without fear of an avalanche of frivolous lawsuits. Scientific fact is not a matter of law, and science cannot proceed in an atmosphere of fear of open debate.

Shame on you Barbara (of course, there will always be an England).

(h/t CS)

Comments

  1. #1 gaiainc
    March 10, 2010

    First and foremost, YES!!!!! Second, it was interesting to read through the whole decision. I’m not sure that I agree with the final conclusions of the decision (around pages 13-14), but I’m very glad that the case has been dismissed. Woo hoo!

  2. #2 Dr. Smart
    March 10, 2010

    It’s not over yet. This is only the beginning. Let the vaccine pushers war begin…

    No one believes your vaccines are safe. That’s why 21 million h1n1 vaccines are lying around with no one to sell them to.

    Let the killer mercury autistic causing vaccines (science)prevail … but I’ll not be taking one and millions of other feel the same way. You can post your private little predictions of how the world would be a better placed with flouride laced mercury filled aluminum containing vaccines who make people dumber if everyone was forced against their will to take one. Yes, science is wonderful.

  3. #3 Janice in Toronto
    March 10, 2010

    Wow Dr. Smart!

    Do you write the speeches for Dr. Evil?

    You sound just like him.

  4. #4 makarios
    March 10, 2010

    Well Dr. Smart, you seem to be able to be pretty dumb without the help of vaccines,

    Makarios

  5. #5 The Gregarious Misanthrope
    March 10, 2010

    Dr. Smart,

    Certainly, you must be a Poe, and a drunken one at that. I think the only correct, complete sentence was: Yes, science is wonderful.

    At least you got the last part right. C- for a strong closing statement.

  6. #6 Chris
    March 10, 2010

    I that the “Dr. Smart” troll was banned here (or maybe just some of his more idiotic statements). He is the ever morphing troll over at Orac’s place. He would sometimes post as “Dr. I.M. Smart”, and “Medicine Man” (though occasionally spelling it “Medicien”).

    I have not really seen him since he made this gaff where he claimed:

    One of these people was Washington Redskins cheerleader. She was a perfectly healthy girl. She took this killer H1N1 vaccine and within 12 hours she was paralyzed. She remains so today.

    Unfortunately he did that right after she was exposed by the TV program Inside Edition as being perfectly fine. Also it was the seasonal influenza shot, not the H1N1 vaccine.

    What a maroon.

  7. #7 Paul Browne
    March 11, 2010

    Excellent news!

    You’re right about the problems in the UK, but fortunately the campaign to reform England’s libel laws is growing http://www.libelreform.org/

  8. #8 Pascale
    March 11, 2010

    Kids are so much smarter when they end of dead from diptheria, tetanus, polio, and meningitis. And I have watched kids suffer with measles, mumps, and pertussis in unvaccinated populations. These diseases produce substantial morbidity and mortality; watching children with pertussis cough themselves blue until they pass out or vomit is not fun. And it isn’t real good for the brain, either.
    Vaccines have saved lives. Get over it.

  9. #9 Dr Smart
    March 11, 2010

    OOOOH. I think Chris has a thing for me. He follows me around like little lost puppy. Chris are you the Guardian of the Science Blogs world? Do you follow normal people around and tell your friends what they say on others’ websites? Good for you. Good boy. Now, roll over and play dead and I’ll giver you a bone (er).

    Orac his its own problems. I think Orac has a fetish for vaccines and hairy fat men.

  10. #10 Chris
    March 12, 2010

    Troll is being a troll.

  11. #11 TheDissenter
    March 12, 2010

    Please, show us the science that ‘proves’ vaccines work? Oh, there isn’t any because the law says they don’t need to be tested like other drugs and the manufacturers are free from any liability for adverse reactions. Why would the manufacturers require such an outlandish liability exemption from these perfectly ‘safe’ vaccines? Why is the taxpayer paying for the liabilities of the manufacturers through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program? Somethings stinks…

  12. #12 Chris
    March 12, 2010

    Search on http://www.PubMed.gov for “vaccine efficacy” reveals over 14000 papers. Clicking for just reviews reveals almost 3000 papers. Clicking on the link for the free full text brings up over 3000 papers. Cut and paste of first page of the free full text so that you can go do some reading:
    Efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in preventing pneumonia and improving survival in nursing home residents: double blind, randomised and placebo controlled trial.

    Maruyama T, Taguchi O, Niederman MS, Morser J, Kobayashi H, Kobayashi T, D’Alessandro-Gabazza C, Nakayama S, Nishikubo K, Noguchi T, Takei Y, Gabazza EC.

    BMJ. 2010 Mar 8;340:c1004. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c1004.PMID: 20211953 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article
    2.

    Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza : development and application of a bayesian random-effects model.

    Coudeville L, Bailleux F, Riche B, Megas F, Andre P, Ecochard R.

    BMC Med Res Methodol. 2010 Mar 8;10(1):18. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20210985 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related articlesFree article
    3.

    Broadly protective monoclonal antibodies against H3 influenza viruses following sequential immunization with different hemagglutinins.

    Wang TT, Tan GS, Hai R, Pica N, Petersen E, Moran TM, Palese P.

    PLoS Pathog. 2010 Feb 26;6(2):e1000796.PMID: 20195520 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article
    4.

    A whole virus pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine is highly immunogenic and protective in active immunization and passive protection mouse models.

    Kistner O, Crowe BA, Wodal W, Kerschbaum A, Savidis-Dacho H, Sabarth N, Falkner FG, Mayerhofer I, Mundt W, Reiter M, Grillberger L, Tauer C, Graninger M, Sachslehner A, Schwendinger M, Brühl P, Kreil TR, Ehrlich HJ, Barrett PN.

    PLoS One. 2010 Feb 23;5(2):e9349.PMID: 20186321 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article
    5.

