pgleick https://scienceblogs.com/author/pgleick/feed en On Science and Politics https://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2017/05/04/on-science-and-politics <span>On Science and Politics</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The ascendancy of Donald Trump to the presidency, the selection of his cabinet and senior advisers, and the actions of the GOP-dominated legislative branch have all raised new serious questions and concerns about the role of science, research, and analysis in national law and policy. These concerns have been worsened by elements of the new administration’s proposed budget that severely cut or eliminate core federal science efforts, Congressional hearings and actions that have been perceived to promote ideological viewpoints over scientific findings, presidential executive orders that attempt to override scientifically determined regulations and laws, and the failure of the administration to appoint qualified people to key science advisory and oversight positions.</p> <p>These questions have led to growing public debate over the role of science in policy and politics. The recent outpouring of support for the March for Science and the Climate March in cities around the country is a manifestation of this growing public concern, but another is the expanding discussion about the proper role for science – and for scientists – and how politics may affect the integrity of science and scientists. Some commentators have argued that by getting involved in politics, scientists are becoming just another interest group.</p> <p>Lost in this discussion is a key distinction, between the integrity of science itself and the ways in which scientists interacts with policy and policymakers.</p> <p>The scientific process requires that scientists separate their biases and politics from their research in a way that ensures their work stands up to independent scrutiny and review. Bias may determine the <strong><em>questions</em></strong> individual scientists choose to tackle, but if scientific <strong><em>findings</em></strong> are tainted by politics (or economics or other factors), the very nature of the scientific process, independent peer review, and the competition inherent in advancing scientific knowledge will weed bad science out over time.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-667" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2017/05/Caution-Science-and-Society-400x377.jpg" alt="Caution Science and Society" width="400" height="377" /></p> <p>Many scientists have little or no interest in connecting science to public policy or getting involved in messy public debates. But scientists are people too, with opinions, political views, and biases. And when their work has implications for the quality of life, health, environment, and the economy, scientists should be encouraged, not discouraged, from participating in policy discussions, communicating with the public, educating policymakers, and working with journalists and the media.</p> <p>We have the right – and some argue the responsibility – to raise our voices. <a href="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2016/12/01/from-scientists-to-policymakers-communicating-on-climate-scientific-integrity-and-more/">History offers numerous examples</a>, such as when an international group of scientists published the <a href="https://pugwash.org/1955/07/09/statement-manifesto/">Russell-Einstein Manifesto in 1955</a> to speak out “as human beings” against the threat of nuclear war:</p> <blockquote><p>"In the tragic situation which confronts humanity, we feel that scientists should assemble in conference to appraise the perils that have arisen as a result of the development of weapons of mass destruction, and to discuss a resolution in the spirit of the appended draft… We are speaking on this occasion, not as members of this or that nation, continent, or creed, but as human beings, members of the species Man, whose continued existence is in doubt…We have to learn to think in a new way. We have to learn to ask ourselves, not what steps can be taken to give military victory to whatever group we prefer, for there no longer are such steps; the question we have to ask ourselves is: what steps can be taken to prevent a military contest of which the issue must be disastrous to all parties?... We appeal as human beings to human beings: Remember your humanity, and forget the rest. If you can do so, the way lies open to a new Paradise; if you cannot, there lies before you the risk of universal death."</p></blockquote> <p>As is true of anyone in our society, it is the right of scientists as citizens to participate in the policy process. Reflecting this reality, the <a href="https://news.agu.org/press-release/new-position-statement-rights-responsibilities-scientists/">American Geophysical Union recently released a new statement</a> “On the Rights and Responsibilities of Scientists.” That statement identifies three key responsibilities for scientists: demonstrating excellence in the conduct of research, adhering to the highest professional ethics and integrity in their scientific work, and supporting a diverse, inclusive professional environment. But in addition to these responsibilities, the statement identifies key “rights” for scientists, including the right to conduct science without fear of attack, to work with colleagues independent of political affiliation or opinion, and to freely and openly communicate their findings. It also explicitly identifies the right of scientists to respond to inaccurate portrayals or use of science.</p> <blockquote><p>“The right to oppose unethical or illegal actions, policies, procedures, or other directives that impact the conduct and publication of science, without fear of retaliation.”</p></blockquote> <p>and</p> <blockquote><p>“The right to respond to inaccurate portrayals of science by any individual or group including, government and institutional administrators, the media, private companies or industry representatives, and political entities.”</p></blockquote> <p>There comes a time when the dangers of inaction, or the wrong actions, become sufficiently threatening to individuals or the planet that scientists will have to enter the public arena and bring their voices to debates of critical societal importance. We see this now with the threat of global climate change, the destruction of ecosystems, risks of pandemics, and more. When scientists do speak up, they should be welcomed, not vilified, as servants of the public interest and as informed voices raised in defense of knowledge, informed policy, and humanity.</p> <p><a href="http://www.gleick.com">Peter Gleick</a></p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/pgleick">pgleick</a></span> <span>Thu, 05/04/2017 - 04:54</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Categories</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/channel/policy" hreflang="en">Policy</a></div> </div> </div> Thu, 04 May 2017 08:54:31 +0000 pgleick 71140 at https://scienceblogs.com Climate Change and the Collision between Human and Geologic Time https://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2017/03/27/climate-change-and-the-collision-between-human-and-geologic-time <span>Climate Change and the Collision between Human and Geologic Time</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><em>[<a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/petergleick/2012/01/16/climate-change-disbelief-and-the-collision-between-human-and-geologic-time/">An early version of this essay</a> was originally published on <a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/petergleick/">my Forbes blog</a> in 2012. It has been edited and updated.]</em></p> <p>Geologic time scales are long – far too long for the human mind to easily comprehend. Over millions, and tens of millions, and hundreds of millions of years, the Earth has changed from something unrecognizable to the planet we see on maps, plastic globes, and photos from space. The Atlantic Ocean didn’t exist eons ago and it will literally disappear in the future as the continental plates continue to shift inch by inch. A visitor from outer space millions of years ago would have looked down upon land masses and land forms unrecognizable today. As John McPhee notes in his book, <em>Assembling California</em>, “For an extremely large percentage of the history of the world, there was no California.” Or North America, China, Australia, Hawai’i, Mt. Everest, Grand Canyon, or any of the other landforms and natural symbols we think of as immutable.</p> <p>Humans cannot relate to these changes. Our perception of time is short -- measured in days, months, years, or decades, not millennia or eons. And our perception of the world around us is similarly driven by events with human time scales. Again, John McPhee:</p> <blockquote><p>The two time scales – the one human and emotional, the other geologic – are so disparate. But a sense of geologic time is the most important thing to get across to the non-geologist: the slow rate of geologic processes – centimeters per year—with huge effects if continued for enough years. A million years is a small number on the geologic time scale, while human experience is truly fleeting – all human experience, from its beginning, not just one lifetime. Only occasionally do the two time scales coincide. When they do, the effects can be as lasting as they are pronounced.</p></blockquote> <p>Nowhere is this collision of time scales more pronounced than in the current climate change debate. There are a variety of reasons why a few people still find the reality of human-caused climate change to be inconceivable. Leaving aside those who are unfamiliar with or ignorant of the science, those who simply shill for the fossil-fuel industry, and those who for political reasons must toe an ideological line that contradicts scientific conclusions, there remain some whose world view prevents them from accepting that humans can influence something so vast and global as the climate. Coupled with the fact that the Earth’s climate fluctuates naturally, this group has never been able to accept the reality of human-caused climate change. For regular readers of the blogs of climate contrarians (or their comments on this and other essays on climate change), this sentiment will be familiar. Here are a few (of the more polite) examples from comments I've received:</p> <blockquote><p>I don't deny that the climate changes, it's been changing since there has been an atmosphere to change. And it's common knowledge that the earth goes through cycles of climate, what is not known is the exact causes of these changes or cycles.</p> <p>Observed climate changes since 1850 are linked to cyclical, predictable, naturally occurring events in Earth’s solar system with little or no help from us.</p> <p>Global Warming, Global Cooling and Global Climate Change have been happening for millions of years<strong> </strong>- long before any possible human influence - Climate Change is natural and nothing new.</p></blockquote> <p>This is a manifestation of the collision that McPhee describes, the conflict of human and geologic time scales.</p> <p>Climate does change naturally, for reasons well understood by scientists. But it does so over thousands or tens of thousands of years – time scales so slow as to be imperceptible to humans. The causes of these natural climate changes are the cumulative result of tiny but cosmic changes, including incremental shifts in the orbit of our planet around our star, the tiny but real wobble of the Earth’s axis, and variations in the output of energy from the Sun. These natural factors -- the <a href="http://www.azimuthproject.org/azimuth/show/Milankovitch+cycle">Milankovitch cycles</a> -- lead to changes in the Earth's climate. They cause the ice ages, and they cause the warm interglacial periods. But they happen slowly – in geologic time unseen, unperceived, and unfelt by humans. The peak of the last ice age was 20,000 years ago, long before any recognizable form of human civilization existed. The next ice age isn’t expected to start for thousands of years and may not peak for tens of thousands of years, and who knows what kind of civilization will exist then.</p> <div style="width: 472px;"><img class=" wp-image-660" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2017/03/Milankovitch_Variations-400x303.png" alt="Graphical representation of Milankovitch cycles. From http://www.azimuthproject.org/azimuth/show/Milankovitch+cycle " width="462" height="350" /> Graphical representation of Milankovitch cycles. From <a href="http://www.azimuthproject.org/azimuth/show/Milankovitch+cycle">http://www.azimuthproject.org/azimuth/show/Milankovitch+cycle</a> </div> <p>Human-caused climate changes are different. As the planet’s population has grown past 7 billion people, and as we have learned how to mobilize and burn vast quantities of carbon-based fossil fuels (ironically, created over geologic time scales) to satisfy our short-term energy demands, humans are now powerful enough to overwhelm slow geological cycles. We are, for the first time in the 4+ billion year history of the Earth capable of altering the largest geophysical system on the planet – the climate – and we are doing it on a human time scale of years and decades, with consequences we are only just beginning to comprehend.</p> <div style="width: 485px;"><img class="wp-image-662 " src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2017/03/Vostok-400x225.jpg" width="475" height="267" /> Atmospheric CO2 over the past 800,000 years with the dramatic increase in the past century (shown on right edge). Data from Vostok ice cores. CO2 concentrations today are at 407 ppm and climbing rapidly. </div> <p>Ironically, our effect on the climate, while fast in geological terms, is still slow enough for policy makers, climate contrarians and skeptics, and those simply not paying attention to either actively deny it or to just look the other way, committing the planet to more and more change.</p> <p>Some will never be able to accept that humans can affect the global climate, no matter the evidence. They will continue to conflate geologic and human time scales and assume that what is occurring today must be what has always occurred in the past -- natural. But their inability to comprehend the planetary influence of humans isn’t based on reviewing and rejecting the scientific evidence, which is clear to <a href="http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/06/04/1003187107">97-98% of climate scientists</a> publishing in the field. It is based on ignoring or disbelieving that evidence, just as some dogmatically refused to abandon their belief in a geocentric universe for reasons that had nothing to do with science. Alas, these modern-day dogmatists are unlikely to change their minds, at least not on a human time scale. And we don’t have time to waste.</p> <p><a href="http://www.gleick.com">Peter H. Gleick</a></p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/pgleick">pgleick</a></span> <span>Mon, 03/27/2017 - 09:31</span> Mon, 27 Mar 2017 13:31:28 +0000 pgleick 71139 at https://scienceblogs.com National Water Infrastructure Efforts Must Expand Access to Public Drinking Fountains https://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2017/03/08/national-water-infrastructure-efforts-must-expand-access-to-public-drinking-fountains <span>National Water Infrastructure Efforts Must Expand Access to Public Drinking Fountains</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><div style="width: 410px;"><img class="size-medium wp-image-654" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2017/03/IMG_20111102_142611-400x300.jpg" alt="Modern drinking fountains chill and filter water, and let users fill water bottles (Photo: Peter Gleick 2011)" width="400" height="300" /> Modern drinking fountains chill and filter water, and let users fill water bottles (Photo: Peter Gleick 2011) </div> <p>by Peter Gleick and Rapichan Phurisamban</p> <p>There is strong bipartisan support for expanding investment in the nation’s water infrastructure as part of a broader infrastructure effort. But there is, as yet, little agreement about what specific investments should be made. Here is one idea: expand access to high-quality and safe municipal water by improving access to drinking fountains in schools, parks, public buildings, and around public transit areas.</p> <p>Drinking fountains are an important public resource, serving as an alternative to bottled water or sugary drinks and accommodating a wide array of users, including children, commuters, runners, the homeless, and tourists. Some fountains are even designed to provide water for pets. <a href="http://pacinst.org/publication/drinking-fountains-public-health-improving-national-water-infrastructure-rebuild-trust-ensure-access/">A newly released study from the Pacific Institute</a>, entitled “Drinking Fountains and Public Health: Improving National Water Infrastructure to Rebuild Trust and Ensure Access,” discusses the state of the nation’s drinking fountains and addresses concerns about their quality and links to illnesses. The report concludes that the risk of fountain water contamination can be reduced or eliminated altogether through improved maintenance and cleaning or updating and replacing old water infrastructure and pipes.</p> <p>The significance of drinking fountains has been documented since ancient times. Some of the earliest records of public water fountains come from ancient Greek cities, where fountains were both a common sight and a public necessity. A second century Greek writer, Pausanias, wrote that a place can never rightfully be called a “city” without water fountains. Spring-fed public water fountains were typically placed in or near temples and were dedicated to gods, goddesses, nymphs, and heroes.</p> <div style="width: 410px;"><img class="size-medium wp-image-655" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2017/03/DSC_0322-400x268.jpg" alt="Drinking Fountain, Florence, Italy (Photo: Peter Gleick)" width="400" height="268" /> Drinking Fountain, Florence, Italy (Photo: Peter Gleick) </div> <p>As populations grew and cities expanded, demand for public water systems and new water treatment and delivery technologies led to the increased use of public water fountains. By the early 20<sup>th</sup> century, public drinking fountains became a fixture of the urban landscape. In the past few decades, however, they have been disappearing from public spaces for several reasons, including the advent of commercial bottled water, decreased public investment in urban infrastructure, concern over the health risks of fountains and municipal water in general, and a <em>laisse-faire</em> attitude toward public water systems.</p> <p><em><strong>It is time to reverse this trend.</strong></em></p> <p>Drinking fountains are essential for maintaining free public access to water, and we need to expand the science and practice of ensuring they remain clean, safe, and accessible. A modest investment by public agencies, school and park districts, and even private businesses could greatly expand the number and quality of drinking water fountains. New fountain designs equipped with filters, chillers, and bottle fillers make fountains an even smarter choice for everyone. Mobile apps that make it easier to find a nearby drinking fountain are currently being tested and could improve access to drinking water, and thus public health.</p> <p>Key recommendations from the Pacific Institute report should be adopted quickly, by federal, state, and local agencies, and by others who build and maintain drinking fountains. These recommendations include consistent cleaning and routine maintenance; installation of new fountains in high-traffic areas; retrofitting or replacement of old models with modern fountains with optional filters, chillers, and bottle fillers; and the elimination of parts and pipes that contain lead and copper.</p> <p>Recent reports of unsafe water from fountains show that the problem is almost never the fountain itself, but old water distribution and plumbing systems that should, with a proper national water infrastructure effort, be upgraded and replaced immediately to remove lead and other sources of contamination. Uniform maintenance guidelines should be developed and widely adopted. These efforts, combined with communications on the results of regular water testing, reports on the performance of fountains, and information on how to find and access high-quality drinking fountains, can help build public trust in water fountains and protect the human right to water.</p> <div style="width: 310px;"><img class="size-medium wp-image-656" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2017/03/warm-good-fillable-good-300x400.jpg" alt="Drinking fountain, California (Photo: Peter Gleick)" width="300" height="400" /> Drinking fountain, California (Photo: Peter Gleick) </div> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/pgleick">pgleick</a></span> <span>Wed, 03/08/2017 - 10:52</span> Wed, 08 Mar 2017 15:52:27 +0000 pgleick 71138 at https://scienceblogs.com The Vatican Workshop and Statement on The Human Right to Water https://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2017/03/07/the-vatican-workshop-and-statement-on-the-human-right-to-water <span>The Vatican Workshop and Statement on The Human Right to Water</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>In late February 2017, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences <a href="http://www.pas.va/content/accademia/en/events/2017/water.html">hosted a workshop</a> on the human right to water organized by the Cátedra del Diálogo y la Cultura del Encuentro of Argentina with several other organizations. With many colleagues from science, law, human rights, history, and religion, this workshop offered the opportunity to debate and discuss how to integrate the human right to water with public policies in water and sanitation management globally and regionally. Two days of intense discussion culminated in a declaration by Pope Francis and a <a href="http://www.pas.va/content/accademia/en/events/2017/water/final_statement.html">formal statement</a> (below) signed by the Pope and the conference participants.</p> <div style="width: 727px;"><img class=" wp-image-651" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2017/03/Pope-Francis-signing-human-right-to-water-statement-400x149.jpg" alt="Pope Francis signing statement on the human right to water, February 2017" width="717" height="267" /> Pope Francis signing statement on the human right to water, February 2017 </div> <p>That statement acknowledges the severe water challenges facing the planet and especially the world’s poor, the reality of human-caused climate change, and the “indisputable” recognition of “access to clean water and sanitation as a fundamental human right.”</p> <p>The statement also notes:</p> <blockquote><p>“Households, neighbourhoods, cities, regions and countries, with small and large responses and actions, are called to guarantee universal access to safe water and sanitation, and to exercise the responsibility to our fellow human beings and to the generations to come.”