    The spread of bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Great Britain and its control by vaccination.

    Szmaragd C, Wilson AJ, Carpenter S, Wood JL, Mellor PS, Gubbins S.

    PLoS One. 2010 Feb 22;5(2):e9353.PMID: 20179768 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article
    6.

    Genetically modified vaccines augment the efficacy of cancer surgery and chemotherapy.

    Bubeník J.

    Folia Biol (Praha). 2009;55(6):199-200. No abstract available. PMID: 20163768 [PubMed - in process]Free article
    7.

    Virus-like particle vaccine protects against 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus in mice.

    Quan FS, Vunnava A, Compans RW, Kang SM.

    PLoS One. 2010 Feb 11;5(2):e9161.PMID: 20161790 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article
    8.

    Safety and immunogenicity of an AMA1 malaria vaccine in Malian children: results of a phase 1 randomized controlled trial.

    Thera MA, Doumbo OK, Coulibaly D, Laurens MB, Kone AK, Guindo AB, Traore K, Sissoko M, Diallo DA, Diarra I, Kouriba B, Daou M, Dolo A, Baby M, Sissoko MS, Sagara I, Niangaly A, Traore I, Olotu A, Godeaux O, Leach A, Dubois MC, Ballou WR, Cohen J, Thompson D, Dube T, Soisson L, Diggs CL, Takala SL, Lyke KE, House B, Lanar DE, Dutta S, Heppner DG, Plowe CV.

    PLoS One. 2010 Feb 4;5(2):e9041.PMID: 20140214 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article
    9.

    Persistent hepatitis C virus infection in microscale primary human hepatocyte cultures.

    Ploss A, Khetani SR, Jones CT, Syder AJ, Trehan K, Gaysinskaya VA, Mu K, Ritola K, Rice CM, Bhatia SN.

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 16;107(7):3141-5. Epub 2010 Feb 1.PMID: 20133632 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article
    10.

    Public knowledge, attitude and behavioural changes in an Indian population during the Influenza A (H1N1) outbreak.

    Kamate SK, Agrawal A, Chaudhary H, Singh K, Mishra P, Asawa K.

    J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009 Nov 30;4(1):7-14.PMID: 20130372 [PubMed - in process]Free article
    11.

    Do pneumococcal conjugate vaccines provide any cross-protection against serotype 19A?

    Hausdorff WP, Hoet B, Schuerman L.

    BMC Pediatr. 2010 Feb 2;10:4.PMID: 20122261 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article
    12.

    A pilot clinical trial testing mutant von Hippel-Lindau peptide as a novel immune therapy in metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Rahma OE, Ashtar E, Ibrahim R, Toubaji A, Gause B, Herrin VE, Linehan WM, Steinberg SM, Grollman F, Grimes G, Bernstein SA, Berzofsky JA, Khleif SN.

    J Transl Med. 2010 Jan 28;8(1):8. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20109232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related articlesFree article
    13.

    Using 3 TLR ligands as a combination adjuvant induces qualitative changes in T cell responses needed for antiviral protection in mice.

    Zhu Q, Egelston C, Gagnon S, Sui Y, Belyakov IM, Klinman DM, Berzofsky JA.

    J Clin Invest. 2010 Feb 1;120(2):607-16. doi: 10.1172/JCI39293. Epub 2010 Jan 25.PMID: 20101095 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    14.

    Estimation of the effective doses of nasal-inactivated influenza vaccine in humans from mouse-model experiments.

    Tamura S, Hasegawa H, Kurata T.

    Jpn J Infect Dis. 2010 Jan;63(1):8-15.PMID: 20093755 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article
    15.

    Mutation or loss of Wilms’ tumor gene 1 (WT1) are not major reasons for immune escape in patients with AML receiving WT1 peptide vaccination.

    Busse A, Letsch A, Scheibenbogen C, Nonnenmacher A, Ochsenreither S, Thiel E, Keilholz U.

    J Transl Med. 2010 Jan 21;8(1):5. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20092642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related articlesFree article
    16.

    Changes to the natural killer cell repertoire after therapeutic hepatitis B DNA vaccination.

    Scott-Algara D, Mancini-Bourgine M, Fontaine H, Pol S, Michel ML.

    PLoS One. 2010 Jan 18;5(1):e8761.PMID: 20090916 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article
    17.

    Impact of methodology on the results of economic evaluations of varicella vaccination programs: is it important for decision-making?

    de Soárez PC, Novaes HM, Sartori AM.

    Cad Saude Publica. 2009;25 Suppl 3:S401-14.PMID: 20027388 [PubMed - in process]Free article
    18.

    Simultaneous Evaluation of the Magnitude and Breadth of a Left and Right Censored Multivariate Response, with Application to HIV Vaccine Development.

    Huang Y, Gilbert PB, Montefiori DC, Self SG.

    Stat Biopharm Res. 2009 Feb 1;1(1):81-91.PMID: 20072667 [PubMed]Related articlesFree article
    19.

    Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5′-nucleotidase.

    Hope M, Jiang X, Gough J, Cadogan L, Josh P, Jonsson N, Willadsen P.

    Parasite Immunol. 2010 Feb;32(2):135-42.PMID: 20070827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    20.

    Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan.

    Liu PH, Hu FC, Lee PI, Chow SN, Huang CW, Wang JD.

    BMC Health Serv Res. 2010 Jan 11;10:11.PMID: 20064239 [PubMed - in process]Related articlesFree article

  13. #13 TheDissenter
    March 12, 2010

    Is that proof by citation? If you look at the meta analysis, generally the scientific support for vaccine efficacy is tepid to lukewarm. Often at the end of these studies they toss in a line like this one:

    “The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine produces a significant effect regarding prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease.Results on prevention of otitis or pneumonia have been less striking, but considering the high burden of these diseases in infants, even a low efficacy has potential for tremendous impact on the health of infants in developing and industrialized countries.”

    Even a “low efficacy has potential for tremendous impact”? Sounds like a sales pitch for woo to me. They are trying to sell low efficacy ‘potential’, and I ain’t buying it. However, they are right about the “tremendous impact on the health of infants in developing and industrialized countries” part.

  14. #14 TheDissenter
    March 13, 2010

    From the first citation you gave:

    Efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in preventing pneumonia and improving survival in nursing home residents: double blind, randomised and placebo controlled trial.

    “One possible reason for the low vaccination rate is the lack of clear evidence showing the efficacy of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in nursing home residents, despite the fact that it is generally recommended to those at high risk of pneumococcal pneumonia.”

    So doctors are generally recommending these vaccines despite the “lack of clear evidence showing the efficacy”? If that isn’t pure ‘woo’ I don’t know what is.

    Seems to be backing up my original point, doesn’t it?

  15. #15 Chris
    March 13, 2010

    Do you now continue to say that no studies are made?

  16. #16 The Blind Watchmaker
    March 14, 2010

    Hopefully, Simon Singh will be successful as well.

    BTW, it is a fact in the philosophy of science that even the best theories cannot be ‘proven’. A theory is the best explanation for something given what is known. A hypothesis is a testable statement derived from the theory. A theory cannot be proven by its hypothesis, only falsified. If the test fails to falsify the theory, then it supports and adds credibility to the theory.

    For instance, if we set up a hypothesis that states:
    “If theory A is true, then we will see data B”
    “We see data B. Therefore theory A is true”.
    This is incorrect. This is the fallacy of Affirming the Consequent. Yet this is what many people want from their theories. The most we can say is that theory A may be true. And the more different hypotheses that are generated by the theory that survive falsification, the stronger the theory becomes.

    The numerous studies on vaccines combine to make a large body of evidence in favor of the theory that vaccines provide protection against disease when targeted at the right population at the right time against the right germ.

    Any endeavor has limitations and the scientific process will expose limitations. For instance, the study mentioned above demonstrates a limitation and should be taken into consideration when making policy.

    However, if there are plausible benefits and low risks, then this should be taken into policy decisions as well.

    It is unfortunate that the fact that theories cannot be proven is used to try to convince people that “just a theory” means that the theory is useless.

  17. #17 TheDissenter
    March 15, 2010

    “The numerous studies on vaccines combine to make a large body of evidence in favor of the theory that vaccines provide protection against disease when targeted at the right population at the right time against the right germ.”

    This sounds like hand-waving ‘woo’ to me. Please post the relevant double-blind, randomized human trials done by independent sources that unequivocally show that vaccines are effective enough to warrant the outrageous expense and possible adverse reactions. My guess is you can’t.

  18. #18 Vicki
    March 15, 2010

    Dissenter @17: I’ll leave the double-blind studies to the experts. My guess is that any study someone produces won’t meet your standards of “unequivocally.”

    But as evidence of the value of vaccines, I think of how many people I have known who have had smallpox, and how many have had polio. None. (I know we haven’t quite wiped out polio yet, but we’re close.) That’s a pretty strong argument for effectiveness and value.

  19. #19 nsib
    March 15, 2010

    TheDissenter,

    This sounds like hand-waving ‘woo’ to me. Please post the relevant double-blind, randomized human trials done by independent sources that unequivocally show that vaccines are effective enough to warrant the outrageous expense and possible adverse reactions. My guess is you can’t.

    So, basically, you’re looking for a cost-benefit analysis for vaccines? Well, waddaya know, quite a few have been done. I’ll give you the benefit of the doubt and assume that you just weren’t sure what terms to search for, since you’re not so dishonest that you’d make a statement like that without doing at least a cursory search, right? Anyways, here’s one to get you started: Economic analyses of rubella and rubella vaccines: a global review

  20. #20 Chris
    March 15, 2010

    Here are some more analyses for TheDissenter:

    Economic Evaluation of the 7-Vaccine Routine Childhood Immunization Schedule in the United States, 2001
    Zhou F, Santoli J, Messonnier ML, Yusuf HR, Shefer A, Chu SY, Rodewald L, Harpaz R.
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159:1136-1144.

    An economic analysis of the current universal 2-dose measles-mumps-rubella vaccination program in the United States.
    Zhou F, Reef S, Massoudi M, Papania MJ, Yusuf HR, Bardenheier B, Zimmerman L, McCauley MM.
    J Infect Dis. 2004 May 1;189 Suppl 1:S131-45.

    Impact of universal Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination starting at 2 months of age in the United States: an economic analysis.
    Zhou F, Bisgard KM, Yusuf HR, Deuson RR, Bath SK, Murphy TV.
    Pediatrics. 2002 Oct;110(4):653-61.

    Impact of specific medical interventions on reducing the prevalence of mental retardation.
    Brosco JP, Mattingly M, Sanders LM.
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160:302-309.

    And then some other data on incidence of measles from http://www.census.gov/prod/99pubs/99statab/sec31.pdf
    Year…. Rate per 100000 of measles
    1912 . . . 310.0
    1920 . . . 480.5
    1925 . . . 194.3
    1930 . . . 340.8
    1935 . . . 584.6
    1940 . . . 220.7
    1945 . . . 110.2
    1950 . . . 210.1
    1955 . . . 337.9
    1960 . . . 245.4
    1965 . . . 135.1
    1970 . . . . 23.2
    1975 . . . . 11.3
    1980 . . . . . 5.9
    1985 . . . . . 1.2
    1990 . . . . .11.2
    1991 . . . . . .3.8
    1992 . . . . . .0.9
    1993 . . . . . .0.1
    1994 . . . . . .0.4
    1995 . . . . . .0.1
    1996 . . . . . .0.2
    1997 . . . . . . 0.1

    What happened between 1960 and 1970?