</p></blockquote> <p><a href="http://www.gleick.com" target="_blank">Peter Gleick (2017)</a></p> <h2>The Final Statement of the Workshop on The Human Right to Water</h2> <blockquote><p>In his encyclical <em>Laudato Si</em>, Pope Francis presents the main issues related to the human right to water, including the lack of access to drinking water, sanitation, and continued inequality of quality and availability of resources. The encyclical also refers to the repercussions of droughts and floods on food production, the prevalence of pollution-related diseases and warns us against a "green economy" that is often green not because it is ecological, but because it treats nature as a commodity.</p> <p>The socio-environmental crisis that we face arises from environmentally irresponsible human action that has resulted in spreading socio-environmental injustice, increasing inequality and poverty, and a lack of adequate food supply. Throughout the world, the lack of access to safe water and the pollution of water sources seriously and increasingly affects quality of life, particularly women, the poorest, and the most vulnerable. In addition, thousands of people put their lives at risk by demanding the right to water or by actively defending natural resources.</p> <p>Production models focused on fossil fuels are directly responsible for global warming. Climate change, like water scarcity, is a consequence of human action. The degradation of the environment has increased exponentially and today the world faces the consequences of economic models of production that "privatise the profits and socialise the losses". In regions such as the Amazon, deforestation and pollution of water sources have accelerated in recent decades as a result of the development of mining, production and developing infrastructure, leading to potential conflicts varying in nature and scale.</p> <p>Many cultures, societies and religions of the world recognise water as a spiritual and material principle of life, thus finding common ground. They also recognise that everything in the universe is connected and that the care for the common good requires solutions based on cooperation, solidarity and a culture of dialogue. On this basis, new paradigms must be built in which humanity does not claim unlimited and disrespectful dominion over nature, but rather exercises a collective responsibility.</p> <p>Those most affected by the scarcity of water and a lack of basic sanitation must be involved in the developments towards universal access. Everyone is called to participate actively in caring for our common home, each with their own experiences, initiatives and capabilities. Households, neighbourhoods, cities, regions and countries, with small and large responses and actions, are called to guarantee universal access to safe water and sanitation, and to exercise the responsibility to our fellow human beings and to the generations to come.</p> <p>Ensuring the human right to safe water is essential for the exercise of other rights such as food, health and welfare. Human rights provide a normative basis and constitute a source of authority and legitimacy for realising universal and fair access to this resource. The inclusion of the right to clean water and sanitation in international agreements, instruments and declarations is indispensable for the development of human life. For this reason, the recognition of access to clean water and sanitation as a fundamental human right is indisputable.</p> <p>Although the challenge is great, we rely on solidarity and collective sensitivity, fruits of the dialogue of philosophies, knowledge, spiritualties and epistemologies. There are currently many valuable projects and initiatives working towards the care of our common home and we have a better understanding of the problem, not primarily as an issue of scarcity but as an inadequate management of the resource. Today we know that the use of fossil fuels in energy generation contributes to climate change but we have inherited a significant body of scientific knowledge, as well as clean energy technologies that can help mitigate global warming. Today, we know what we have to do: develop another paradigm of development, centered on the care of our common home, centered on solidarity, equality and justice in the use and management of water.</p> <p>Many of today's economic and production systems, ways of life, and consumption behaviours cause environmental degradation. We need an education that fosters a cultural change around the recognition of the other and the defence of water and ecosystems; we urge a cultural change in which science and technology can make fundamental contributions to the preservation of water and its universal use. More effective legal tools are needed to protect common assets and a human rights perspective can ensure that water supply and sanitation do not fall under the influence of powerful groups, but are safeguarded by binding legal obligation.</p> <p>We need governments that have the will and political force to generate the necessary changes, following the moral imperative of the Sustainable Development Goals approved after Pope Francis’ address to the United Nations, in particular points 6 and 14. This requires a collective commitment to the creation of global, state and local public policies that incorporate real and effective participation in the full exercise of citizenship and the concern for the common good. Today it is urgent to reach a consensus on models of governance that allow for the formation of an authentic culture of water. Governments must also ensure the safety and lives of all those who work for the right to water and the preservation of nature.</p> <p>The recognition of rights must be met by a universal responsibility for action. This implies changes in lifestyle, production and consumption, as well as the development of renewable and clean energy. The provision of safe water in necessary quantities and the collection of wastewater and its disposal by environmentally adequate means, contribute to the care of our common home and people’s dignity, whilst also contributing to the development of responsible citizenship amongst present and future generations.</p> <p>Each of us, scientists, entrepreneurs, politicians, labourers for humanity, must be aware that the threat of climate change demands concrete and urgent measures. In the encyclical, Pope Francis proposes the development of an integral ecology for the care of our common home, inviting a collective and joint mobilisation for the defence of universal access to safe water by governments, institutions, the private sector, workers and societies around the world. Uniting with a collaborative commitment and collective action is necessary to demonstrate the urgency of the change of the instrumental rationality towards a true intergenerational solidarity. We call for the implementation of an integral ecology, incorporating environmental, economic, social and cultural dimensions, for fostering a culture of encounter, which acknowledges the human right to water and sanitation. Science, culture, politics and technology all have a part to play in achieving societies of justice, solidarity and equality, committed to the care for our common home.</p></blockquote> <div style="width: 533px;"><img class=" wp-image-652" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2017/03/signature-of-Pope-Francis-on-human-right-to-water-statement-400x201.jpg" alt="Signature of Pope Francis on Human Right to Water Declaration February 2017" width="523" height="263" /> Signature of Pope Francis on Human Right to Water Declaration February 2017 </div> <p><u>Signatories</u></p> <blockquote><h5>Pope Francis</h5> <h5>Cardinal Claudio Hummes</h5> <h5>Msgr. Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo</h5> <h5>Jerónimo Ainchil</h5> <h5>Alejandra Alberdi</h5> <h5>Dogan Altinbilek</h5> <h5>Cristian Asinelli</h5> <h5>Juan Ayala</h5> <h5>Adrián Bernal</h5> <h5>Asit Biswas</h5> <h5>Emilia Bocanegra</h5> <h5>Rutger Boelens</h5> <h5>Valeria Bubas</h5> <h5>Rebeca Céspedes</h5> <h5>Keshav Chandra</h5> <h5>Michael Cohen</h5> <h5>Ismael Cortazzo</h5> <h5>Elena Cristofori</h5> <h5>Emilio Custodio</h5> <h5>Magalid Cutina</h5> <h5>Leandro Del Moral</h5> <h5>Gabriel Eckstein</h5> <h5>Emanuele Fantini</h5> <h5>María Feliciana Fernández García</h5> <h5>Ana Ferreira</h5> <h5>Alfredo Ferro</h5> <h5>Héctor Floriani</h5> <h5>Enrique García</h5> <h5>Alberto Garrido</h5> <h5>Peter Gleick</h5> <h5>Adrián González</h5> <h5>Quentin Grafton</h5> <h5>Joyeeta Gupta</h5> <h5>Pedro Hughes</h5> <h5>Giulia Lanzarini</h5> <h5>Luis Liberman</h5> <h5>Marcelo Lorelli</h5> <h5>José Luis Inglese</h5> <h5>José Luis Lingeri</h5> <h5>José Paulino Martínez Cabrera</h5> <h5>Ugo Mattei</h5> <h5>Hugo Maturana</h5> <h5>David Molden</h5> <h5>Alberto Monfrini</h5> <h5>Daniel Nolasco</h5> <h5>Virginia Oliver</h5> <h5>Rosa Pavanelli</h5> <h5>Ivo Poletto</h5> <h5>Pedro Romero</h5> <h5>Gabriela Sacco</h5> <h5>Carlos Salamanca</h5> <h5>Farhana Sultana Maxwell</h5> <h5>Danya Tavela</h5> <h5>Cecilia Tortajada</h5> <h5>Jorge Triana Soto</h5> <h5>Jerry van den Berge</h5> <h5>Gianni Vattimo</h5> <h5>Virgilio Viana</h5> <h5>Alessia Villanucci</h5> <h5>Martin Von Hildebrand</h5> <h5>Aaron Wolf</h5> <h5>Ana Zagari</h5> <h5><u>Observers</u></h5> <h5>Christian Ferrando</h5> <h5>Christiane Torloni</h5> <h5>José Romero</h5> <h5>Laureano Quiroga</h5> </blockquote> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/pgleick">pgleick</a></span> <span>Tue, 03/07/2017 - 09:30</span> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 14:30:17 +0000 pgleick 71137 at https://scienceblogs.com Joint Statements on Climate Change from National Academies of Science Around the World https://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2017/01/17/joint-statements-on-climate-change-from-national-academies-of-science-around-the-world <span>Joint Statements on Climate Change from National Academies of Science Around the World</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>National academies of sciences from around the world have published formal statements and declarations acknowledging the state of climate science, the fact that climate is changing, the compelling evidence that humans are responsible, and the need to debate and implement strategies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. <strong><em>Not a single national science academy disputes or denies the scientific consensus around human-caused climate change.</em></strong> A few examples of joint academy statements since 2000 on climate are listed here. Many national academies have, in addition, published their own reports and studies on climate issues. These are not included here.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-664" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2017/01/Science-tells-us-so-400x318.jpg" alt="Science tells us so" width="400" height="318" /></p> <h1>The Science of Climate Change (Statement of 17 National Science Academies, 2001)</h1> <p><a href="http://science.sciencemag.org/content/292/5520/1261">http://science.sciencemag.org/content/292/5520/1261</a></p> <p>Following the release of the third in the ongoing series of international reviews of climate science conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Chang (IPCC), seventeen national science academies issued a joint statement, entitled "The Science of Climate Change," acknowledging the IPCC study to be the scientific consensus on climate change science.</p> <p><u>The seventeen signatories</u> were:</p> <ul><li>Australian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Sciences and the Arts</li> <li>Brazilian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Royal Society of Canada</li> <li>Caribbean Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Chinese Academy of Sciences</li> <li>French Academy of Sciences</li> <li>German Academy of Sciences, Leopoldina</li> <li>Indian National Science Academy</li> <li>Indonesian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Royal Irish Academy</li> <li>Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Italy)</li> <li>Academy of Sciences Malaysia</li> <li>Academy Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand</li> <li>Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Turkish Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Royal Society (UK)</li> </ul><h1>Joint science academies’ statement: Global response to climate change (Statement of 11 National Science Academies, 2005)</h1> <p><a href="http://nationalacademies.org/onpi/06072005.pdf">http://nationalacademies.org/onpi/06072005.pdf</a></p> <p>Eleven national science academies, including all the largest emitters of greenhouse gases, signed a statement that the scientific understanding of climate change was sufficiently strong to justify prompt action. The statement explicitly endorsed the IPCC consensus and stated:</p> <p>“…there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring. The evidence comes from direct measurements of rising surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures and from phenomena such as increases in average global sea levels, retreating glaciers, and changes to many physical and biological systems. It is likely that most of the warming in recent decades can be attributed to human activities (IPCC 2001). This warming has already led to changes in the Earth's climate.”</p> <p><u>The eleven signatories</u> were: Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.</p> <h1>Joint science academies’ statement on Growth and responsibility: sustainability, energy efficiency and climate protection (Statement of 13 National Science Academies, 2007)</h1> <p><a href="http://www.pik-potsdam.de/aktuelles/nachrichten/dateien/G8_Academies%20Declaration.pdf">http://www.pik-potsdam.de/aktuelles/nachrichten/dateien/G8_Academies%20Declaration.pdf</a></p> <p>In 2007, thirteen national academies issued a joint declaration reconfirming previous statements and strengthening language based on new research from the fourth assessment report of the IPCC, including the following:</p> <p>“In 2005, the Academies issued a statement emphasizing that climate change was occurring and could be attributed mostly to human activities, and calling for efforts to tackle both the causes of climate change and the inevitable consequences of past and unavoidable future emissions. Since then the IPCC has published the Working Group 1 part of the Summary for Policymakers of its fourth assessment report, and further reports are expected later this year from IPCC. Recent research strongly reinforces our previous conclusions. It is unequivocal that the climate is changing, and it is very likely that this is predominantly caused by the increasing human interference with the atmosphere. These changes will transform the environmental conditions on Earth unless counter-measures are taken.”</p> <p><u>The thirteen signatories</u> were the national science academies of Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.</p> <h1>A joint statement on sustainability, energy efficiency, and climate change (Statement of 13 individual National Science Academies and the African Academy of Sciences, 2007)</h1> <p><a href="http://www.interacademies.net/File.aspx?id=4825">http://www.interacademies.net/File.aspx?id=4825</a></p> <p>In 2007, the Network of African Science Academies submitted a joint “statement on sustainability, energy efficiency, and climate change:”</p> <p>“A consensus, based on current evidence, now exists within the global scientific community that human activities are the main source of climate change and that the burning of fossil fuels is largely responsible for driving this change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reached this conclusion with '90 percent certainty' in its Fourth Assessment issued earlier this year. The IPCC should be congratulated for the contribution it has made to public understanding of the nexus that exists between energy, climate and sustainability.”</p> <p><u>The thirteen signatories</u> were the science academies of Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, as well as the African Academy of Sciences.</p> <h1>Zmian klimatu, globalnego ocieplenia i ich alarmujących skutkow: “Climate change, global warming and its alarming consequences” (Statement of the Polish Academy of Sciences, December 2007)</h1> <p><a href="http://bit.ly/2jwgtNL">http://bit.ly/2jwgtNL</a></p> <p>In December 2007, the General Assembly of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk), issued a declaration endorsing the IPCC conclusions, and stating (in translation):</p> <p>The problem of global warming, climate change and their negative impact on the human life and the functioning of the whole society is one of the most dramatic of contemporary challenges. The most recent studies indicate that the content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increased in the last century by about 25%. If you add to that a similar increase in the presence in the atmosphere of other harmful gases generated by human activity, overall, the effective increase in the amount of these gases in the period under consideration is about 40% and the specific acceleration gained over the past decades. This makes that the situation extremely worrisome...</p> <p>It is the duty of science and Polish state authorities to develop thoughtful, organized and active efforts in the implementation of these ideas. Priority should be given to vast and diversified areas of research, including physical and biochemical mechanisms of climate change and their mathematical modeling. It should also develop appropriate technical measures and rules for their implementation, and legal and economic regulations limiting the emission of so-called greenhouse gases in all areas of economic activity of the state.</p> <p>It is also necessary to take measures aimed to understand society-scale threats and response measures. The General Assembly of the Academy calls on national scientific communities and the state authorities to actively support Polish participation in this important endeavor.</p> <p>We believe that the right step to counteract the effects of global warming require, under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, a Special Program to counteract climate threats and their consequences...</p> <h1>Joint Science Academies’ Statement: Climate Change Adaptation and the Transition to a Low Carbon Society (Statement of 13 National Academies of Sciences, June 2008)</h1> <p><a href="http://www.nationalacademies.org/includes/climatechangestatement.pdf">http://www.nationalacademies.org/includes/climatechangestatement.pdf</a></p> <p>In 2008, the thirteen signers of the 2007 joint academies declaration issued a statement reiterating previous statements and reaffirming</p> <p>“that climate change is happening and that anthropogenic warming is influencing many physical and biological systems.”</p> <p>Among other actions, the declaration urges all nations to</p> <p>“(t)ake appropriate economic and policy measures to accelerate transition to a low carbon society and to encourage and effect changes in individual and national behaviour.”</p> <p><u>The thirteen signatories</u> were the national science academies of Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.</p> <h1>Climate change and the transformation of energy technologies for a low carbon future (Statement of 13 National Academies of Sciences, May 2009)</h1> <p><a href="http://www.leopoldina.org/en/press/press-releases/press-release/press/713/">http://www.leopoldina.org/en/press/press-releases/press-release/press/713/</a></p> <p>In May 2009, thirteen national academies issued a joint statement that said among other things:</p> <p>“The IPCC 2007 Fourth Assessment of climate change science concluded that large reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases, principally CO2, are needed soon to slow the increase of atmospheric concentrations, and avoid reaching unacceptable levels. However, climate change is happening even faster than previously estimated; global CO2 emissions since 2000 have been higher than even the highest predictions, Arctic sea ice has been melting at rates much faster than predicted, and the rise in the sea level has become more rapid. Feedbacks in the climate system might lead to much more rapid climate changes. The need for urgent action to address climate change is now indisputable.”</p> <p><u>The thirteen signatories</u> were the national science academies of Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.</p> <h1>Health Effects of Climate Change (Statement of the Inter Academy Medical Panel/42 National Academies of Sciences, 2010)</h1> <p><a href="http://www.leopoldina.org/de/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/health-effects-of-climate-change-2010/">http://www.leopoldina.org/de/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/health-effects-of-climate-change-2010/</a></p> <p><strong>Statement on the health co-benefits of policies to tackle climate change</strong></p> <p>It is widely agreed that human activities are changing Earth’s climate beyond natural climatic fluctuations. The emission and accumulation of greenhouse gases associated with the burning of fossil fuels, along with other activities, such as land use change, are the principal causes of climate change…</p> <p>Climate change poses a significant threat to human health in many direct and indirect ways…</p> <p>Although there are some uncertainties about the magnitude of climate change and its impacts, there is widespread consensus that to mitigate climate change and reduce its impact on health, near term deep cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions are needed. Actions should be greatest in those high-income countries that have benefited most from burning fossil fuels. The longer we delay, the more severe the impacts on health, the environment and the economy; and the greater the future cost of mitigation. Since some degree of climate change is now inevitable, countries will have to adapt to the associated health risks...