    By the way, TheDissenter, you only really critiqued one of the papers from PubMed. When are you going to finish with the other 14000?

  21. #21 nsib
    March 15, 2010

    Chris,

    By the way, TheDissenter, you only really critiqued one of the papers from PubMed. When are you going to finish with the other 14000?

    You give him way too much credit; he never even critiqued the one. After all, the results were pretty clear-cut:

    Pneumonia occurred in 63 (12.5%) participants in the vaccine group and 104 (20.6%) in the placebo group. Pneumococcal pneumonia was diagnosed in 14 (2.8%) participants in the vaccine group and 37 (7.3%) in the placebo group (P< 0.001). All cause pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia were significantly more frequent in the placebo group than in the vaccine group: incidence per 1000 person years 55 v 91 (P< 0.0006) and 12 v 32 (P< 0.001), respectively. Death from pneumococcal pneumonia was significantly higher in the placebo group than in the vaccine group (35.1% (13/37) v 0% (0/14), P< 0.01).

    And yet The Dissenter ignored the entire conclusion of the study, and instead spouted some non sequitur about the lack of studies on that particular vaccine in that particular population.

  22. #22 Chris
    March 15, 2010

    Point taken. I was just giving him a little rope to hang himself.

    He claimed there were no studies. I pointed out there were several thousands, and showed him how to get to them. He then decided to pretend to interpret one of them.

    It pretty much showed that he had a closed mind and would find fault with every one of them. Have you seen the several articles on ScienceBasedMedicine that tear apart the silly “14 Studies” website (it tries to poke holes in real science, but actually their system was only based on whether they agreed with the results)? If you can only read one, read Dr. Crislip’s article. It is a hoot!

    Also if you like podcasts, he has fun ones! Click on his profile at ScienceBasedMedicine to find them.

  23. #23 TheDissenter
    March 16, 2010

    “But as evidence of the value of vaccines, I think of how many people I have known who have had smallpox, and how many have had polio. None.”

    Many of those people that don’t have those diseases also breathe air. I guess air is a cure! Who would have thought! A not a penny of profit to be made :(

    “Economic analyses of rubella and rubella vaccines: a global review”

    The study cited is a study of the cost effectiveness of the rubella vaccine not of its efficacy. They aren’t the same thing. The study just assumes the vaccine was effective. Nice try though. Still waiting…

    “Year…. Rate per 100000 of measles
    1912 . . . 310.0
    1920 . . . 480.5
    1925 . . . 194.3
    1930 . . . 340.8
    1935 . . . 584.6
    1940 . . . 220.7
    1945 . . . 110.2
    1950 . . . 210.1
    1955 . . . 337.9
    1960 . . . 245.4
    1965 . . . 135.1
    1970 . . . . 23.2
    1975 . . . . 11.3
    1980 . . . . . 5.9
    1985 . . . . . 1.2
    1990 . . . . .11.2
    1991 . . . . . .3.8
    1992 . . . . . .0.9
    1993 . . . . . .0.1
    1994 . . . . . .0.4
    1995 . . . . . .0.1
    1996 . . . . . .0.2
    1997 . . . . . . 0.1″

    You really should stop posting your little list as proof of anything other than your profound misunderstanding of statistics. Empirically observed covariation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for causality.

    Also, the fact that you got 14000 hits from typing ‘vaccine’ and ‘efficacy’ into a search engine is proof of nothing but the existence of those two words somewhere in the papers returned. That is how search engines work. It isn’t returning only the papers that show vaccines are effective.

    Didn’t think it would be this hard to find a clear, well-crafted, double-blind, placeboized, randomized human trial on some vaccines considering how all the “science-based” medical people here are so adamantly convinced their efficacy. For the kind of conviction regarding vaccines displayed here, I would have thought all you ‘scientists’ would have plenty of hard science to back up said convictions. Instead all I get is more groupthink.

  24. #24 El Picador
    March 16, 2010

    Hahahahaaaa! The Big Tobacco gambit? Never “scientifically proven” because random assignment is not ethically possible and then you reject any study on triumphalist causation/correlation grounds?You are really trying that dumb ploy?

    Good one, you had some of these folks going….

    /wipes eyes

  25. #25 nsib
    March 16, 2010

    TheDissenter,

    “Economic analyses of rubella and rubella vaccines: a global review”

    The study cited is a study of the cost effectiveness of the rubella vaccine not of its efficacy. They aren’t the same thing. The study just assumes the vaccine was effective. Nice try though. Still waiting…

    What you asked for were studies that

    show that vaccines are effective enough to warrant the outrageous expense and possible adverse reactions.

    So I gave you a cost-benefit analysis. Because it, you know, compares the costs of the vaccine (which includes adverse reactions) with the benefits (which is dependent on the effectiveness of the vaccine.) So you are wrong on all counts; I gave you exactly what you asked for, and it does take into account how effective the vaccinations were.

  26. #26 TheDissenter
    March 16, 2010

    “show that vaccines are effective enough to warrant the outrageous expense and possible adverse reactions.”

    Read the study. It has no data regarding vaccines actual effectiveness compared to placebo. That is the assumption it makes to calculate the C:B ratio.

    I guess I can only conclude that there really is no good scientific double blind randomized test data showing the effectiveness of vaccination. So why do you all believe it without question when you struggle to present any authoritative data?

  27. #27 El Picador
    March 16, 2010

    And you can’t prove smoking is addictive neither! And no authoritative double blind study proves that smoking causes cancer. Hahahahahaahorkhorkhork…stop it Douchssenter! You are killing me over here!!!

  28. #28 Chris
    March 16, 2010

    The reason there is “there really is no good scientific double blind randomized test data showing the effectiveness of vaccination.” recently is due to ethics.

    The studies you think should be done were conducted before the 1960s or so (you can find them if you go to the last page of the PubMed indexes). That is how the large polio vaccine trials were done in the 1950s. Also, children in institutions were also used in those kinds of studies. Most of the those institutions do not exist anymore, and again, there are problems with ethics. You can read about those studies in any book about the history of the polio vaccine, and in Dr. Offit’s biography of Maurice Hilleman. There are also some papers in PubMed like:
    Rev Infect Dis. 1986 Jan-Feb;8(1):157-62.
    The Willowbrook hepatitis studies revisited: ethical aspects.

    From the first link:

    Contrary to Vox’s ignorant blather, there are a quite a few circumstances in which it is unethical to use a placebo control group in a clinical trial, and a randomized, double-blinded “vaccinated versus unvaccinated” study is one of them. I suggest that Vox read the Helsinki Declaration and the Belmont Report, which are two of the major documents that lay down the ethical precepts of modern clinical trials. Of the two, the Helsinki Declaration binds virtually all developed nations to its ethical precepts through mutual agreement. Specifically, according to the Helsinki Declaration, with only very limited exceptions and only with extreme justification both scientifically and ethically, a placebo may not be used unless no current proven effective intervention exists for the condition under study or the condition is so benign that no treatment is not an unacceptable option. That is most definitely not the case in vaccine trials. Proven effective preventatives of severe disease do exist, namely vaccines. In addition, no group is a clinical trial may receive less than the standard of care. It is thus unethical to have a placebo control group in a randomized clinical trial of vaccines. The only exception is when a disease for which no effective vaccine yet exists is being studied.

    Here are the papers of the last four pages of the PubMed search, where you will find you so vaulted types of studies. The full papers of some of them are actually available (I actually looked at a couple, but I figure you should have fun finding them yourself):
    MEASLES IMMUNIZATION INCORPORATED IN THE ROUTINE SCHEDULE FOR INFANTS: EFFICACY OF A COMBINED INACTIVATED-LIVE VACCINATION REGIMEN.

    KRUGMAN S, STONE S, HU R, FRIEDMAN H.

    Pediatrics. 1964 Dec;34:795-7. No abstract available. PMID: 14243467 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14482.

    NEW METABOLIZABLE IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANT FOR HUMAN USE. 3. EFFICACY AND TOXICITY STUDIES IN MAN.

    STOKES J Jr, WEIBEL RE, DRAKE ME, WOODHOUR AF, HILLEMAN MR.

    N Engl J Med. 1964 Sep 3;271:479-87. No abstract available. PMID: 14172458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14483.

    IMMUNOGENIC SUBSTANCES IN CULTURE FILTRATES AND LYSATES OF PASTEURELLA TULARENSIS.

    HATCH MT, NICHOLES PS.

    J Bacteriol. 1964 Sep;88:566-73.PMID: 14208489 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    14484.

    [FURTHER EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFICACY OF CHEMICAL ANTHRAX VACCINE.]

    ALEKSANDROV NI, GEFEN NE, VORONIN IuS, EZEPCHUK IuV, KOZYREV MB, LEBEDINSKII VA, NIKONOV IV, RUNOVA VF, TAMARIN AL, FILIPPENKO AI.

    Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1964 Aug;41:45-50. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 14255898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14485.

    [EFFICACY OF INTRALUMBAR PREDNISOLONE TREATMENT OF TETANUS.]

    SEYFFERT W, WILBRANDT D.

    Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1964 Jun 19;89:1218-9. German. No abstract available. PMID: 14152382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14486.

    EFFICACY, POTENTIAL AND HAZARDS OF VACCINES.

    KATZ SL.

    N Engl J Med. 1964 Apr 23;270:884-8. No abstract available. PMID: 14110035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14487.

    THE EFFICACY OF KILLED ANTITUBERCULOUS VACCINES IN RELATION TO THE MORPHOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF THE SUSPENDED BACILLARY CELLS.

    PETRAGNANI G.

    Acta Tuberc Pneumol Scand Suppl. 1964;58:SUPPL 58:77-80. No abstract available. PMID: 14164139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14488.

    [STUDIES ON THE TOLERANCE AND EFFICACY OF LIVE POLIOMYELITIS VIRUS VACCINE TYPE I.]

    HENNESSEN W, ALTEVOGT R, MAULER R, LANGE A, BOEHM R.

    Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1963 Dec 6;88:2387-90. German. No abstract available. PMID: 14163000 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14489.

    [THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF PERTUSSIS-DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS VACCINATION.]

    GORDINA RV, ZAKHAROVA MS, OSTROUKHOVA DI, KURAGINA RV, KORASHEVICH VP.

    Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1963 Dec;40:9-13. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 14154144 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14490.

    [TEST OF THE EFFICACY OF PERTUSSIS-HYPERIMMUNE GLOBULIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL AGAINST WHOOPING COUGH IN A DOUBLE BLIND TRIAL.]

    EICHLSEDER W.

    Med J Aust. 1963 Oct 12;2:6-31. German. No abstract available. PMID: 14052139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14491.

    [INFLUENCE OF THE "TIME" FACTOR ON THE EFFICACY OF CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS.]

    ANGELESCO I, CHIRESCO N, DEMIAN L, GARTNER M, POPESCO G, RIMNICEANU I.

    Arch Roum Pathol Exp Microbiol. 1963 Sep;23:821-6. French. No abstract available. PMID: 14165866 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14492.

    [RESEARCH ON THE EFFICACY OF A TYPHO-PARATYPHOID A AND B VACCINE ADMINISTERED ORALLY IN THE FORM OF DRAG'EES.]