</p> <p><u>Signatories</u></p> <ul><li>Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires</li> <li>Academy of Medical Sciences of Armenia</li> <li>Austrian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Bangladesh Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Academia Boliviana de Medicina</li> <li>Brazilian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Chinese Academy of Engineering</li> <li>Academia Nacional de Medicina de Colombia</li> <li>Croatian Academy of Medical Sciences</li> <li>Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts</li> <li>Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egypt</li> <li>Académie Nationale de Médecine, France</li> <li>The Delegation of the Finnish Academies of Science and Letters</li> <li>Union of German Academies of Sciences and Humanities</li> <li>Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, Leopoldina</li> <li>Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Fisicas y Naturales de Guatemala</li> <li>Hungarian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Indonesian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei</li> <li>TWAS, academy of sciences for the developing world</li> <li>Islamic World Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Science Council of Japan</li> <li>African Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Kenya National Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The National Academy of Sciences, Rep. of Korea</li> <li>Akademi Sains Malaysia</li> <li>National Academy of Medicine of Mexico</li> <li>Nigerian Academy of Science</li> <li>National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines</li> <li>Polish Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Caribbean Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Russian Academy of Medical Sciences</li> <li>Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts</li> <li>Academy of Science of South Africa</li> <li>National Academy of Sciences of Sri Lanka</li> <li>Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Tanzania Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Thai Academy of Science and Technology</li> <li>Turkish Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Uganda National Academy Sciences</li> <li>Academy of Medical Sciences, UK</li> <li>Institute of Medicine, US NAS</li> </ul><h1>Climate Change: Evidence and Causes (Joint Statement of the Royal Society and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, February 2014)</h1> <p><a href="http://nas-sites.org/americasclimatechoices/events/a-discussion-on-climate-change-evidence-and-causes/">http://nas-sites.org/americasclimatechoices/events/a-discussion-on-climate-change-evidence-and-causes/</a></p> <p>The Royal Society and the US National Academy of Science jointly published the document “Climate Change: Evidence and Causes.” Given their similar missions to “promote the use of science to benefit society and to inform critical policy debates,” the Academies “offer this new publication as a key reference document for decision makers, policy makers, educators, and other individuals seeking authoritative answers about the current state of climate-change science.”</p> <h1>Position de l’Académie sur les Changements Climatiques (Statement of the Académie Royale des Science, des Lettres &amp; des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, November 12, 2014)</h1> <p><a href="https://t.co/SZT9VvU8vx">https://t.co/SZT9VvU8vx</a></p> <p>“La teneur de l’atmosphère en GES a fortement et régulièrement augmenté dans les dernières décennies. Une analyse approfondie de ces GES, notamment de leur composition isotopique, montre sans équivoque que cette modification de la composition de l’atmosphère est, directement ou indirectement, liée à l’activité humaine (origine anthropique)...</p> <p>La rapidité du changement climatique global annoncé est vraisemblablement sans précédent...</p> <p>Dans ces conditions, la communauté internationale doit s'engager résolument, et globalement, dans une démarche volontariste et ambitieuse de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre.</p> <ol><li>a) Cette réduction doit être concertée, globale et équilibrée ; elle doit se faire dans le cadre d’accords internationaux. Le caractère global et de très long terme des effets, et donc des politiques à mettre en oeuvre, demande qu’elles soient coordonnées par des organismes supranationaux qui impliqueront, à côté des États, les entreprises et les citoyens qui ont chacun des rôles cruciaux et complémentaires à jouer.”</li> </ol><h1>U.K. Science Communiqué on Climate Change (Joint Statement of the Royal Society and member organizations, July 2015)</h1> <p><a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <p>In July 2015, the Royal Society and member organizations issued a joint “U.K. Science Communiqué on Climate Change.” In part, that statement reads:</p> <p>“The scientific evidence is now overwhelming that the climate is warming and that human activity is largely responsible for this change through emissions of greenhouse gases.</p> <p>Governments will meet in Paris in November and December this year to negotiate a legally binding and universal agreement on tackling climate change.</p> <p>Any international policy response to climate change must be rooted in the latest scientific evidence. This indicates that if we are to have a reasonable chance of limiting global warming in this century to 2°C relative to the pre-industrial period, we must transition to a zero-carbon world by early in the second half of the century.</p> <p>To achieve this transition, governments should demonstrate leadership by recognising the risks climate change poses, embracing appropriate policy and technological responses, and seizing the opportunities of low-carbon and climate-resilient growth.”</p> <p><u>Signatories</u></p> <ul><li>The Academy of Medical Sciences (UK)</li> <li>The Academy of Social Sciences (UK)</li> <li>The British Academy for the Humanities and Social Sciences</li> <li>The British Ecological Society</li> <li>The Geological Society (UK)</li> <li>The Challenger Society for Marine Sciences</li> <li>The Institution of Civil Engineers (UK)</li> <li>The Institution of Chemical Engineers</li> <li>The Institution of Environmental Sciences</li> <li>The Institute of Physics</li> <li>The Learned Society of Wales</li> <li>London Mathematical Society</li> <li>Royal Astronomical Society</li> <li>Royal Economic Society</li> <li>Royal Geographic Society</li> <li>Royal Meteorological Society</li> <li>Royal Society</li> <li>Royal Society of Biology</li> <li>Royal Society of Chemistry</li> <li>Royal Society of Edinburgh</li> <li>Society for General Microbiology</li> <li>Wellcome Trust</li> <li>Zoological Society of London</li> </ul><h1>Facing critical decisions on climate change (Joint Statement of the European Academies Science Advisory Council and its 29 members, 2015)</h1> <p><a href="http://www.leopoldina.org/de/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/facing-critical-decisions-on-climate-change-in-2015/">http://www.leopoldina.org/de/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/facing-critical-decisions-on-climate-change-in-2015/</a></p> <p><strong>Facing critical decisions on climate change in 2015</strong></p> <p>The science of climate change reported by the IPCC Fourth Assessment (2007) and Fifth Assessment (2014) have been thoroughly evaluated by numerous national academies (e.g. Royal Society/National Academy of Sciences, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) and by international bodies. Advances in science and technology have increased our knowledge of how to mitigate climate change, uncertainties in the scientific analysis continue to be addressed, co-benefits of mitigation to health have been revealed, and new business opportunities have been found. <strong>EASAC remains concerned, however, that progress in turning this substantial evidence base into an international policy response has so far failed to match the full magnitude and urgency of the problem</strong>…</p> <p>Even if emissions of GHG stopped altogether, existing concentrations of GHG in the atmosphere would continue to exert a warming effect for a long time. Whatever measures are put in place to reduce the intensity of global human-induced climate forcing, <strong>building resilience through adaptation</strong> will be necessary to provide more resilience to the risks already emerging as a result of climate change…</p> <p><u>Signatories/Members of the European Academies Science Advisory Council</u></p> <ul><li>Academia Europaea</li> <li>All European Academies (ALLEA)</li> <li>The Austrian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium</li> <li>The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts</li> <li>The Czech Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters</li> <li>The Estonian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The<u> </u>Council of Finnish Academies</li> <li>The German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina</li> <li>The Academy of Athens</li> <li>The Hungarian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Royal Irish Academy</li> <li>The Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei</li> <li>The Latvian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Lithuanian Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences</li> <li>The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters</li> <li>The Polish Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Academy of Sciences of Lisbon</li> <li>The Romanian Academy</li> <li>The Slovak Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts</li> <li>The Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences</li> <li>The Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences</li> <li>The Royal Society</li> <li>The Federation of European Academies of Medicine (FEAM) (Observer)</li> </ul><p> </p> <p><em>[This list is not a complete summary of the many individual or joint statements of national academies of sciences. Please send additions and corrections to <a href="mailto:pgleick@pacinst.org">pgleick@pacinst.org</a>)</em></p> <p><em>[This post was edited on May 4, 2017 to correct a misspelling in the graphic.]</em></p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/pgleick">pgleick</a></span> <span>Tue, 01/17/2017 - 07:23</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Categories</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/channel/environment" hreflang="en">Environment</a></div> </div> </div> Tue, 17 Jan 2017 12:23:49 +0000 pgleick 71136 at https://scienceblogs.com Statements on Climate Change from Major Scientific Academies, Societies, and Associations (January 2017 update) https://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2017/01/07/statements-on-climate-change-from-major-scientific-academies-societies-and-associations-january-2017-update <span>Statements on Climate Change from Major Scientific Academies, Societies, and Associations (January 2017 update)</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>(Updated January 2017 by Dr. Peter Gleick, Pacific Institute)</strong></span></p> <p>Scientific understanding of the role of humans in influencing and altering the global climate has been evolving for over a century. That understanding is now extremely advanced, combining hundreds of years of observations of many different climatic variables, millions of years of paleoclimatic evidence of past natural climatic variations, extended application of fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes, and the most sophisticated computer modeling ever conducted.</p> <p>There is no longer any reasonable doubt that humans are altering the climate, that those changes will grow in scope and severity in the future, and that the economic, ecological, and human health consequences will be severe. While remaining scientific uncertainties are still being studied and analyzed, the state of the science has for several decades been sufficient to support implementing local, national, and global policies to address growing climate risks. This is the conclusion of scientific studies, syntheses, and reports to policymakers extending back decades.</p> <p>Because of the strength of the science, and the depth of the consensus about climate change, the scientific community has worked hard to clearly and consistently present the state of understanding to the public and policymakers to help them make informed decisions. The scientific community does this in various ways. Individual scientists speak out, presenting scientific results to journalists and the public. Scientists and scientific organizations prepare, debate, and publish scientific statements and declarations based on their expertise and concerns. And national scientific organizations, especially the formal “Academies of Sciences,” prepare regular reports on climate issues that are syntheses of all relevant climate science and knowledge.</p> <p>The number and scope of these statements is truly impressive. Not a single major scientific organization or national academy of science on earth denies that the climate is changing, that humans are responsible, and that some form of action should be taken to address the risks to people and the planet.</p> <p>This consensus is not to be taken lightly. Indeed, this consensus is an extraordinarily powerful result given the contentious nature of science and the acclaim that accrues to scientists who find compelling evidence that overthrows an existing paradigm (as Galileo, Darwin, Einstein, Wegener, and others did in their fields).</p> <p>In a peculiar twist, some have tried to argue that acceptance of the strength of the evidence and the massive consensus in the geoscience community about human-caused climate change is simply “argument from consensus” or “argument from authority” – a classic potential “logical fallacy.” Indeed, the mere fact that nearly 100 percent of climate and geoscience professions believe humans are changing the climate does not guarantee that the belief is correct. But arguing that something is false simply because there is a strong consensus <strong><em>for</em></strong> it is an even worse logical fallacy, especially when the consensus is based on deep, extensive, and constantly tested scientific evidence.</p> <p>In fact, this false argument has a name: the <strong><em>Galileo Gambit</em></strong>. It is used by those who deny well-established scientific principles such as the theory of climate change as follows: Because Galileo was mocked and criticized for his views by a majority, but later shown to be right, current minority views that are mocked and criticized must also be right. The obvious flaw in the Galileo Gambit is that being criticized for one’s views does not correlate with being right – especially when the criticism is based on scientific evidence. Galileo was right because <strong><em>the scientific evidence supported him</em></strong>, not because <strong><em>he was mocked and criticized</em></strong>. The late professor Carl Sagan addressed this use of the Galileo Gambit in a humorous way when he noted:</p> <blockquote><p>“But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown.” (<em>Broca’s Brain</em>, 1979)</p></blockquote> <p>These statements and declarations about climate change by the world’s leading scientific organizations represent the most compelling summary of the state of knowledge and concern about the global geophysical changes now underway, and they provide the foundation and rationale for actions now being debated and implemented around the world. The world ignores them at its peril.</p> <p>Here, based on information available as of early January 2017, is a synthesis, listing, and links for these public positions and declarations. These statements are summarized below for more than 140 of the planet’s national academies and top scientific health, geosciences, biological, chemical, physical, agricultural, and engineering organizations. Each statement is archived online as noted in the links. Abbreviated sections of statements only are presented, but readers should consult the full statements for context and content. Also, scientific organizations and committees periodically update, revise, edit, and re-issue position statements. Please send me any corrections, updates, additions, and changes.</p> <div style="width: 488px;"><img class=" wp-image-644" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2017/01/2017-scientific-organizations-climate-change-statements-330x400.jpg" alt="A list of scientific, engineering, and health organizations that have issued statements about human-caused climate change (as of January 2017)." width="478" height="580" /><em>A list of scientific, engineering, and health organizations that have issued statements about human-caused climate change (as of January 2017).</em> </div> <h1></h1> <h1>Allergy and Asthma Network</h1> <h2>April 2016</h2> <p>The AAN is a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>American Academy of Pediatrics</h1> <h2>November 2015</h2> <p><a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/136/5/992">http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/136/5/992</a></p> <p>Rising global temperatures are causing major physical, chemical, and ecological changes in the planet. There is wide consensus among scientific organizations and climatologists that these broad effects, known as “climate change,” are the result of contemporary human activity. Climate change poses threats to human health, safety, and security, and children are uniquely vulnerable to these threats…</p> <p>The social foundations of children’s mental and physical health are threatened by the specter of far-reaching effects of unchecked climate change, including community and global instability, mass migrations, and increased conflict. Given this knowledge, failure to take prompt, substantive action would be an act of injustice to all children…</p> <p>Pediatricians have a uniquely valuable role to play in the societal response to this global challenge…</p> <p>[The AAP is also a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a>]</p> <h1>American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)</h1> <h2>December 9, 2006, reaffirmed December 2009</h2> <p><a href="http://www.aaas.org/news/aaas-reaffirms-statements-climate-change-and-integrity">http://www.aaas.org/news/aaas-reaffirms-statements-climate-change-and-integrity</a></p> <p>The scientific evidence is clear: global climate change caused by human activities is occurring now, and it is a growing threat to society. Accumulating data from across the globe reveal a wide array of effects: rapidly melting glaciers, destabilization of major ice sheets, increases in extreme weather, rising sea level, shifts in species ranges, and more. The pace of change and the evidence of harm have increased markedly over the last five years. The time to control greenhouse gas emissions is now.</p> <p>[The AAAS has also signed onto more recent letters on climate from an array of scientific organizations, including the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians</h1> <h2>October 2008</h2> <p><a href="http://www.aawv.net/AAWVPositionClimateChangeFinal.doc">http://www.aawv.net/AAWVPositionClimateChangeFinal.doc</a></p> <p>There is widespread scientific agreement that the world’s climate is changing and that the weight of evidence demonstrates that anthropogenic factors have and will continue to contribute significantly to global warming and climate change. It is anticipated that continuing changes to the climate will have serious negative impacts on public, animal and ecosystem health due to extreme weather events, changing disease transmission dynamics, emerging and re-emerging diseases, and alterations to habitat and ecological systems that are essential to wildlife conservation. Furthermore, there is increasing recognition of the inter-relationships of human, domestic animal, wildlife, and ecosystem health as illustrated by the fact the majority of recent emerging diseases have a wildlife origin. Consequently, there is a critical need to improve capacity to identify, prevent, and respond to climate-related threats.  The following statements present the American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians (AAWV) position on climate change, wildlife diseases, and wildlife health….</p> <h1>American Astronomical Society</h1> <h2>June 2, 2004, Endorsement of AGU Statement on Climate Change</h2> <p>The American Geophysical Union (AGU) notes that human impacts on the climate system include increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which is significantly contributing to the warming of the global climate. The climate system is complex, however, making it difficult to predict detailed outcomes of human-induced change: there is as yet no definitive theory for translating greenhouse gas emissions into forecasts of regional weather, hydrology, or response of the biosphere. As the AGU points out, our ability to predict global climate change, and to forecast its regional impacts, depends directly on improved models and observations.</p> <p>The American Astronomical Society (AAS) joins the AGU in calling for peer-reviewed climate research to inform climate-related policy decisions, and, as well, to provide a basis for mitigating the harmful effects of global change and to help communities adapt and become resilient to extreme climatic events.</p> <p>In endorsing the "Human Impacts on Climate" statement, the AAS recognizes the collective expertise of the AGU in scientific subfields central to assessing and understanding global change, and acknowledges the strength of agreement among our AGU colleagues that the global climate is changing and human activities are contributing to that change.</p> <h1>American Chemical Society</h1> <h2>Policy Statement 2013-2016</h2> <p><a href="https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/policy/publicpolicies/promote/globalclimatechange.html">https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/policy/publicpolicies/promote/globalclimatechange.html</a></p> <p>Careful and comprehensive scientific assessments have clearly demonstrated that the Earth’s climate system is changing in response to growing atmospheric burdens of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and absorbing aerosol particles. (IPCC, 2007) Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for—and in many cases is already affecting—a broad range of human and natural systems. (NRC, 2010a) The potential threats are serious and actions are required to mitigate climate change risks and to adapt to deleterious climate change impacts that probably cannot be avoided. (NRC, 2010b, c)</p> <p>This statement reviews key probable climate change impacts and recommends actions required to mitigate or adapt to current and anticipated consequences.</p> <p>Climate Change Impacts</p> <p>…comprehensive scientific assessments of our current and potential future climates clearly indicate that climate change is real, largely attributable to emissions from human activities, and potentially a very serious problem. This sober conclusion has been recently reconfirmed by an in-depth set of studies focused on “America’s Climate Choices” (ACC) conducted by the U.S. National Academies (NRC, 2010a, b, c, d). The ACC studies, performed by independent and highly respected teams of scientists, engineers, and other skilled professionals, reached the same general conclusions that were published in the latest comprehensive assessment conducted by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007)…</p> <p>The range of observed and potential climate change impacts identified by the ACC assessment include a warmer climate with more extreme weather events, significant sea level rise, more constrained fresh water sources, deterioration or loss of key land and marine ecosystems, and reduced food resources— many of which may pose serious public health threats. (NRC, 2010a) The effects of an unmitigated rate of climate change on key Earth system components, ecological systems, and human society over the next 50 years are likely to be severe and possibly irreversible on century time scales…</p> <p>[The ACS has also signed onto more recent letters on climate from an array of scientific organizations, including the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>American College of Preventive Medicine</h1> <h2>February 24, 2006, Policy Number 2006-002C</h2> <p><a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20060925182111/http:/www.acpm.org/2006-002(C).htm">http://web.archive.org/web/20060925182111/http://www.acpm.org/2006-002(C).htm</a></p> <p><u>Climate Change-Abrupt Climate Change and Public Health Implications</u></p> <p>BE IT RESOLVED,</p> <p>THAT: The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) accept the position that global warming and climate change is occurring, that there is potential for abrupt climate change, and that human practices that increase greenhouse gases exacerbate the problem, and that the public health consequences may be severe.</p> <p>THAT: The ACPM staff and appropriate committees continue to explore opportunities to address this matter, including sessions at Preventive Medicine conferences and the development of a policy position statement as well as other modes of communicating this issue to the ACPM membership.</p> <p>[The ACPM is also a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a>]</p> <h1>American Geophysical Union</h1> <h2>Adopted by the American Geophysical Union December 2003; Revised and Reaffirmed December 2007, February 2012, August 2013.</h2> <p><a href="http://sciencepolicy.agu.org/files/2013/07/AGU-Climate-Change-Position-Statement_August-2013.pdf">http://sciencepolicy.agu.org/files/2013/07/AGU-Climate-Change-Position-Statement_August-2013.pdf</a></p> <p><u>Human‐Induced Climate Change Requires Urgent Action</u></p> <p>Humanity is the major influence on the global climate change observed over the past 50 years. Rapid societal responses can significantly lessen negative outcomes. Human activities are changing Earth’s climate. At the global level, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other heat‐trapping greenhouse gases have increased sharply since the Industrial Revolution. Fossil fuel burning dominates this increase.</p> <p>Human‐caused increases in greenhouse gases are responsible for most of the observed global average surface warming of roughly 0.8°C (1.5°F) over the past 140 years. Because natural processes cannot quickly remove some of these gases (notably carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere, our past, present, and future emissions will influence the climate system for millennia.</p> <p>Extensive, independent observations confirm the reality of global warming. These observations show large‐scale increases in air and sea temperatures, sea level, and atmospheric water vapor; they document decreases in the extent of mountain glaciers, snow cover, permafrost, and Arctic sea ice. These changes are broadly consistent with long understood physics and predictions of how the climate system is expected to respond to human‐caused increases in greenhouse gases. The changes are inconsistent with explanations of climate change that rely on known natural influences…</p> <p>[The AGU has also signed onto more recent letters on climate from an array of scientific organizations, including the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>American Institute of Biological Sciences</h1> <p>[The AIBS is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>American Institute of Physics</h1> <h2>2004</h2> <p><a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20050217173516/http:/www.aip.org/fyi/2004/042.html">https://web.archive.org/web/20050217173516/http://www.aip.org/fyi/2004/042.html</a></p> <p>The Governing Board of the American Institute of Physics has endorsed a position statement on climate change adopted by the American Geophysical Union (AGU) Council in December 2003. AGU is one of ten Member Societies of the American Institute of Physics. The statement follows:</p> <p><strong>Human Impacts on Climate</strong></p> <p>Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. These effects add to natural influences that have been present over Earth's history. Scientific evidence strongly indicates that natural influences cannot explain the rapid increase in global near-surface temperatures observed during the second half of the 20th century.</p> <p>Human impacts on the climate system include increasing concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons and their substitutes, methane, nitrous oxide, etc.), air pollution, increasing concentrations of airborne particles, and land alteration. A particular concern is that atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide may be rising faster than at any time in Earth's history, except possibly following rare events like impacts from large extraterrestrial objects…</p> <h1>American Lung Association</h1> <p>The ALA is a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>American Medical Association</h1> <h2>April 4, 2011</h2> <p><a href="http://www.amednews.com/article/20110404/opinion/304049959/4/">http://www.amednews.com/article/20110404/opinion/304049959/4/</a></p> <p><u>Editorial: Confronting Health Issues of Climate Change</u></p> <p>If physicians want evidence of climate change, they may well find it in their own offices. Patients are presenting with illnesses that once happened only in warmer areas. Chronic conditions are becoming aggravated by more frequent and extended heat waves. Allergy and asthma seasons are getting longer. Spates of injuries are resulting from more intense ice storms and snowstorms.</p> <p>Scientific evidence shows that the world's climate is changing and that the results have public health consequences. The American Medical Association is working to ensure that physicians and others in health care understand the rise in climate-related illnesses and injuries so they can prepare and respond to them. The Association also is promoting environmentally responsible practices that would reduce waste and energy consumption.</p> <h2>April 2016</h2> <p><a href="https://assets.ama-assn.org/sub/advocacy-update/2016-04-28.html">https://assets.ama-assn.org/sub/advocacy-update/2016-04-28.html</a></p> <p><u>Amicus Brief filed before the Supreme Court in support of the Clean Power Plan.</u></p> <p>Failure to uphold the Clean Power Plan would undermine [the] EPA’s ability to carry out its legal obligation to regulate carbon emissions that endanger human health and would negatively impact the health of current and future generations.</p> <p>Carbon emissions are a significant driver of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change and consequently harm human health. Direct impacts from the changing climate include health-related illness, declining air quality and increased respiratory and cardiovascular illness. Changes in climate also facilitate the migration of mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue fever, malaria and most recently the Zika Virus.</p> <p>“In surveys conducted by three separate U.S. medical professional societies,” the brief said, “a significant majority of surveyed physicians concurred that climate change is occurring … is having a direct impact on the health of their patients, and that physicians anticipate even greater climate-driven adverse human health impacts in the future.”</p> <h1>American Meteorological Society</h1> <h2>August 20, 2012 Statement</h2> <p><em>[This statement is considered in force until August 2017 unless superseded by a new statement issued by the AMS Council before this date.]</em></p> <p><a href="https://www.ametsoc.org/ams/index.cfm/about-ams/ams-statements/statements-of-the-ams-in-force/climate-change/">https://www.ametsoc.org/ams/index.cfm/about-ams/ams-statements/statements-of-the-ams-in-force/climate-change/</a></p> <p>…Warming of the climate system now is unequivocal, according to many different kinds of evidence.  Observations show increases in globally averaged air and ocean temperatures, as well as widespread melting of snow and ice and rising globally averaged sea level. Surface temperature data for Earth as a whole, including readings over both land and ocean, show an increase of about 0.8°C (1.4°F) over the period 1901-2010 and about 0.5°C (0.9°F) over the period 1979–2010 (the era for which satellite-based temperature data are routinely available). Due to natural variability, not every year is warmer than the preceding year globally. Nevertheless, all of the 10 warmest years in the global temperature records up to 2011 have occurred since 1997, with 2005 and 2010 being the warmest two years in more than a century of global records. The warming trend is greatest in northern high latitudes and over land. In the U.S., most of the observed warming has occurred in the West and in Alaska; for the nation as a whole, there have been twice as many record daily high temperatures as record daily low temperatures in the first decade of the 21st century…</p> <p><strong> </strong>There is unequivocal evidence that Earth’s lower atmosphere, ocean, and land surface are warming; sea level is rising; and snow cover, mountain glaciers, and Arctic sea ice are shrinking. The dominant cause of the warming since the 1950s is human activities. This scientific finding is based on a large and persuasive body of research. The observed warming will be irreversible for many years into the future, and even larger temperature increases will occur as greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere. Avoiding this future warming will require a large and rapid reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. The ongoing warming will increase risks and stresses to human societies, economies, ecosystems, and wildlife through the 21st century and beyond, making it imperative that society respond to a changing climate. To inform decisions on adaptation and mitigation, it is critical that we improve our understanding of the global climate system and our ability to project future climate through continued and improved monitoring and research. This is especially true for smaller (seasonal and regional) scales and weather and climate extremes, and for important hydroclimatic variables such as precipitation and water availability…</p> <p>Technological, economic, and policy choices in the near future will determine the extent of future impacts of climate change. Science-based decisions are seldom made in a context of absolute certainty. National and international policy discussions should include consideration of the best ways to both adapt to and mitigate climate change. Mitigation will reduce the amount of future climate change and the risk of impacts that are potentially large and dangerous. At the same time, some continued climate change is inevitable, and policy responses should include adaptation to climate change. Prudence dictates extreme care in accounting for our relationship with the only planet known to be capable of sustaining human life.</p> <p>[The AIBS is also a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>American Physical Society</h1> <h2>November 14, 2015</h2> <p><a href="https://www.aps.org/policy/statements/15_3.cfm">https://www.aps.org/policy/statements/15_3.cfm</a></p> <p><u>Statement on Earth’s Changing Climate</u></p> <p>Earth's changing climate is a critical issue and poses the risk of significant environmental, social and economic disruptions around the globe. While natural sources of climate variability are significant, multiple lines of evidence indicate that human influences have had an increasingly dominant effect on global climate warming observed since the mid-twentieth century. Although the magnitudes of future effects are uncertain, human influences on the climate are growing. The potential consequences of climate change are great and the actions taken over the next few decades will determine human influences on the climate for centuries.</p> <p><u>On Climate Science:<br /></u>As summarized in the 2013 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), there continues to be significant progress in climate science. In particular, the connection between rising concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases and the increased warming of the global climate system is more compelling than ever. Nevertheless, as recognized by Working Group 1 of the IPCC, scientific challenges remain in our abilities to observe, interpret, and project climate changes. To better inform societal choices, the APS urges sustained research in climate science.</p> <p><u>On Climate Action:<br /></u>The APS reiterates its 2007 call to support actions that will reduce the emissions, and ultimately the concentration, of greenhouse gases as well as increase the resilience of society to a changing climate, and to support research on technologies that could reduce the climate impact of human activities. …</p> <h1>American Psychological Association</h1> <p>The APA is a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>American Public Health Association</h1> <h2>November 03, 2015 Policy Statement 20157</h2> <p><a href="https://www.apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policy-statements/policy-database/2015/12/03/15/34/public-health-opportunities-to-address-the-health-effects-of-climate-change">https://www.apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policy-statements/policy-database/2015/12/03/15/34/public-health-opportunities-to-address-the-health-effects-of-climate-change</a></p> <p>[This policy builds upon and replaces existing policies 20078 (Addressing the Urgent Threat of Global Climate Change to Public Health and the Environment) and 9510 (Global Climate Change)]</p> <p><u>Public Health Opportunities to Address the Health Effects of Climate Change </u></p> <p>Climate change poses major threats to human health, human and animal populations, ecological stability, and human social, financial, and political stability and well-being. Observed health impacts of climate change include increased heat-related morbidity and mortality, expanded ranges and frequency of infectious disease outbreaks, malnutrition, trauma, violence and political conflict, mental health issues, and loss of community and social connections. Certain populations will experience disproportionate negative effects, including pregnant women, children, the elderly, marginalized groups such as racial and ethnic minorities, outdoor workers, those with chronic diseases, and those in economically disadvantaged communities. Climate change poses significant ethical challenges as well as challenges to global and health equity. The economic risks of inaction may be significant, yet many strategies to combat climate change offer near- and long-term co-benefits to health, producing cost savings that could offset implementation costs. At present, there are major political barriers to adopting strategies to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Recognizing the urgency of the issue and importance of the public health role, APHA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and others have developed resources and tools to help support public health engagement. APHA calls for individual, community, national, and global action to address the health risks posed by climate change. The public health community has critical roles to play, including advocating for action, especially among policymakers; engaging in health prevention and preparedness efforts; conducting surveillance and research on climate change and health; and educating public health professionals.</p> <p>[The APHA is also a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a>]</p> <p>[The APHA is also a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>American Quaternary Association</h1> <h2>September 5, 2006</h2> <p>Letter to EOS of the Council of the AQA</p> <p><a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2006EO360008/epdf">http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2006EO360008/epdf</a></p> <p>The available scientific evidence clearly shows that the Earth on average is becoming warmer… Few credible scientists now doubt that humans have influenced the documented rise of global temperatures since the Industrial Revolution. The first government led U.S. Climate Change Science Program synthesis and assessment report supports the growing body of evidence that warming of the atmosphere, especially over the past 50 years, is directly impacted by human activity.</p> <h1>American Society for Microbiology</h1> <h2>2003 Global Environmental Change Statement</h2> <p><a href="http://www.asm.org/images/docfilename/0000006005/globalwarming%5B1%5D.pdf">http://www.asm.org/images/docfilename/0000006005/globalwarming%5B1%5D.pdf</a></p> <p>In 2003, the ASM issued a policy report in which they recommend “reducing net anthropogenic CO<sub>2</sub> emissions to the atmosphere” and “minimizing anthropogenic disturbances of” atmospheric gases:</p> <p>“Carbon dioxide concentrations were relatively stable for the past 10,000 years but then began to increase rapidly about 150 years ago… as a result of fossil fuel consumption and land use change. Of course, changes in atmospheric composition are but one component of global change, which also includes disturbances in the physical and chemical conditions of the oceans and land surface. Although global change has been a natural process throughout Earth’s history, humans are responsible for substantially accelerating present-day changes. These changes may adversely affect human health and the biosphere on which we depend. Outbreaks of a number of diseases, including Lyme disease, hantavirus infections, dengue fever, bubonic plague, and cholera, have been linked to climate change.”</p> <h1>American Society of Agronomy</h1> <h2>May 2011</h2> <p><a href="https://www.soils.org/files/science-policy/asa-cssa-sssa-climate-change-policy-statement.pdf">https://www.soils.org/files/science-policy/asa-cssa-sssa-climate-change-policy-statement.pdf</a></p> <p>A comprehensive body of scientific evidence indicates beyond reasonable doubt that global climate change is now occurring and that its manifestations threaten the stability of societies as well as natural and managed ecosystems. Increases in ambient temperatures and changes in related processes are directly linked to rising anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. The potential related impacts of climate change on the ability of agricultural systems, which include soil and water resources, to provide food, feed, fiber, and fuel, and maintenance of ecosystem services (e.g., water supply and habitat for crop landraces, wild relatives, and pollinators) as well as the integrity of the environment, are major concerns.</p> <p>Around the world and in the United States (US), agriculture—which is comprised of field, vegetable, and tree crops, as well as livestock production—constitutes a major land use which influences global ecosystems. Globally, crop production occupies approximately 1.8 Billion (B) hectares out of a total terrestrial land surface of about 13.5 B hectares. In addition, animal production utilizes grasslands, rangelands, and savannas, which altogether cover about a quarter of the Earth’s land. Even in 2010, agriculture remains the most basic and common human occupation on the planet and a major contributor to human well-being. Changes in climate are already affecting the sustainability of agricultural systems and disrupting production.</p> <p>[The May 2011 statement was also signed by the Crop Science Society of America and the Soil Science Society of America.]</p> <p>[The ASoA is also a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>American Society of Civil Engineers</h1> <h2>July 18, 2015 Policy Statement 360</h2> <p>There is strong evidence that the climate is changing and will continue to change.  Climate scientists project that there will be substantial increases in temperature with related increases in atmospheric water vapor and increases in extreme precipitation amounts and intensities in most geographic regions as a result of climate change.  However, while there is clear evidence of a changing climate, understanding the significance of climate change at the temporal and spatial scales as it relates to engineering practice is more difficult.</p> <p>There is an increasing demand for engineers to address future climate change into project design criteria; however, current practices and rules governing such practices do not adequately address concerns associated with climate change…</p> <p>Climate change poses a potentially serious impact on worldwide water resources, energy production and use, agriculture, forestry, coastal development and resources, flood control and public infrastructure…</p> <p>The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) supports:</p> <ul><li>Government policies that encourage anticipation of and preparation for impacts of climate change on the built environment.</li> <li>Revisions to engineering design standards, codes, regulations and associated laws that govern infrastructure potentially affected by climate change.</li> <li>Research, development and demonstration to advance recommended civil engineering practices and standards to effectively address climate change impacts.</li> <li>Cooperative research involving engineers with climate, weather, and life scientists to gain a better understanding of the magnitudes and consequences of future extremes.</li> <li>Informing practicing engineers, project stakeholders, policy makers and decision makers about the uncertainty in projecting future climate and the reasons for the uncertainty.</li> <li>Developing a new paradigm for engineering practice in a world in which climate is changing but the extent and time of local impacts cannot be projected with a high degree of certainty.</li> <li>Identifying critical infrastructure that is most threatened by changing climate in a given region and informing decision makers and the public.</li> </ul><h1>American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists</h1> <p>The ASIH is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>American Society of Naturalists</h1> <p>The ASN is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>American Society of Plant Biologists</h1> <p>[The ASPB is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>American Statistical Association</h1> <h2>November 30, 2007</h2> <p>Adopted by the ASA Board of Directors</p> <p><a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130307002012/http:/www.amstat.org/news/climatechange.cfm">https://web.archive.org/web/20130307002012/http://www.amstat.org/news/climatechange.cfm</a></p> <p><u>ASA Statement on Climate Change</u></p> <p>The American Statistical Association (ASA) recently convened a workshop of leading atmospheric scientists and statisticians involved in climate change research. The goal of this workshop was to identify a consensus on the role of statistical science in current assessments of global warming and its impacts. Of particular interest to this workshop was the recently published Fourth Assessment Report of the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), endorsed by more than 100 governments and drawing on the expertise of a large portion of the climate science community.</p> <p>Through a series of meetings spanning several years, IPCC drew in leading experts and assessed the relevant literature in the geosciences and related disciplines as it relates to climate change. The Fourth Assessment Report finds that “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising mean sea level. … Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. … Discernible human influences now extend to other aspects of climate, including ocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes, and wind patterns.</p> <p><strong>The ASA endorses the IPCC conclusions.