    NESTORESCO N, VLADOIANU IR, DIMACHE G, CHIRESCO N, BUZDUGAN I, IANOPOL L, CARPIUC V, MARGINEANU L, SABIE T, BRATU E, BUSNEANU L.

    Arch Roum Pathol Exp Microbiol. 1963 Sep;23:523-30. French. No abstract available. PMID: 14165824 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14493.

    [TEST OF THE EFFICACY OF PERTUSSIS-HYPERIMMUNE GLOBULIN AND CHLORAMPHENICOL AGAINST WHOOPING COUGH IN A DOUBLE BLIND TRIAL.]

    EICHLSEDER W.

    Arch Kinderheilkd. 1963 Sep;169:6-31. German. No abstract available. PMID: 14103294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14494.

    [INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF DOSES ON THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF LIVE VACCINE AGAINST INFLUENZA.]

    SMORODINTSEV AA, BUROV SA, DOKUCHAEV GM, MINCHEV PN, FILIPPOV NA, CHALKINA OM.

    Vopr Virusol. 1963 May-Jun;22:286-91. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 14075847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14495.

    Efficacy of measles vaccine.

    HARTFIELD J, MORLEY D.

    J Hyg (Lond). 1963 Mar;61:143-7. No abstract available. PMID: 13953085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    14496.

    [Possibilities of improving anticholera vaccines and methods of evaluation of their efficacy.]

    DELPY L.

    Bull World Health Organ. 1963;28:369-78. French. No abstract available. PMID: 14026827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    14497.

    The intrinsic vaccine efficacy of the 1954 poliomyelitis vaccine.

    STILLE WT.

    Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1962 May;52:830-3. No abstract available. PMID: 13917239 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    14498.

    Poliomyelitis vaccine and triple antigen: efficacy given separately and together.

    BUTLER NR, BENSON PF, WILSON BD, PERKINS FT, UNGAR J, BEALE AJ.

    Lancet. 1962 Apr 21;1(7234):834-6. No abstract available. PMID: 13875200 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14499.

    Ender’s live measles-virus vaccine with human immune globulin. II. Evaluation of efficacy.

    HILLEMAN MR, STOKES J Jr, BUYNAK EB, WEIBEL R, HALENDA R, GOLDNER H.

    Am J Dis Child. 1962 Mar;103:372-9. No abstract available. PMID: 13907410 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14500.

    Immunogenic response to killed measles-virus vaccine. Studies in animals and evaluation of vaccine efficacy in an epidemic.

    HILLEMAN MR, STOKES J Jr, BUYNAK EB, REILLY CM, HAMPIL B.

    Am J Dis Child. 1962 Mar;103:444-51. No abstract available. PMID: 13907409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles

    14501.

    [On the efficacy of BCG vaccination.]

    WEINGAERTNER L.

    Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena). 1962 Feb 1;56:182-8. German. No abstract available. PMID: 14005733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14502.

    Studies of live attenuated measles virus vaccine in man. II. Appraisal of efficacy.

    HILLEMAN MR, STOKES J Jr, BUYNAK EB, WEIBEL R, HALENDA R, GOLDNER H.

    Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1962 Feb;52(2)Suppl:44-56. No abstract available. PMID: 13907411 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    14503.

    [On the testing of the efficacy of rabies vaccines. I. Testing methods.]

    EISSNER G, BOEHM H.

    Monatsh Tierheilkd. 1962 Feb;14:24-32. German. No abstract available. PMID: 13889714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14504.

    The prophylactic efficacy of adenovirus vacvines.

    LENNETTE EH.

    J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1962;6:334-8. No abstract available. PMID: 13929641 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14505.

    [Infantile paralysis prophylaxis with oral vaccine. Requirements regarding its harmlessness and efficacy.]

    AUERSWALD W.

    Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1961 Nov 17;73:796-7. German. No abstract available. PMID: 13863224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14506.

    [Preliminary results of clinical and laboratory studies on the efficacy of vaccination against measles (attentuated virus vaccine) in children of Sao Paulo.]

    VERONESI R, de SOUSA E SILVA O, de CARVALHO, TORRES J, CARVALHO RP.

    Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 1961 Nov-Dec;16:397-405. Portuguese. No abstract available. PMID: 13925542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14507.

    [Problems of testing the efficacy of poliomyelitis vaccines.]

    MUELLER F, RICKEN D.

    Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1961 Feb 3;86:199-202. German. No abstract available. PMID: 13773482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14508.

    [Data on the response to and efficacy of pertussis and pertussis-diphtheria vaccine.]

    KOZLOVA NA.

    Vopr Okhr Materin Det. 1961 Feb;6:34-8. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 13753785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14509.

    Aerosol immunization with dried live vaccines and toxoids. VI. A study of postvaccination reactions and immunological efficacy of aerosol immunization with aerosol brucellosis, tularaemia, anthrax and plague vaccines in man.

    ALEKSANDROV NI, GEFEN NE, GAPOCHKO KG, GARIN NS, SERGEYEV VM, LAZAREVA ES, MISHCHENKO VV, SHLYAKHOV EN.

    Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1961;32:1245-52. No abstract available. PMID: 14036652 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14510.

    [Study of the efficacy of the cutaneous method of vaccination in man with the Brucella abortus vaccine prepared from the 19-BA strain.]

    TARAN IF.

    Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1960 Aug;31:93-6. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 13775275 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14511.

    [Study of reaction to and the immunological and epidemiological efficacy of pertussisdiphtheria vaccine.]

    DAVYDOVA IS, KHENKINA EV.

    Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1960 Aug;31:61-4. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 13720280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14512.

    Adenovirus vaccine: evaluation of antibody response and protective efficacy and comparison with an earlier preparation.