</strong></p> <p>[The ASA is also a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>American Water Resources Association</h1> <h2>August 5, 2015</h2> <p><a href="http://www.awra.org/policy/policy-statements-leveraging-IWRM.html">http://www.awra.org/policy/policy-statements-leveraging-IWRM.html</a></p> <p>After people, water is our most critical and strategic natural resource, yet the U.S. lack a national strategy for water resources management. In addition, Americans are the world's largest water consumers. Threats of an aging infrastructure, climate change and population growth are so significant that the nation can no longer afford to postpone action. It's imperative that a focused effort be articulated and initiated to create and demonstrate strategies to sustain U.S. water resources. The country's future growth and prosperity depend on it.</p> <h1>American Thoracic Society</h1> <p>The ATS is also a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography</h1> <p>The ASLO is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation</h1> <p>The ATBC is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Association of Ecosystem Research Centers</h1> <p>The AERC is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America</h1> <p>The AAFA is a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>Australian Coral Reef Society</h1> <h2>June 16, 2006</h2> <p><a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20060322170802/http:/www.australiancoralreefsociety.org/pdf/chadwick605a.pdf">https://web.archive.org/web/20060322170802/http://www.australiancoralreefsociety.org/pdf/chadwick605a.pdf</a></p> <p>There is broad scientific consensus that coral reefs are heavily affected by the activities of man and there are significant global influences that can make reefs more vulnerable such as global warming... It is highly likely that coral bleaching has been exacerbated by global warming.</p> <p>There is almost total consensus among experts that the earth’s climate is changing as a result of the build-up of greenhouse gases. The IPCC (involving over 3,000 of the world’s experts) has come out with clear conclusions as to the reality of this phenomenon. One does not have to look further than the collective academy of scientists worldwide to see the string (of) statements on this worrying change to the earth’s atmosphere…</p> <h2>September 1, 2016</h2> <p><a href="http://www.australiancoralreefsociety.org/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=2e52d369-95a0-451a-863d-5cae22ed625e&amp;groupId=10136">http://www.australiancoralreefsociety.org/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=2e52d369-95a0-451a-863d-5cae22ed625e&amp;groupId=10136</a></p> <p><u>Science-based policy plan for the Great Barrier Reef</u></p> <p>Discussion: Advancing Climate Action in Queensland</p> <p>Given the observed damage caused by a temperature increase of ~1°C above pre-industrial levels, we urge all possible actions to keep future warming below the 1.5°C target set by the Paris Agreement. The following proposed initiatives will act to reduce the severity of climate-inflicted damage on reefs, helping to avoid total ecological collapse. The ACRS strongly supports the following proposed actions…</p> <h1>Australian Institute of Physics</h1> <h2>March 10, 2005, Policy Document 1.01</h2> <p><a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20080201000000*/http:/www.aip.org.au/scipolicy/Science%20Policy.pdf">https://web.archive.org/web/20080201000000*/http://www.aip.org.au/scipolicy/Science%20Policy.pdf</a></p> <p>The AIP supports a reduction of the green house gas emissions that are leading to increased global temperatures, and encourages research that works towards this goal…</p> <p>Research in Australia and overseas shows that an increase in global temperature will adversely affect the Earth’s climate patterns. The melting of the polar ice caps, combined with thermal expansion, will lead to rises in sea levels that may impact adversely on our coastal cities. The impact of these changes on biodiversity will fundamentally change the ecology of Earth…</p> <h1>Australian Medical Association</h1> <h2>August 28, 2015</h2> <p><a href="https://ama.com.au/position-statement/ama-position-statement-climate-change-and-human-health-2004-revised-2015">https://ama.com.au/position-statement/ama-position-statement-climate-change-and-human-health-2004-revised-2015</a></p> <p>Human health is ultimately dependent on the health of the planet and its ecosystem. The AMA recognises the latest findings regarding the science of climate change, the role of humans, past observations and future projections. The consequences of climate change have serious direct and indirect, observed and projected health impacts both globally and in Australia. There is inequity in the distribution of these health impacts both within and between countries, with some groups being particularly vulnerable. In recognition of these issues surrounding climate change and health, the AMA believes that:</p> <ul><li>because climate change involves potentially serious or irreversible harm to the environment and to human health, urgent international cooperation is essential to mitigate climate change. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions within a global carbon budget is necessary to prevent further climate harm as a result of human activity.</li> <li>Australia should adopt mitigation targets within an Australian carbon budget that represents Australia’s fair share of global greenhouse gas emissions, under the principle of common but differential responsibilities.</li> <li>climate policies can have public health benefits beyond their intended impact on the climate. These health benefits should be promoted as a public health opportunity, with significant potential to offset some costs associated with addressing climate change.</li> <li>the health impacts of climate change and the health co-benefits of climate mitigation policies both bear economic costs and savings. Economic evaluations of the costs and benefits of climate policies must therefore incorporate the predicted public health impact accrued from such policies and the public health costs of unmitigated climate change.</li> <li>Regional and national collaboration across all sectors, including a comprehensive and broad reaching adaptation plan is necessary to reduce the health impacts of climate change. This requires a National Strategy for Health and Climate Change.</li> <li>there should be greater education and awareness of the health impacts of climate change, and the public health benefits of mitigation and adaptation.</li> <li>renewable energy presents relative benefits compared to fossil fuels with regard to air pollution and health. Therefore, active transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources should be considered.</li> <li>decarbonisation of the economy can potentially result in unemployment and subsequent adverse health impacts. The transition of workers displaced from carbon intensive industries must be effectively managed.</li> </ul><h1>Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society</h1> <h2>February 2, 2016</h2> <p><a href="http://www.amos.org.au/Main/About_us/Statements/Main/Statements.aspx?hkey=2f71e26e-372c-41b2-a1e0-700d89c3d4f5">http://www.amos.org.au/Main/About_us/Statements/Main/Statements.aspx?hkey=2f71e26e-372c-41b2-a1e0-700d89c3d4f5</a></p> <p><strong> </strong>Statement on Climate Change</p> <p>Global climate has changed substantially. Global climate change and global warming are real and observable…</p> <p>Human influence has been detected in the warming of the atmosphere and the ocean globally, and in Australia. It is now certain that the human activities that have increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere contribute significantly to observed warming. Further it is extremely likely that these human activities are responsible for most of the observed global warming since 1950. The warming associated with increases in greenhouse gases originating from human activity is called the enhanced greenhouse effect….</p> <p>Our climate is very likely to continue to change as a result of human activity.</p> <p>Global temperature increases are already set to continue until at least the middle of this century even if emissions were reduced to zero. The magnitude of warming and related changes can be limited depending on the total amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases ultimately emitted as a result of human activities; future climate scenarios depend critically on future changes in emissions…</p> <h1>BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium</h1> <p>BioQUEST is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Botanical Society of America</h1> <p>The BSA is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences</h1> <h2>November 25, 2005</h2> <p><a href="https://scentofpine.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/cfcas-letter-to-canadian-prime-minister-paul-martin-nov-2005.pdf">https://scentofpine.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/cfcas-letter-to-canadian-prime-minister-paul-martin-nov-2005.pdf</a></p> <p>We, the members of the Board of Trustees of CFCAS and Canadian climate science leaders from the public and academic sectors in Canada, concur with The Joint Science Academies statement that <em>"climate change is real" </em>and note that the 2004 Arctic Climate Impact Assessment concluded that Arctic temperatures have risen at almost twice the rate of the rest of the world over the past few decades. Furthermore, we endorse the assessment of climate science undertaken by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its conclusion that "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities."</p> <p>There is now increasing unambiguous evidence of a changing climate in Canada and around the world… There is an increasing urgency to act on the threat of climate change. Significant steps are needed to stop the growth in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations by reducing emissions. Since mitigation measures will become effective only after many years, adaptive strategies as well are of great importance and need to begin now….</p> <h1>Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society</h1> <h2>2013-2014</h2> <p><a href="http://www.cmos.ca/site/ps_pos_statements?a=7">http://www.cmos.ca/site/ps_pos_statements?a=7</a></p> <p><u>Updated Statement on Human-Induced Climate Change</u></p> <p>…Since the industrial revolution of the early 19th century, human activities have also markedly influenced the climate. This well-documented human-induced change is large and very rapid in comparison to past changes in the Earth's climate…</p> <p>Even if the human-induced emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere were to cease today, past emissions have committed the world to long-term changes in climate. Carbon dioxide emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels will remain in the atmosphere for centuries to millennia, and the slow ocean response to atmospheric warming will cause the climate change to persist even longer. Further CO2 emissions will lead to greater human-induced change in proportion to total cumulative emissions. Meaningful interventions to mitigate climate change require a reduction in emissions. To avoid societally, economically, and ecologically disruptive changes to the Earth's climate, we will have little choice but to leave much of the unextracted fossil fuel carbon in the ground…</p> <p>The urgent challenges for the global community, and Canadians in particular, are to learn how to adapt to the climate changes to which we are already committed and to develop effective and just responses to avoid further damaging climate change impacts for both present and future generations.</p> <h1>Consortium for Ocean Leadership</h1> <p>The COL is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Crop Science Society of America</h1> <h2>May 2011</h2> <p><a href="https://www.soils.org/files/science-policy/asa-cssa-sssa-climate-change-policy-statement.pdf">https://www.soils.org/files/science-policy/asa-cssa-sssa-climate-change-policy-statement.pdf</a></p> <p>A comprehensive body of scientific evidence indicates beyond reasonable doubt that global climate change is now occurring and that its manifestations threaten the stability of societies as well as natural and managed ecosystems. Increases in ambient temperatures and changes in related processes are directly linked to rising anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. The potential related impacts of climate change on the ability of agricultural systems, which include soil and water resources, to provide food, feed, fiber, and fuel, and maintenance of ecosystem services (e.g., water supply and habitat for crop landraces, wild relatives, and pollinators) as well as the integrity of the environment, are major concerns.</p> <p>Around the world and in the United States (US), agriculture—which is comprised of field, vegetable, and tree crops, as well as livestock production—constitutes a major land use which influences global ecosystems. Globally, crop production occupies approximately 1.8 Billion (B) hectares out of a total terrestrial land surface of about 13.5 B hectares. In addition, animal production utilizes grasslands, rangelands, and savannas, which altogether cover about a quarter of the Earth’s land. Even in 2010, agriculture remains the most basic and common human occupation on the planet and a major contributor to human well-being. Changes in climate are already affecting the sustainability of agricultural systems and disrupting production.</p> <p>[The May 2011 Statement was also signed by the American Society of Agronomy and the Soil Science Society of America.]</p> <p>[The CSSA is also a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>Ecological Society of America</h1> <h2>(As of January 2017)</h2> <p><a href="http://www.esa.org/esa/esa-position-statement-ecosystem-management-in-a-changing-climate/">http://www.esa.org/esa/esa-position-statement-ecosystem-management-in-a-changing-climate/</a></p> <p><u>ESA Position Statement: Ecosystem Management in a Changing Climate</u></p> <p>Ecosystems are already responding to climate change. Continued warming—some of which is now unavoidable—may impair the ability of many such systems to provide critical resources and services like food, clean water, and carbon sequestration. Buffering against the impacts of climate change will require new strategies to both mitigate the extent of change and adapt to changes that are inevitable. The sooner such strategies are deployed, the more effective they will be in reducing irreversible damage.</p> <p>Ecosystems can be managed to limit and adapt to both the near- and long-term impacts of climate change. Strategies that focus on restoring and maintaining natural ecosystem function (reducing deforestation, for example) are the most prudent; strategies that drastically alter ecosystems may have significant and unpredictable impacts…</p> <p><u>The Reality of Climate Change</u></p> <p>The Earth is warming— average global temperatures have increased by 0.74°C (1.3°F) in the past 100 years. The scientific community agrees that catastrophic and possibly irreversible environmental change will occur if average global temperatures rise an additional 2°C (3.6°F). Warming to date has already had significant impacts on the Earth and its ecosystems, including increased droughts, rising sea levels, disappearing glaciers, and changes in the distribution and seasonal activities of many species…</p> <p><u>The Source of Climate Change</u></p> <p>Most warming seen since the mid 1900s is very likely due to greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. Global emissions have risen rapidly since pre-industrial times, increasing 70% between 1970 and 2004 alone…</p> <p><u>The Future of Climate Change: </u></p> <p>Even if greenhouse gas emissions stop immediately, global temperatures will continue to rise at least for the next 100 years. Depending on the extent and effectiveness of climate change mitigation strategies, global temperatures could rise 1-6°C (2-10°F) by the end of the 21st century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Swift and significant emissions reductions will be vital in minimizing the impacts of warming…</p> <p>[The ESA is also a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>Engineers Australia (The Institution of Engineers Australia)</h1> <h2>November 2014</h2> <p><a href="https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/sites/default/files/climate_change_policy_nov_2014.pdf">https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/sites/default/files/climate_change_policy_nov_2014.pdf</a></p> <p>Engineers Australia accepts the comprehensive scientific basis regarding climate change, the influence of anthropogenic global warming, and that climate change can have very serious community consequences.</p> <p>Engineers are uniquely placed to provide both mitigation and adaptation solutions for this serious global problem, as well as address future advances in climate change science.</p> <p>This Climate Change Policy Statement has been developed to enable organisational governance on the problem, and provide support for members in the discipline and practice of the engineering profession.</p> <p><u>Context </u></p> <p>Building upon a long history of Engineers Australia policy development, and as the largest technically informed professional body in Australia, Engineers Australia advocates that Engineers must act proactively to address climate change as an ecological, social and economic risk…</p> <h1>Entomological Society of America</h1> <p>The ESA is also a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>European Academy of Sciences and Arts</h1> <h2>March 3, 2007</h2> <p><a href="http://www.euro-acad.eu/downloads/memorandas/lets_be_honest_-_festplenum_03.03.07_-_final2.pdf">http://www.euro-acad.eu/downloads/memorandas/lets_be_honest_-_festplenum_03.03.07_-_final2.pdf</a></p> <p>Human activity is most likely responsible for climate warming. Most of the climatic warming over the last 50 years is likely to have been caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Documented long-term climate changes include changes in Arctic temperatures and ice, widespread changes in precipitation amounts, ocean salinity, wind patterns and extreme weather including droughts, heavy precipitation, heat waves and the intensity of tropical cyclones. The above development potentially has dramatic consequences for mankind’s future…</p> <h1>European Federation of Geologists</h1> <h2>January 23, 2008</h2> <p><a href="http://eurogeologists.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Position-Paper_Carbon-Capture-and-geological-Storage.pdf">http://eurogeologists.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Position-Paper_Carbon-Capture-and-geological-Storage.pdf</a></p> <p>The EFG recognizes the work of the IPCC and other organizations, and subscribes to the major findings that climate change is happening, is predominantly caused by anthropogenic emissions of CO2, and poses a significant threat to human civilization. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions come from fossil carbon sources, such as coal, oil, natural gas, limestone and carbonate rocks. Thriving and developing economies currently depend on these resources. Since geologists play a crucial role in their exploration and exploitation, we feel praised by the increasing welfare, but also implicated by the carbon curse.</p> <p>It is clear that major efforts are necessary to quickly and strongly reduce CO2 emissions. The EFG strongly advocates renewable and sustainable energy production, including geothermal energy, as well as the need for increasing energy efficiency.</p> <h1>European Geosciences Union</h1> <h2>November 2008</h2> <p><a href="http://www.egu.eu/about/statements/egu-position-statement-on-ocean-acidification/">http://www.egu.eu/about/statements/egu-position-statement-on-ocean-acidification/</a></p> <p><u>EGU position statement on climate/ocean acidification </u></p> <p>Impacts of ocean acidification may be just as dramatic as those of global warming (resulting from anthropogenic activities on top of natural variability) and the combination of both are likely to exacerbate consequences, resulting in potentially profound changes throughout marine ecosystems and in the services that they provide to humankind...</p> <p>Since the beginning of the industrial revolution the release of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) from our industrial and agricultural activities has resulted in atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations that have increased from approximately 280 to 385 parts per million (ppm). The atmospheric concentration of CO<sub>2</sub> is now higher than experienced on Earth for at least the last 800,000 years (direct ice core evidence) and probably the last 25 million years, and is expected to continue to rise at an increasing rate, leading to significant temperature increases in the atmosphere and ocean in the coming decades…</p> <p>Ocean acidification is already occurring today and will continue to intensify, closely tracking atmospheric CO2 increase. Given the potential threat to marine ecosystems and its ensuing impact on human society and economy, especially as it acts in conjunction with anthropogenic global warming, there is an urgent need for immediate action.</p> <p>This rather new recognition that, in addition to the impact of CO<sub>2</sub> as a greenhouse gas on global climate change, OA is a <strong>direct</strong> consequence of the absorption of anthropogenic CO<sub>2</sub> emissions, will hopefully help to set in motion an even more stringent CO<sub>2</sub> mitigation policy worldwide. The only solutions to avoid excessive OA are a long-term mitigation strategy to limit future release of CO<sub>2</sub> to the atmosphere and/or enhance removal of excess CO<sub>2</sub> from the atmosphere.</p> <h1>European Physical Society</h1> <h2>November 2007</h2> <p><a href="http://archive.iupap.org/epspositionpaper.pdf">http://archive.iupap.org/epspositionpaper.pdf</a></p> <p>The emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, among which carbon dioxide is the main contributor, has amplified the natural greenhouse effect and led to global warming. The main contribution stems from burning fossil fuels. A further increase will have decisive effects on life on earth. An energy cycle with the lowest possible CO2 emission is called for wherever possible to combat climate change.