    LENNETTE EH, FLINTJER JD, CULVER JO, FOX VL, STEVENS TE.

    Am J Hyg. 1960 Mar;71:193-203. No abstract available. PMID: 14415712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14513.

    [The efficacy of anti-aftosa vaccine for the prophylaxis of epizootic aphthae in cattle with viruses produced on monolayer kidney cells.]

    ZAVAGLI V, MAZZARACCHIO V, FONTANELLI E, ORFEI Z, D’AMORE A, RAVAIOLI L, CASTAGNOLI B.

    Rend Ist Sup Sanit. 1960;23:1350-6. Italian. No abstract available. PMID: 13787998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14514.

    [On the efficacy and harmlessness of vaccines from inactivated and attenuated poliomyelitis virus.]

    AUERSWALD W.

    Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1959 Dec 4;71:965-7. German. No abstract available. PMID: 13795088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14515.

    [Experimental research and clinico-statistical data on the efficacy of vaccine produced by the Istituto Antirabbico di Palermo.]

    SAVAGNONE L, FALGARES E.

    Riv Ist Sieroter Ital. 1959 Nov-Dec;34:457-66. Italian. No abstract available. PMID: 14442010 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14516.

    [Influence of specific medications on the efficacy of antibiotics.]

    SUREAU B, BERROD J.

    Rev Pathol Gen Physiol Clin. 1959 Nov;59:1155-72. French. No abstract available. PMID: 13835770 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14517.

    [Efficacy of killed tuberculosis vaccines depends above all on the morphological integrity of the dispersed bacillary units.]

    PETRAGNANI G.

    Minerva Med. 1959 Apr 14;50(30):1083-5. Italian. No abstract available. PMID: 13656746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14518.

    [Harmlessness, efficacy and practical importance of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination in 6-month-old-infants.]

    ZOURBAS J.

    Med Infant (Paris). 1959 Feb;66(2):53-6. French. No abstract available. PMID: 13643084 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14519.

    [A tissue culture vaccine against infectious Teschen disease of swine, chloroform & formalin treated adsorbed vaccine. II. Examination of the efficacy & harmlessness of the vaccine.]

    MAYR A.

    Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig. 1958 Dec;173(7-8):524-38. German. No abstract available. PMID: 13625992 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14520.

    Efficacy of poliomyelitis vaccine; with special reference to its use in Minnesota in 1955-1956.

    SCHUMAN LM, KLEINMAN H, KROVETZ LJ, FLEMING DS.

    J Am Med Assoc. 1958 Mar 1;166(9):1027-35. No abstract available. PMID: 13502105 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles

    14521.

    Efficacy of and indications for use of adenovirus vaccine.

    HILLEMAN MR.

    Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1958 Feb;48(2):153-8. No abstract available. PMID: 13521062 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    14522.

    [Specific prophylaxis against mumps. IV. Epidemiological efficacy of living attenuated mumps vaccine inoculated intradermally in children.]

    KLIACHKO NS, GUSARSKAIA IL, MASLENNIKOVA LK, SENA NL, TSIRLINA SS.

    Vopr Virusol. 1958 Jan-Feb;3(1):28-33. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 13558043 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14523.

    The efficacy of BCG-vaccination; tuberculosis epidemic in a state school with an observation period of 12 years.

    HYGE TV.

    Dan Med Bull. 1957 Feb;4(1):13-5. No abstract available. PMID: 13414411 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14524.

    The distribution of poliomyelitis vaccine and its efficacy in 1955.

    SCHEELE LA.

    J Natl Med Assoc. 1956 Sep;48(5):363-4. No abstract available. PMID: 13357953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    14525.

    Efficacy of trivalent adenovirus (APC) vaccine in naval recruits.

    BELL JA, HANTOVER MJ, HEUNER RJ, LOOSLI CG.

    J Am Med Assoc. 1956 Aug 18;161(16):1521-5. No abstract available. PMID: 13345615 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE]Related articles
    14526.

    [Efficacy of cutaneous antidiphtheric vaccination with anatoxin plasters.]

    VIVOLI F, AMORE F, CREMONINI G.

    Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1956 Feb;38(2):97-108. Italian. No abstract available. PMID: 13330217 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14527.

    [Utilization of radiocarbon-labeled bovine and human tubercle bacilli for the comparative study of the efficacy of freeze-dried BCG vaccines of different origins, injected by different routes.]

    PASQUIER JF, KURYLOWICZ W.

    C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1956;150(2):281-4. French. No abstract available. PMID: 13343653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14528.

    Standardization and efficacy of BCG vaccination against tuberculosis; twenty year study: a critical evaluation.

    ROSENTHAL SR.

    J Am Med Assoc. 1955 Mar 5;157(10):801-7. No abstract available. PMID: 13233027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14529.

    The efficacy of our Alabang anti-rabies vaccine over local Street virus.

    RELOVA RN.

    J Philipp Med Assoc. 1955 Mar;31(3):109-12. No abstract available. PMID: 14368536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14530.

    [Objections to the efficacy of BCG and their criteria of validity.]

    WEILL-HALLE B.

    Bull Acad Natl Med. 1954 Dec;138(33-34-35):534-7. French. No abstract available. PMID: 14363933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14531.

    [The relation between antigen content and efficacy of diphtheria and tetanus vaccines; studies on a biological constant.]

    PRIGGE R.

    Arb Paul Ehrlich Inst Georg Speyer Haus Ferdinand Blum Inst Frankf A M. 1954;51:108-23. German. No abstract available. PMID: 13218588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14532.

    A long-term evaluation of the efficacy of mapharsen and typhoid vaccine, including a comparison with penicillin, in the treatment of early syphilis.

    THOMAS EW, GLEESEN GA.