</p> <h2>2015 Statement</h2> <p><a href="http://www.eps.org/resource/resmgr/policy/eps-pp-EuropeanEnergyPol2015.pdf">http://www.eps.org/resource/resmgr/policy/eps-pp-EuropeanEnergyPol2015.pdf</a></p> <p>The forthcoming United Nations Climate Change Conference (Paris, December 2015) will be held with the objective of achieving a binding and global agreement on climate-related policy from all nations of the world. This conference, seeking to protect the climate, will be a great opportunity to find solutions in the human quest for sustainable energy as a global endeavour. The Energy Group of the European Physical Society (EPS) welcomes the energy policy of the European Union (EU) to promote renewable energies for electricity generation, together with energy efficiency measures. This policy needs to be implemented by taking into account the necessary investments and the impact on the economical position of the EU in the world. Since the direct impact of any EU energy policy on world CO2 emissions is rather limited, the best strategy is to take the lead in mitigating climate change and in developing an energy policy that offers an attractive and economically viable model with reduced CO2 emissions and lower energy dependence…</p> <h1>European Science Foundation</h1> <h2>2007</h2> <p><a href="http://archives.esf.org/fileadmin/Public_documents/Publications/MB_Climate_Change_Web.pdf">http://archives.esf.org/fileadmin/Public_documents/Publications/MB_Climate_Change_Web.pdf</a></p> <p>The scientific evidence is now overwhelming that climate change is a serious global threat which requires an urgent global response, and that climate change is driven by human activity… Enough is now known to make climate change the challenge of the 21st century, and the research community is poised to address this challenge…</p> <p>There is now convincing evidence that since the industrial revolution, human activities, resulting in increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases have become a major agent of climate change. These greenhouse gases affect the global climate by retaining heat in the troposphere, thus raising the average temperature of the planet and altering global atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns.</p> <p>While on-going national and international actions to curtail and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are essential, the levels of greenhouse gases currently in the atmosphere, and their impact, are likely to persist for several decades. On-going and increased efforts to mitigate climate change through reduction in greenhouse gases are therefore crucial…</p> <h1>European Space Sciences Committee</h1> <h2>December 2015</h2> <p><a href="http://archives.esf.org/media-centre/ext-single-news/article/essc-statement-on-climate-change-1096.html">http://archives.esf.org/media-centre/ext-single-news/article/essc-statement-on-climate-change-1096.html</a></p> <p>The European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) supports the Article (2) agreement on climate change of the Declaration of the ‘2015 Budapest World Science Forum on the enabling power of science’ urges such a universal agreement aiming at stabilising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and reducing the amount of airborne particles.</p> <p>The ESSC encourages countries to reduce their emissions in order to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, which could lead to disastrous consequences. Such consequences, albeit from natural evolution, are witnessed in other objects of our Solar System.</p> <h1>Federation of Australian Scientific and Technological Societies</h1> <h2>September 4, 2008</h2> <p><a href="https://scentofpine.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/fasts-statement-on-climate-change-sep-2008.pdf">https://scentofpine.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/fasts-statement-on-climate-change-sep-2008.pdf</a></p> <p>Global climate change is real and measurable. Since the start of the 20th century, the global mean surface temperature of the Earth has increased by more than 0.7°C and the rate of warming has been largest in the last 30 years… Key vulnerabilities arising from climate change include water resources, food supply, health, coastal settlements, biodiversity and some key ecosystems such as coral reefs and alpine regions. As the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases increases, impacts become more severe and widespread. To reduce the global net economic, environmental and social losses in the face of these impacts, the policy objective must remain squarely focused on returning greenhouse gas concentrations to near pre-industrial levels through the reduction of emissions… The spatial and temporal fingerprint of warming can be traced to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, which are a direct result of burning fossil fuels, broad-scale deforestation and other human activity.</p> <h1>Geological Society of America</h1> <h2>Adopted in October 2006; revised April 2010; March 2013; April 2015</h2> <p>Decades of scientific research have shown that climate can change from both natural and anthropogenic causes. The Geological Society of America (GSA) concurs with assessments by the National Academies of Science (2005), the National Research Council (2011), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2013) and the U.S. Global Change Research Program (Melillo et al., 2014) that global climate has warmed in response to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases. The concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are now higher than they have been for many thousands of years. Human activities (mainly greenhouse-gas emissions) are the dominant cause of the rapid warming since the middle 1900s (IPCC, 2013). If the upward trend in greenhouse-gas concentrations continues, the projected global climate change by the end of the twenty-first century will result in significant impacts on humans and other species. The tangible effects of climate change are already occurring. Addressing the challenges posed by climate change will require a combination of adaptation to the changes that are likely to occur and global reductions of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic sources…</p> <p>[The GSA is also a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>Health Care Without Harm</h1> <p>The HCWH is a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>Health Care Climate Council</h1> <p>The HCCC is a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>Institute of Professional Engineers (New Zealand)</h1> <h2>2001</h2> <p><a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20080815000000*/http:/www.ipenz.org.nz/ipenz/forms/pdfs/Info_Note_6.pdf">https://web.archive.org/web/20080815000000*/http://www.ipenz.org.nz/ipenz/forms/pdfs/Info_Note_6.pdf</a></p> <p>Human activities have increased the concentration of these atmospheric greenhouse gases, and although the changes are relatively small, the equilibrium maintained by the atmosphere is delicate, and so the effect of these changes is significant. The world’s most important greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide, a by-product of the burning of fossil fuels.</p> <p>... Professional engineers commonly deal with risk, and frequently have to make judgments based on incomplete data. The available evidence suggests very strongly that human activities have already begun to make significant changes to the earth’s climate, and that the longterm risk of delaying action is greater than the cost of avoiding/minimising the risk.</p> <h1>InterAcademy Council</h1> <h2>2007</h2> <p><a href="http://www.interacademycouncil.net/24026/25142.aspx">http://www.interacademycouncil.net/24026/25142.aspx</a></p> <p>Scientific evidence is overwhelming that current energy trends are unsustainable.</p> <p>Immediate action is required to effect change in the timeframe needed to address significant ecological, human health and development, and energy security needs. Aggressive changes in policy are thus needed to accelerate the deployment of superior technologies. With a combination of such policies at the local, national, and international level, it should be possible—both technically and economically—to elevate the living conditions of most of humanity, while simultaneously addressing the risks posed by climate change and other forms of energy-related environmental degradation and reducing the geopolitical tensions and economic vulnerabilities generated by existing patterns of dependence on predominantly fossil-fuel resources…</p> <p>The Study Panel believes that, given the dire prospect of climate change, the following three recommendations should be acted upon <em>without delay and simultaneously</em>:</p> <ul><li>Concerted efforts should be mounted to improve energy efficiency and reduce the carbon intensity of the world economy, including the worldwide introduction of price signals for carbon emissions, with consideration of different economic and energy systems in individual countries.</li> <li>Technologies should be developed and deployed for capturing and sequestering carbon from fossil fuels, particularly coal.</li> <li>Development and deployment of renewable energy technologies should be accelerated in an environmentally responsible way.</li> </ul><p>Taking into account the three urgent recommendations above, another recommendation stands out by itself as a moral and social imperative and should be pursued with all means available</p> <h1>International Association for Great Lakes Research</h1> <h2>February 25, 2009</h2> <p><a href="http://iaglr.org/scipolicy/factsheets/iaglr_crossroads_climatechange.pdf">http://iaglr.org/scipolicy/factsheets/iaglr_crossroads_climatechange.pdf</a></p> <p>While the Earth’s climate has changed many times during the planet’s history because of natural factors, including volcanic eruptions and changes in the Earth’s orbit, never before have we observed the present rapid rise in temperature and carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>).</p> <p>Human activities resulting from the industrial revolution have changed the chemical composition of the atmosphere....</p> <p>Deforestation is now the second largest contributor to global warming, after the burning of fossil fuels. These human activities have significantly increased the concentration of “greenhouse gases” in the atmosphere…</p> <p>As the Earth’s climate warms, we are seeing many changes: stronger, more destructive hurricanes; heavier rainfall; more disastrous flooding; more areas of the world experiencing severe drought; and more heat waves.</p> <h1>International Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences</h1> <h2>2007</h2> <p><a href="http://www.caets.org/cms/7122/7735.aspx">http://www.caets.org/cms/7122/7735.aspx</a></p> <p>As reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), most of the observed global warming since the mid-20th century is very likely due to human-produced emission of greenhouse gases and this warming will continue unabated if present anthropogenic emissions continue or, worse, expand without control. CAETS, therefore, endorses the many recent calls to decrease and control greenhouse gas emissions to an acceptable level as quickly as possible.</p> <h1>International Union for Quaternary Research</h1> <p><a href="http://www.inqua.org/files/iscc.pdf">http://www.inqua.org/files/iscc.pdf</a></p> <p><u>Climate change is real </u></p> <p>There is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring. The evidence comes from direct measurements of rising surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures and, indirectly, from increases in average global sea levels, retreating glaciers, and changes in many physical and biological systems. It is very likely that most of the observed increase in global temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is due to human-induced increases in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere (IPCC 2007). Human activities are now causing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases – including carbon dioxide, methane, tropospheric ozone, and nitrous oxide – to rise well above pre-industrial levels.</p> <p>Carbon dioxide levels have increased from 280 ppm in 1750 to over 380 ppm today, higher than any previous levels in at least the past 650,000 years. Increases in greenhouse gases are causing temperatures to rise; the Earth’s surface warmed by approximately 0.6°C over the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has forecast that average global surface temperatures will continue to increase, reaching between 1.1°C and 6.4°C above 1990 levels, by 2100.</p> <p>The uncertainties about the amount of global warming we face in coming decades can be reduced through further scientific research. Part of this research must be better documenting and understanding past climate change. Research on Earth’s climate in the recent geologic past provides insights into ways in which climate can change in the future. It also provides data that contribute to the testing and improvement of the computer models that are used to predict future climate change.</p> <p><u>Reduce the causes of climate change </u></p> <p>The scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action. A lack of full scientific certainty about some aspects of climate change is not a reason for delaying an immediate response that will, at a reasonable cost, prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. It is vital that all nations identify cost-effective steps that they can take now to contribute to substantial and long-term reduction in net global greenhouse gas emissions. Action taken now to reduce significantly the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will lessen the magnitude and rate of climate change. Fossil fuels, which are responsible for most of carbon dioxide emissions produced by human activities, provide valuable resources for many nations and will provide 85% of the world energy demand over the next 25 years (IEA 2004). Minimizing the amount of this carbon dioxide reaching the atmosphere presents a huge challenge but must be a global priority.</p> <h1>International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics</h1> <h2>July 2007</h2> <p><strong>Resolution 6: The Urgency of Addressing Climate Change</strong></p> <p><u>Considering,</u></p> <p>The advances in scientific understanding of the Earth system generated by collaborative international, regional, and national observations and research programs; and</p> <p>The comprehensive and widely accepted and endorsed scientific assessments carried out by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and regional and national bodies, which have firmly established, on the basis of scientific evidence, that human activities are the primary cause of recent climate change;</p> <p><u>Realizing,</u></p> <p>Continuing reliance on combustion of fossil fuels as the world’s primary source of energy will lead to much higher atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, which will, in turn, cause significant increases in surface temperature, sea level, ocean acidification, and their related consequences to the environment and society;</p> <p>Stabilization of climate to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”, as called for in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, will require significant cutbacks in greenhouse gas emissions during the 21st century; and</p> <p>Mitigation of and adaptation to climate change can be made more effective by reducing uncertainties regarding feedbacks and the associated mechanisms;</p> <p><u>Urges,</u></p> <p>Nations collectively to begin to reduce sharply global atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases and absorbing aerosols, with the goal of urgently halting their accumulation in the atmosphere and holding atmospheric levels at their lowest practicable value;</p> <p>National and international agencies to adequately support comprehensive observation and research programs that can clarify the urgency and extent of needed mitigation and promote adaptation to the consequences of climate change;</p> <p>Resource managers, planners, and leaders of public and private organizations to incorporate information on ongoing and projected changes in climate and its ramifications into their decision-making, with goals of limiting emissions, reducing the negative consequences of climate change, and enhancing adaptation, public well-being, safety, and economic vitality; and</p> <p>Organizations around the world to join with IUGG and its member Associations to encourage scientists to communicate freely and widely with public and private decision-makers about the consequences and risks of on-going climate change and actions that can be taken to limit climate change and promote adaptation; and</p> <p><u>Resolves,</u></p> <p>To act with its member Associations to develop and implement an integrated communication and outreach plan to increase public understanding of the nature and implications of human-induced impacts on the Earth system, with the aim of reducing detrimental consequences.</p> <h1>London Mathematical Society</h1> <p>The LMS is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change</p> <p><a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>National Association of County and City Health Officials</h1> <p>The NACCHO is a signatory to the April 2016 declaration: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>National Association of Geoscience Teachers</h1> <h2>November 10, 2008</h2> <p><a href="http://nagt.org/nagt/policy/ps-climate.html">http://nagt.org/nagt/policy/ps-climate.html</a></p> <p>The National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) recognizes: (1) that Earth's climate is changing, (2) that present warming trends are largely the result of human activities, and (3) that teaching climate change science is a fundamental and integral part of earth science education. The core mission of NAGT is to "<em>foster improvement in the teaching of the earth sciences at all levels of formal and informal instruction, to emphasize the cultural significance of the earth sciences and to disseminate knowledge in this field to the general public</em>." The National Science Education Standards call for a populace that understands how scientific knowledge is both generated and verified, and how complex interactions between human activities and the environment can impact the Earth system. Climate is clearly an integral part of the Earth system connecting the physical, chemical and biological components and playing an essential role in how the Earth's environment interacts with human culture and societal development. Thus, climate change science is an essential part of Earth Science education and is fundamental to the mission set forth by NAGT. In recognition of these imperatives, NAGT strongly supports and will work to promote education in the science of climate change, the causes and effects of current global warming, and the immediate need for policies and actions that reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.</p> <h1>National Association of Hispanic Nurses</h1> <p>The NAHN is a signatory to the April 2016 declaration: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>National Association of Marine Laboratories</h1> <p>The NAML is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>National Environmental Health Association</h1> <p>The NEHA is a signatory to the April 2016 declaration: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>National Medical Association</h1> <p>The NMA is a signatory to the April 2016 declaration: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>National Academies of Science (selected joint statements)</h1> <p>Many national science academies have published formal statements and declarations acknowledging the state of climate science, the fact that climate is changing, the compelling evidence that humans are responsible, and the need to debate and implement strategies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. A few examples of joint academy statements are listed here.</p> <h2>2001</h2> <p><a href="http://science.sciencemag.org/content/292/5520/1261">http://science.sciencemag.org/content/292/5520/1261</a></p> <p>Following the release of the third in the ongoing series of international reviews of climate science conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Chang (IPCC), seventeen national science academies issued a joint statement, entitled "The Science of Climate Change," acknowledging the IPCC study to be the scientific consensus on climate change science.</p> <p>The statement was signed by: Australian Academy of Sciences, Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Sciences and the Arts, Brazilian Academy of Sciences, Royal Society of Canada, Caribbean Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, French Academy of Sciences, German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina, Indian National Science Academy, Indonesian Academy of Sciences, Royal Irish Academy, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Italy), Academy of Sciences Malaysia, Academy Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Turkish Academy of Sciences, and Royal Society (UK).</p> <h2>2005</h2> <p><a href="http://nationalacademies.org/onpi/06072005.pdf">http://nationalacademies.org/onpi/06072005.pdf</a></p> <p>Eleven national science academies, including all of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases, signed a statement that the scientific understanding of climate change was sufficiently strong to justify prompt action. The statement explicitly endorsed the IPCC consensus and stated:</p> <p>“…there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring. The evidence comes from direct measurements of rising surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures and from phenomena such as increases in average global sea levels, retreating glaciers, and changes to many physical and biological systems. It is likely that most of the warming in recent decades can be attributed to human activities (IPCC 2001). This warming has already led to changes in the Earth's climate.”</p> <p>The statement was signed by the science academies of: Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.</p> <h2>2007</h2> <p><a href="http://www.pik-potsdam.de/aktuelles/nachrichten/dateien/G8_Academies%20Declaration.pdf">http://www.pik-potsdam.de/aktuelles/nachrichten/dateien/G8_Academies%20Declaration.pdf</a></p> <p>In 2007, seventeen national academies issued a joint declaration reconfirming previous statements and strengthening language based on new research from the fourth assessment report of the IPCC, including the following:</p> <p>"It is unequivocal that the climate is changing, and it is very likely that this is predominantly caused by the increasing human interference with the atmosphere. These changes will transform the environmental conditions on Earth unless counter-measures are taken."</p> <p>The thirteen signatories were the national science academies of Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.</p> <h2>2007</h2> <p><a href="http://www.interacademies.net/File.aspx?id=4825">http://www.interacademies.net/File.aspx?id=4825</a></p> <p>In 2007, the Network of African Science Academies submitted a joint “statement on sustainability, energy efficiency, and climate change:”</p> <p>“A consensus, based on current evidence, now exists within the global scientific community that human activities are the main source of climate change and that the burning of fossil fuels is largely responsible for driving this change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reached this conclusion with “90 percent certainty” in its Fourth Assessment issued earlier this year. The IPCC should be congratulated for the contribution it has made to public understanding of the nexus that exists between energy, climate and sustainability.”</p> <p>The thirteen signatories were the science academies of Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, as well as the African Academy of Sciences.</p> <h2>June 2008</h2> <p><a href="http://www.nationalacademies.org/includes/climatechangestatement.pdf">http://www.nationalacademies.org/includes/climatechangestatement.pdf</a></p> <p>In 2008, the thirteen signers of the 2007 joint academies declaration issued a statement reiterating previous statements and reaffirming “that climate change is happening and that anthropogenic warming is influencing many physical and biological systems.” Among other actions, the declaration urges all nations to “(t)ake appropriate economic and policy measures to accelerate transition to a low carbon society and to encourage and effect changes in individual and national behaviour.”</p> <p>The thirteen signatories were the national science academies of Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.</p> <h2>May 2009</h2> <p>In May 2009, thirteen national academies issued a joint statement that said among other things:</p> <p>“The IPCC 2007 Fourth Assessment of climate change science concluded that large reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases, principally CO2, are needed soon to slow the increase of atmospheric concentrations, and avoid reaching unacceptable levels. However, climate change is happening even faster than previously estimated; global CO2 emissions since 2000 have been higher than even the highest predictions, Arctic sea ice has been melting at rates much faster than predicted, and the rise in the sea level has become more rapid. Feedbacks in the climate system might lead to much more rapid climate changes. The need for urgent action to address climate change is now indisputable.”</p> <p>The thirteen signatories were the national science academies of Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.</p> <h2>2014</h2> <p>In addition to the statement signed in 2001 by the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Sciences and the Arts, the Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres &amp; des Beaux-arts de Belgique (the French language academy in Belgium) issued a formal statement:</p> <p><a href="http://dailyscience.be/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Position-Academie-changements-climatiques.pdf">http://dailyscience.be/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Position-Ac…</a></p> <h2>July 2015</h2> <p><a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <p>In July 2015, the Royal Society and member organizations issued a joint “U.K. Science Communiqué on Climate Change.” In part, that statement reads:</p> <p>“The scientific evidence is now overwhelming that the climate is warming and that human activity is largely responsible for this change through emissions of greenhouse gases.</p> <p>Governments will meet in Paris in November and December this year to negotiate a legally binding and universal agreement on tackling climate change.</p> <p>Any international policy response to climate change must be rooted in the latest scientific evidence. This indicates that if we are to have a reasonable chance of limiting global warming in this century to 2°C relative to the pre-industrial period, we must transition to a zero-carbon world by early in the second half of the century.</p> <p>To achieve this transition, governments should demonstrate leadership by recognising the risks climate change poses, embracing appropriate policy and technological responses, and seizing the opportunities of low-carbon and climate-resilient growth.”</p> <p>It was signed by: The Academy of Medical Sciences (UK), The Academy of Social Sciences (UK), The British Academy for the Humanities and Social Sciences, The British Ecological Society, The Geological Society (UK), The Challenger Society for Marine Sciences, The Institution of Civil Engineers (UK), The Institution of Chemical Engineers, The Institution of Environmental Sciences, The Institute of Physics, The Learned Society of Wales, London Mathematical Society, Royal Astronomical Society, Royal Economic Society, Royal Geographic Society, Royal Meteorological Society, Royal Society, Royal Society of Biology, Royal Society of Chemistry, Royal Society of Edinburgh, Society for General Microbiology, Wellcome Trust, Zoological Society of London</p> <h1>National Research Council (U.S.)</h1> <h2>2010 (one of many statements)</h2> <p><a href="https://www.nap.edu/catalog/12782/advancing-the-science-of-climate-change">https://www.nap.edu/catalog/12782/advancing-the-science-of-climate-change</a></p> <p>Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for -- and in many cases is already affecting -- a broad range of human and natural systems. The compelling case for these conclusions is provided in <em>Advancing the Science of Climate Change</em>, part of a congressionally requested suite of studies known as America's Climate Choices. While noting that there is always more to learn and that the scientific process is never closed, the book shows that hypotheses about climate change are supported by multiple lines of evidence and have stood firm in the face of serious debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations.</p> <p>[The U.S. National Academies of Sciences have also signed a long series of statements with other national academies around the world in support of the state-of-the-science.]</p> <h1>Natural Science Collections Alliance</h1> <p>The NSCA is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>National Society of Professional Engineers</h1> <h2>July 2010</h2> <p><a href="https://www.nspe.org/resources/issues-and-advocacy/take-action/position-statements/air-pollution">https://www.nspe.org/resources/issues-and-advocacy/take-action/position-statements/air-pollution</a></p> <p>Acid rain, toxic air pollutants, and greenhouse gas emissions are a major threat to human health and welfare, as well as plant and animal life. Based on recognized adequate research of the causes and effects of the various forms of air pollution, the federal government should establish environmentally and economically sound standards for the reduction and control of these emissions.</p> <h1>Organization of Biological Field Stations</h1> <p>The OBFS is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Public Health Institute</h1> <p>The PHI is a signatory to the April 2016 declaration: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>Royal Astronomical Society</h1> <p>The RAS is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>Royal Economic Society</h1> <p>The RES is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>Royal Geographic Society</h1> <p>The RGS is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>Royal Meteorological Society</h1> <h2>2007, 2011, 2015</h2> <p><a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110321102247/http:/www.rmets.org/news/detail.php?ID=332">https://web.archive.org/web/20110321102247/http://www.rmets.org/news/detail.php?ID=332</a></p> <p><a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070415000000*/http:/www.rmets.org/pdf/ipcc.pdf">https://web.archive.org/web/20070415000000*/http://www.rmets.org/pdf/ipcc.pdf</a></p> <p>The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is unequivocal in its conclusion that climate change is happening and that humans are contributing significantly to these changes. The evidence, from not just one source but a number of different measurements, is now far greater and the tools we have to model climate change contain much more of our scientific knowledge within them. The world's best climate scientists are telling us it's time to do something about it.</p> <p>Carbon Dioxide is such an important greenhouse gas because there is an increasing amount of it in the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels and it stays in the atmosphere for such a long time; a hundred years or so. The changes we are seeing now in our climate are the result of emissions since industrialisation and we have already set in motion the next 50 years of global warming – what we do from now on will determine how worse it will get.</p> <p>The RMS is also a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>Royal Society (U.K.)</h1> <p>The RS is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <p>Climate change is one of the defining issues of our time. It is now more certain than ever, based on many lines of evidence, that humans are changing Earth’s climate. The atmosphere and oceans have warmed, accompanied by sea-level rise, a strong decline in Arctic sea ice, and other climate-related changes. The evidence is clear.</p> <h1>Royal Society of Biology (Formerly the Institute of Biology)</h1> <p><a href="https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/policy-issues/environmental-sciences/climate-change/climate-change-statement">https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/policy-issues/environmental-sciences/climate-change/climate-change-statement</a></p> <p>We strongly support the introduction of policies to significantly reduce UK and global greenhouse gas emissions, as we feel that the consequences of climate change will be severe.</p> <p>We believe that biologists have a crucial role to play in developing innovative biotechnologies to generate more efficient and environmentally sustainable biofuels, and to capture and store greenhouse gases from power stations and the atmosphere.</p> <p>It is important for the government to continue to consult scientists, to review policy, and to encourage new technologies so as to ensure the best possible strategies are used to combat this complex issue.</p> <p>We are in favour of reducing energy demands, in particular by improvements in public transport and domestic appliances.</p> <p>As some degree of climate change is inevitable, we encourage the development of adaptation strategies to reduce the effects of global warming on our environment.</p> <h2>Current</h2> <p><a href="https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/policy-issues/environmental-sciences/climate-change">https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/policy-issues/environmental-sciences/climate-change</a></p> <p>There is an overwhelming scientific consensus worldwide, and a broad political consensus, that greenhouse gas emissions are affecting global climate, and that measures are needed to reduce these emissions significantly so as to limit the extent of climate change. The term 'climate change' is used predominantly to refer to global warming and its consequences, and this policy briefing will address these issues.</p> <p><u>What is global warming?</u></p> <p>Although long-term fluctuations in global temperature occur due to various factors such as solar activity, there is scientific agreement that the rapid global warming that has occurred in recent years is mostly anthropogenic, i.e. due to human activity. The absorption and emission of solar radiation by greenhouse gases causes the atmosphere to warm.</p> <p><u>What global warming has occurred?</u></p> <p>Human activities such as fossil fuel consumption and deforestation have elevated atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide significantly since pre-industrial times.</p> <p>The RSB is also a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>Royal Society of Chemistry</h1> <p>The RSC is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>Royal Society of Edinburgh</h1> <p>The RSE is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>Royal Society of New Zealand</h1> <h2>2016</h2> <p><a href="http://royalsociety.org.nz/expert-advice/papers/yr2016/climate-change-implications-for-new-zealand/">http://royalsociety.org.nz/expert-advice/papers/yr2016/climate-change-implications-for-new-zealand/</a></p> <p><u>Key aspects of global climate change</u></p> <p>Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen.</p> <p><u>Key findings</u></p> <p>Global surface temperatures have warmed, on average, <a href="http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/news/release/archive/2015/one-degree">by around one degree</a> Celsius since the late 19th century. Much of the warming, especially since the 1950s, is very likely a result of increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, resulting from human activity.</p> <p>The Northern Hemisphere have warmed much faster than the global average, while the southern oceans south of New Zealand latitudes have warmed more slowly. Generally, continental regions have warmed more than the ocean surface at the same latitudes.</p> <p>Global sea levels have risen around 19 cm since the start of the 20th century, and are almost certain to rise at a faster rate in future.</p> <p>Surface temperature is projected to rise over the 21st century under all assessed emission scenarios. It is very likely that heat waves will occur more often and last longer, and that extreme precipitation events will become more intense and frequent in many regions. The ocean will continue to warm and acidify, and global mean sea level will continue to rise.</p> <p>Relatively small changes in average climate can have a big effect on the frequency of occurrence or likelihood of extreme events.</p> <p>How the future plays out depends critically on the emissions of greenhouses gases that enter the atmosphere over coming decades.</p> <p>New Zealand is being affected by climate change and impacts are set to increase in magnitude and extent over time.</p> <p>Floods, storms, droughts and fires will become more frequent unless significant action is taken to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases, which are changing the climate.</p> <p>Even small changes in average climate conditions are likely to lead to large changes in the frequency of occurrence of extreme events. Our societies are not designed to cope with such rapid changes.</p> <h1>Society for General Microbiology</h1> <p>The SGM is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics</h1> <p>The SIAM is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Society for Mathematical Biology</h1> <p>The SMB is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles</h1> <p>The SSAR is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Society of American Foresters</h1> <h2>Adopted December 8, 2008; Revised December 7, 2014</h2> <p><a href="http://www.eforester.org/Main/Issues_and_Advocacy/Statements/Forest_Management_and_Climate_Change.aspx">http://www.eforester.org/Main/Issues_and_Advocacy/Statements/Forest_Management_and_Climate_Change.aspx</a></p> <p>The Society of American Foresters (SAF) believes that climate change policies and actions should recognize the role that forests play in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through 1) the substitution of wood products for nonrenewable building materials, 2) forest biomass substitution for fossil fuel-based energy sources, 3) reducing wildfire and other disturbance emissions, and 4) avoided land-use change. SAF also believes that sustainably managed forests can reduce GHG concentrations by sequestering atmospheric carbon in trees and soil, and by storing carbon in wood products made from the harvested trees. Finally, climate change policies can invest in sustainable forest management to achieve these benefits, and respond to the challenges and opportunities that a changing climate poses for forests.</p> <p>Of the many ways to reduce GHG emissions and atmospheric particulate pollution, the most familiar are increasing energy efficiency and conservation, and using renewable energy sources as a substitution for fossil fuels. Equally important is using forests to address climate change.</p> <p>Forests play an essential role controlling GHG emissions and atmospheric GHGs, while simultaneously providing essential environmental and social benefits, including clean water, wildlife habitat, recreation, and forest products that, in turn, store carbon.</p> <p>Finally, changes in long-term patterns of temperature and precipitation have the potential to dramatically affect forests nationwide through a variety of changes to growth and mortality (USDA Forest Service 2012). Many such changes are already evident, such as longer growing and wildfire seasons, increased incidence of pest and disease, and climate-related mortality of specific species (Westerling et al. 2006). These changes have been associated with increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other GHGs in the atmosphere. Successfully achieving the benefits forests can provide for addressing climate change will therefore require explicit and long-term policies and investment in managing these changes, as well as helping private landowners and public agencies understand the technologies and practices that can be used to respond to changing climate conditions…</p> <h1>Society of Nematologists</h1> <p>The SoN is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Society of Systematic Biologists</h1> <p>The SSB is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Soil Science Society of America</h1> <h2>May 2011; 2016</h2> <p><a href="https://www.soils.org/files/science-policy/asa-cssa-sssa-climate-change-policy-statement.pdf">https://www.soils.org/files/science-policy/asa-cssa-sssa-climate-change-policy-statement.pdf</a></p> <p>A comprehensive body of scientific evidence indicates beyond reasonable doubt that global climate change is now occurring and that its manifestations threaten the stability of societies as well as natural and managed ecosystems. Increases in ambient temperatures and changes in related processes are directly linked to rising anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. The potential related impacts of climate change on the ability of agricultural systems, which include soil and water resources, to provide food, feed, fiber, and fuel, and maintenance of ecosystem services (e.g., water supply and habitat for crop landraces, wild relatives, and pollinators) as well as the integrity of the environment, are major concerns.</p> <p>Around the world and in the United States (US), agriculture—which is comprised of field, vegetable, and tree crops, as well as livestock production—constitutes a major land use which influences global ecosystems. Globally, crop production occupies approximately 1.8 Billion (B) hectares out of a total terrestrial land surface of about 13.5 B hectares. In addition, animal production utilizes grasslands, rangelands, and savannas, which altogether cover about a quarter of the Earth’s land. Even in 2010, agriculture remains the most basic and common human occupation on the planet and a major contributor to human well-being. Changes in climate are already affecting the sustainability of agricultural systems and disrupting production.</p> <p>[The May 2011 Statement was also signed by the American Society of Agronomy and the Crop Science Society of America.]</p> <p>[The SSSA is also a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a>]</p> <h1>The Academy of Medical Sciences (UK)</h1> <p>The AMS is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>The Academy of Social Sciences (UK)</h1> <p>The AoSS is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>The British Academy for the Humanities and Social Sciences</h1> <p>The BAHSS is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>The British Ecological Society</h1> <p>The BES is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>The Challenger Society for Marine Sciences</h1> <p>The CSMS is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>The Geological Society (UK)</h1> <h2>November 2010 (updated 2013 and 2015)</h2> <p><a href="https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/~/media/shared/documents/policy/Climate%20Change%20Statement%20final%20%20%20new%20format.pdf?la=en">https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/~/media/shared/documents/policy/Climate%20Change%20Statement%20final%20%20%20new%20format.pdf?la=en</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/climaterecord">https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/climaterecord</a></p> <p>The last century has seen a rapidly growing global population and much more intensive use of resources, leading to greatly increased emissions of gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, from the burning of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal), and from agriculture, cement production and deforestation. Evidence from the geological record is consistent with the physics that shows that adding large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere warms the world and may lead to: higher sea levels and flooding of low-lying coasts; greatly changed patterns of rainfall; increased acidity of the oceans; and decreased oxygen levels in seawater…</p> <p>There is now widespread concern that the Earth’s climate will warm further, not only because of the lingering effects of the added carbon already in the system, but also because of further additions as human population continues to grow…</p> <p>[The GS is also a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a>]</p> <h1>The Institute of Physics</h1> <p>The IoP is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>The Institution of Chemical Engineers</h1> <p>The ICE is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>The Institution of Civil Engineers</h1> <p>The ICE is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>The Institution of Environmental Sciences</h1> <p>The IES is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>The Learned Society of Wales</h1> <p>The LSoW is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>The Wildlife Society (international)</h1> <h2>November 2011 Statement</h2> <p><a href="http://wildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/PS_GlobalClimateChange.pdf">http://wildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/PS_GlobalClimateChange.pdf</a></p> <p>Human activities over the past 100 years have caused significant changes in the earth’s climatic conditions, resulting in severe alterations in regional temperature and precipitation patterns that are expected to continue and become amplified over the next 100 years or more. Although climates have varied since the earth was formed, few scientists question the role of humans in exacerbating recent climate change through the increase in emissions of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor). Human activities contributing to climate warming include the burning of fossil fuels, slash and burn agriculture, methane production from animal husbandry practices, and land-use changes. The critical issue is no longer “whether” climate change is occurring, but rather how to address its effects on wildlife and wildlife- habitats…</p> <h1>Trust For America's Health</h1> <p>The TFAA is a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>U.S. Climate and Health Alliance</h1> <p>The USCHA is a signatory to the April 2016 statement: <a href="http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/">http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/healthy-air/outdoor/climate-change/declaration-on-climate-change.