    Am J Syph Gonorrhea Vener Dis. 1953 Sep;37(5):458-65. No abstract available. PMID: 13080556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14533.

    Efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccines under controlled conditions.

    LEVINE PP, FABRICANT J.

    Cornell Vet. 1952 Oct;42(4):449-57. No abstract available. PMID: 12998363 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE]Related articles
    14534.

    [Mazzetti's method of evaluation of protective efficacy of vaccines; application of control in antityphoid-paratyphoid vaccination.]

    FRENI S.

    G Med Mil. 1952 May-Jun;102(3):209-23. Undetermined Language. No abstract available. PMID: 12989586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14535.

    [Efficacy of BCG vaccine; quality and duration of post-vaccinal allergy; experience in Montreuil.]

    FOURESTIER M, BAISSETTE G, BERGERON L, GONZALES A.

    Presse Med. 1952 Mar 5;60(15):325-7. Undetermined Language. No abstract available. PMID: 14929947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14536.

    EFFICACY of BCG vaccination.

    [No authors listed]

    Br Med J. 1952 Jan 19;1(4750):147-9. No abstract available. PMID: 14896062 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    14537.

    [Test of the efficacy of crystal violet swine plague vaccine prepared with ethylene glycol (CH2OHCH2OH).]

    GAYOT G.

    Arch Inst Pasteur Alger. 1951 Mar;29(1):15-7. Undetermined Language. No abstract available. PMID: 14830337 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE]Related articles
    14538.

    [Efficacy of BCG in primary and post-primary tuberculosis in children and adolescents; experience in Montreuil.]

    FOURESTIER M, BAISSETTE G, BERGERON L, GONZALES A.

    Rev Tuberc. 1951;15(12):1084-93. Undetermined Language. No abstract available. PMID: 14921530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14539.

    The efficacy of B.C.G. vaccination; a study on vaccinated and tuberculin negative non-vaccinated conscripts.

    DAHLSTROM G, DIFS H.

    Acta Tuberc Scand Suppl. 1951;27:1-133. No abstract available. PMID: 14837804 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14540.

    [Method for the experimental study of the protective efficacy of bacterial vaccines.]

    MAZZETTI G.

    Boll Ist Sieroter Milan. 1951 Jan-Feb;30(1-2):45-51. Undetermined Language. No abstract available. PMID: 14830651 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles

    14541.

    Efficacy of penicillin in reducing bacterial contamination in vaccine lymph.

    DAS GUPTA J.

    Ind Med Gaz. 1950 Nov;85(11):514-8. No abstract available. PMID: 14813817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14542.

    [Duration of efficacy of Rickettsial vaccine, formolized, and prepared by the Durand-Giroud method.]

    HORRENBERGER R.

    Arch Inst Pasteur Alger. 1950 Sep;28(3):364-75. Undetermined Language. No abstract available. PMID: 14800479 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14543.

    [BCG vaccination; its efficacy and importance of its introduction in our country.]

    FERNANDEZ CREHUET R.

    Acta Pediatr Esp. 1950 Aug;8(92):919-26. Undetermined Language. No abstract available. PMID: 14770862 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14544.

    [Increasing the efficacy of vaccine therapy in whooping cough.]

    SPORL HJ.

    Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1950 Jul 14;75(27/8):945. Undetermined Language. No abstract available. PMID: 15435209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14545.

    [Survey of children vaccinated with BCG; statistical analysis of its efficacy.]

    de ASSIS A.

    Arch Pediatr Urug. 1950 Jul;21(7):561-3. Undetermined Language. No abstract available. PMID: 14772090 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14546.

    The efficacy of B.C.G. vaccination.

    MALMROS H.

    Br Med J. 1948 Jun 12;1(4562):1129-32. No abstract available. PMID: 18865961 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE]Related articlesFree article
    14547.

    The efficacy of our local anti-rabies vaccine.

    RELOVA RN.

    J Philipp Med Assoc. 1948 Mar;24(3):129-33. No abstract available. PMID: 18858691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14548.

    Composition and efficacy of cholera vaccines.

    PANDIT CG.

    Abstr Int Congr Trop Med Malar. 1948;56(4th Congr):19. No abstract available. PMID: 18872895 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles
    14549.

    Some Observations on Naso-pharyngeal Epidemics in Public Schools.

    Glover JA.

    Proc R Soc Med. 1928 Jul;21(9):1593-1610.PMID: 19986581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related articlesFree article
    14550.

    OBSERVATIONS ON ANTITYPHOID VACCINATION.

    Nichols HJ.

    J Exp Med. 1915 Dec 1;22(6):780-792.PMID: 19867958 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Related articlesFree article

  29. #30 TheDissenter
    March 21, 2010

    The reason there is “there really is no good scientific double blind randomized test data showing the effectiveness of vaccination.” recently is due to ethics.

    Thank-you for admitting what the ‘scientists’ here are so afraid to admit. There are no studies, its all based on faith, extrapolation, or simply commercial goals. You can’t claim that any alternative treatment is ‘woo’ since it doesn’t have an FDA-approved, double-blind, randomized trial supporting it, and then at the same time claim the efficacy of vaccines is beyond debate when it lacks the very studies you claim are needed by alternative therapies. It seems the medical profession got rid of intellectual honesty a long time ago.

    The groupthink in here is so bad its no wonder the USA is so far down the list of countries with effective medical care despite spending almost 20 cents of every dollar on it.

  30. #31 Chris
    March 22, 2010

    Actually there were studies. I linked to them, but you seemed to have not read them correctly. They even deliberately infected children in the Willowbrook State School with hepatitis.

    Either you cannot read for comprehension, or you actually think it is okay to experiment on disabled children!

  31. #32 Chris
    March 22, 2010

    Whatever… “TheDissenter” has demonstrated that s/he/it does not have any ethics.