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/</a></p> <h1>University Corporation for Atmospheric Research</h1> <p>The UCAR is a signatory to the June 28, 2016 letter to the U.S. Congress: <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf">https://www.eurekalert.org/images/2016climateletter6-28-16.pdf</a></p> <h1>Wellcome Trust</h1> <p>Wellcome is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <h1>World Federation of Engineering Organizations</h1> <h2>May 24, 2016</h2> <p><a href="http://www.wfeo.org/wp-content/uploads/declarations/WFEO_Statement_for_UNFCCC_SB44_Bonn_Meeting.pdf">http://www.wfeo.org/wp-content/uploads/declarations/WFEO_Statement_for_UNFCCC_SB44_Bonn_Meeting.pdf</a></p> <p>Now that the world has negotiated the Paris agreement to mitigate GHGs and pursue adaptation to the changing climate, the focus must now turn towards implementation to turn the words into action. The world’s engineers are a human resource that must be tapped to contribute to this implementation. All countries use engineers to deliver services that provide the quality of life that society enjoys, in particular, potable water, sanitation, shelter, buildings, roads, bridges, power, energy and other types of infrastructure. There are opportunities to achieve GHG reduction as well as improving the climate resilience of this infrastructure through design, construction and operation all of which require the expertise and experience of engineers. Engineers are problem-solvers and seek to develop feasible solutions that are cost-effective and sustainable.</p> <p>Engineers serve the public interest and offer objective, unbiased review and advice. Having their expertise to evaluate the technical feasibility and economic viability of proposals to reduce GHGs and to adapt to climate change impacts should be pursued. Engineers input and action is required to implement solutions at country and local levels.</p> <p>The international organization known as the World Federation of Engineering Organizations consist of members of national engineering organizations from over 90 developing and developed countries representing more than 20 million engineers. The WFEO offers to facilitate contact and engagement with these organizations to identify subject matter experts that will contribute their time and expertise as members of the engineering profession. The expertise of the world’s engineers is needed to help successfully implement the Paris agreement. We encourage all countries to engage their engineers in this effort. The WFEO is prepared to assist in this effort.</p> <h2>December 8, 2015</h2> <p><a href="http://www.wfeo.org/wp-content/uploads/declarations/WFEO-COP-21_Engineering_Summit_Statement.pdf">http://www.wfeo.org/wp-content/uploads/declarations/WFEO-COP-21_Engineering_Summit_Statement.pdf</a></p> <p>The WFEO consists of national members representing more than 85 countries as well as 10 regional engineering organizations. These members collectively engage with more than 20 million engineers worldwide who are committed to serve the public interest through Codes of Practice and a Code of Ethics that emphasize professional practice in sustainable development, environmental stewardship and climate change.</p> <p>WFEO, the International Council for Science (ICSU) and the International Social Science Council (ISSC) are co-organizing partners of the UN Major Group on Scientific and Technological Communities, one of the nine major groups of civil society recognized by the United Nations.</p> <p>Engineers acknowledge that climate change is underway and that sustained efforts must be undertaken to address this worldwide challenge to society, our quality of life and prosperity. Urgent actions are required and the engineering profession is prepared to do its part towards implementing</p> <p>cost-effective, feasible and sustainable solutions working in partnership with stakeholders.</p> <h1>World Federation of Public Health Associations</h1> <h2>May 14, 2001</h2> <p><a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20081217173936/http:/www.wfpha.org/Archives/01.22%20Global%20Climate%20Change.pdf">https://web.archive.org/web/20081217173936/http://www.wfpha.org/Archives/01.22%20Global%20Climate%20Change.pdf</a></p> <p>Noting the conclusions of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other climatologists that anthropogenic greenhouse gases, which contribute to global climate change, have substantially increased in atmospheric concentration beyond natural processes and have increased by 28 percent since the industrial revolution….Realizing that subsequent health effects from such perturbations in the climate system would likely include an increase in: heat-related mortality and morbidity; vector-borne infectious diseases,… water-borne diseases…(and) malnutrition from threatened agriculture….the World Federation of Public Health Associations…recommends precautionary primary preventive measures to avert climate change, including reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and preservation of greenhouse gas sinks through appropriate energy and land use policies, in view of the scale of potential health impacts...</p> <h1>World Health Organization</h1> <h2>June 2016</h2> <p><a href="http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs266/en/">http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs266/en/</a></p> <p>Over the last 50 years, human activities – particularly the burning of fossil fuels – have released sufficient quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to trap additional heat in the lower atmosphere and affect the global climate.</p> <p>In the last 130 years, the world has warmed by approximately 0.85oC. Each of the last 3 decades has been successively warmer than any preceding decade since 1850.</p> <p>Sea levels are rising, glaciers are melting and precipitation patterns are changing. Extreme weather events are becoming more intense and frequent…</p> <p>Many policies and individual choices have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and produce major health co-benefits. For example, cleaner energy systems, and promoting the safe use of public transportation and active movement – such as cycling or walking as alternatives to using private vehicles – could reduce carbon emissions, and cut the burden of household air pollution, which causes some 4.3 million deaths per year, and ambient air pollution, which causes about 3 million deaths every year.</p> <p>In 2015, the WHO Executive Board endorsed a new work plan on climate change and health. This includes:</p> <p>Partnerships: to coordinate with partner agencies within the UN system, and ensure that health is properly represented in the climate change agenda.</p> <p>Awareness raising: to provide and disseminate information on the threats that climate change presents to human health, and opportunities to promote health while cutting carbon emissions.</p> <p>Science and evidence: to coordinate reviews of the scientific evidence on the links between climate change and health, and develop a global research agenda.</p> <p>Support for implementation of the public health response to climate change: to assist countries to build capacity to reduce health vulnerability to climate change, and promote health while reducing carbon emissions.</p> <h2>WHO Call For Urgent Action 2015</h2> <p><a href="http://www.who.int/globalchange/global-campaign/cop21/en/">http://www.who.int/globalchange/global-campaign/cop21/en/</a></p> <p>Climate change is the greatest threat to global health in the 21st century.</p> <p>Health professionals have a duty of care to current and future generations. You are on the front line in protecting people from climate impacts - from more heat-waves and other extreme weather events; from outbreaks of infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue and cholera; from the effects of malnutrition; as well as treating people that are affected by cancer, respiratory, cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases caused by environmental pollution.</p> <p>Already the hottest year on record, 2015 will see nations attempt to reach a global agreement to address climate change at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP) in Paris in December. This may be the most important health agreement of the century: an opportunity not only to reduce climate change and its consequences, but to promote actions that can yield large and immediate health benefits, and reduce costs to health systems and communities…</p> <h1>World Meteorological Organization</h1> <h2>2016</h2> <p><a href="https://public.wmo.int/en/our-mandate/climate">https://public.wmo.int/en/our-mandate/climate</a></p> <p>Since the beginning of the 20th century, scientists have been observing a change in the climate that cannot be attributed solely to natural influences. This change has occurred faster than any other climate change in Earth’s history and will have consequences for future generations. Scientists agree that this climate change is anthropogenic (human-induced). It is principally attributable to the increase of certain heat absorbing greenhouse gases in our atmosphere since the industrial revolution. The ever-increasing amount of these gases has directly lead to more heat being retained in the atmosphere and thus to increasing global average surface temperatures. The partners in the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) compile reliable scientific data and information on the chemical composition of the atmosphere and its natural and anthropogenic change. This helps to improve the understanding of interactions between the atmosphere, the oceans and the biosphere.</p> <h2>November 8, 2016</h2> <p><a href="https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/global-climate-2011-2015-hot-and-wild">https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/global-climate-2011-2015-hot-and-wild</a></p> <p>The World Meteorological Organization has published a detailed analysis of the global climate 2011-2015 – the hottest five-year period on record  - and the increasingly visible human footprint on extreme weather and climate events with dangerous and costly impacts.</p> <p>The record temperatures were accompanied by rising sea levels and declines in Arctic sea-ice extent, continental glaciers and northern hemisphere snow cover.</p> <p>All these climate change indicators confirmed the long-term warming trend caused by greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide reached the significant milestone of 400 parts per million in the atmosphere for the first time in 2015, according to the WMO report which was submitted to U.N. climate change conference.</p> <h1>Zoological Society of London</h1> <p>The Zoological Society is a signatory to the July 21, 2015 UK science communiqué on climate change. <a href="https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF">https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/Publications/2015/21-07-15-climate-communique.PDF</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><em>[Edited, compiled by Dr. <a href="http://www.gleick.com">Peter Gleick</a>. Please send any corrections, additions, updates...]</em></strong></p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/pgleick">pgleick</a></span> <span>Sat, 01/07/2017 - 07:23</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Categories</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/channel/environment" hreflang="en">Environment</a></div> </div> </div> Sat, 07 Jan 2017 12:23:10 +0000 pgleick 71135 at https://scienceblogs.com From Scientists to Policymakers: Communicating on Climate, Scientific Integrity, and More https://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2016/12/01/from-scientists-to-policymakers-communicating-on-climate-scientific-integrity-and-more <span>From Scientists to Policymakers: Communicating on Climate, Scientific Integrity, and More</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Among the different professional categories, scientists and engineers remain very highly respected by the public, at least compared to politicians, business leaders, the media, and even religious authorities. Part of this is due to the fact that success in the scientific enterprise depends on impartial analysis and independence from political ideology. And yet there are strong connections between science and policy: good policy without good science is difficult; good policy with bad science is impossible. Sure, there is plenty of bad policy made even in the face of contradictory scientific evidence, but that is the result of political failures, or, at times, poor scientific communication.</p> <p>A perennial question facing scientists is when -- and how -- to participate in public communication and policy debates around issues of social concern. This is not a new question: as long as scientists have seen a connection between their work and major challenges facing society, some have acted on a sense of responsibility to contribute to debates about how science can be harnessed to improve the world. Scientists have little political power: they are small in numbers, rarely sufficiently financially wealthy to use money as a political tool, and often politically naïve or poorly networked.</p> <p>As a result, until the past decade or so, when new tools of social media have made more direct communication between scientists and the public easier, scientists have had limited tools to communicate policy-relevant opinions. Congressional and legislative testimony at public hearings offered one avenue for the exchange of information between policymakers and scientists. I’ve personally provided testimony at nearly 40 state and federal hearings on climate, water, and broad environmental policy issues. In recent years, however, the hostility of some policymakers to scientific evidence and information – especially at the federal level -- has decreased the number of such hearings and has turned them into events more akin to political theater than educational and informational opportunities.</p> <p>Another approach was for scientists to work with television producers and film makers to produce high-quality products for the public. Early efforts of pioneers like Carl Sagan paved the way for more recent efforts, but they depended on scientists willing to put themselves forward as communicators and popularizers. Sagan, who wrote popular books and created the award-winning TV show “Cosmos,” was criticized by some colleagues at the time who felt this was not a proper role for scientists, though the more recent success of science communicators such as Bill Nye and Neil deGrasse Tyson have shown that this approach can be tremendously effective.</p> <p>A simpler and more common approach has been for groups of scientists to reach out to policymakers and the public in open letters, expressing concerns about public policy, suggesting priorities for governments, and calling for actions around specific issues. Two early examples include the <a href="http://www.dannen.com/decision/45-07-17.html">petition to the President of the United States</a> in July 1945 from 70 scientists at the Manhattan Project calling on Truman to refrain from deploying the newly created atomic bomb, and the famous <a href="https://pugwash.org/1955/07/09/statement-manifesto/">Russell-Einstein Manifesto</a>, which called on world governments to banish war as a way to settle disputes because of the risks of global annihilation from nuclear weapons. That letter, signed by some of the most well-known scientists in modern history, stated:</p> <blockquote><p><em>“… There lies before us, if we choose, continual progress in happiness, knowledge, and wisdom. Shall we, instead, choose death, because we cannot forget our quarrels? We appeal as human beings to human beings: Remember your humanity, and forget the rest. If you can do so, the way lies open to a new Paradise; if you cannot, there lies before you the risk of universal death.</em></p> <p><em>Resolution:</em></p> <p><em>We invite this Congress, and through it the scientists of the world and the general public, to subscribe to the following resolution:</em></p> <p><em>“In view of the fact that in any future world war nuclear weapons will certainly be employed, and that such weapons threaten the continued existence of mankind, we urge the governments of the world to realize, and to acknowledge publicly, that their purpose cannot be furthered by a world war, and we urge them, consequently, to find peaceful means for the settlement of all matters of dispute between them.”</em></p></blockquote> <p><img class="alignnone wp-image-639" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2016/12/russell-einstein-manifesto-400x396.png" alt="russell-einstein-manifesto" width="306" height="303" /></p> <p>The use of such letters has continued over the years, with appeals to policymakers around the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs, both pro and con), <a href="http://phys.org/news/2016-06-scientists-coral-reef-plea-australia.html">the accelerating destruction of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia</a>, <a href="http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/opinion/letters/article4709281.ece">why Brexit would be bad for science</a>, <a href="http://spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=49864">strategies for protecting the planet from asteroid impacts</a>, <a href="http://futureoflife.org/ai-open-letter/">oversight of artificial intelligence research</a>, and more.</p> <p>In the last few years such letters have proliferated for three reasons: (1) the open hostility of some politically powerful groups to science and scientific findings is ringing alarm bells in the scientific community that cannot be ignored, (2) scientists now recognize that the dramatic and rapid alteration of the Earth’s very climate poses the second massive threat to the planet after nuclear annihilation, and (3) the ability to mobilize and collect signatures from scientists has greatly improved as networks of scientists have formed and social media tools have made it easier to organize around specific issues.</p> <p>Whether or not such letters are useful, motivating to policymakers, or just feel-good efforts for scientists (or a combination of such things) cannot be known for sure. But scientist seem increasingly willing to speak out on issues at the intersection of science and policy because of their special knowledge and because of their belief that they have a social responsibility to help policy makers understand the nature of both scientific threats and opportunities.</p> <p>Here, from just the past few years, are some of the key letters prepared by scientists and sent to policymakers on issues around scientific integrity, climate change, and public health:</p> <h1>Climate Change and the Integrity of Science, 2010</h1> <p>An <a href="http://science.sciencemag.org/content/328/5979/689">early key letter on the issue of climate change and the integrity of science</a> was published in <u>Science</u> magazine in mid-2010, signed by 255 members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences calling for action to reduce the risks of climate change and an end to harassment of scientists by politicians.</p> <blockquote><p><em>“For a problem as potentially catastrophic as climate change, taking no action poses a dangerous risk for our planet... We urge our policy-makers and the public to move forward immediately to address the causes of climate change, including the unrestrained burning of fossil fuels. We also call for an end to McCarthy-like threats of criminal prosecution against our colleagues based on innuendo and guilt by association, the harassment of scientists by politicians seeking distractions to avoid taking action, and the outright lies being spread about them. Society has two choices: We can ignore the science and hide our heads in the sand and hope we are lucky, or we can act in the public interest to reduce the threat of global climate change quickly and substantively. The good news is that smart and effective actions are possible. But delay must not be an option.”</em></p></blockquote> <h1>Letter from Leading Climate Scientists to the Wall Street Journal, 2012</h1> <p>On February 1, 2012, 38 world leading climate scientists <a href="http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204740904577193270727472662">published a letter in the Wall Street Journal </a> rejecting an earlier WSJ op-ed on climate as dangerously misleading and misinformed.</p> <h1>Letter to Congress from U.S. Scientific Societies on the Scientific Consensus on Climate Change. 2016</h1> <p>In June 2016, a partnership of 31 leading nonpartisan scientific associations sent a <a href="http://www.aaas.org/sites/default/files/06282016.pdf">consensus letter to U.S. policymakers</a> that reaffirmed the reality of human-caused climate change, noting that greenhouse gas emissions “must be substantially reduced” to minimize negative impacts on the global economy, natural resources, and human health. These scientific organization represent practically the entirety of the geosciences expertise of the nation, including:</p> <ul><li>American Association for the Advancement of Science</li> <li>American Chemical Society</li> <li>American Geophysical Union</li> <li>American Institute of Biological Sciences</li> <li>American Meteorological Society</li> <li>American Public Health Association</li> <li>American Society of Agronomy</li> <li>American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists</li> <li>American Society of Naturalists</li> <li>American Society of Plant Biologists</li> <li>American Statistical Association</li> <li>Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography</li> <li>Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation</li> <li>Association of Ecosystem Research Centers</li> <li>BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium</li> <li>Botanical Society of America</li> <li>Consortium for Ocean Leadership</li> <li>Crop Science Society of America</li> <li>Ecological Society of America</li> <li>Entomological Society of America</li> <li>Geological Society of America</li> <li>National Association of Marine Laboratories</li> <li>Natural Science Collections Alliance</li> <li>Organization of Biological Field Stations</li> <li>Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics</li> <li>Society for Mathematical Biology</li> <li>Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles</li> <li>Society of Nematologists</li> <li>Society of Systematic Biologists</li> <li>Soil Science Society of America</li> <li>University Corporation for Atmospheric Research</li> </ul><h1>Letter from Leading Australian Scientists to the Australian Government on Climate Change, 2016</h1> <p>In August 2016, 154 of Australia’s leading university and government scientists sent a <a href="https://theconversation.com/an-open-letter-to-the-prime-minister-on-the-climate-crisis-from-154-scientists-64357">letter to the Australian government</a> stating “governments worldwide are presiding over a large-scale demise of the planetary ecosystems, which threatens to leave large parts of Earth uninhabitable.” The letter calls on the Australian government</p> <blockquote><p><em>“to tackle the root causes of an unfolding climate tragedy and do what is required to protect future generations and nature, including meaningful reductions of Australia’s peak carbon emissions and coal exports, while there is still time. There is no Planet B.”</em></p></blockquote> <h1>An Open Letter on Climate Change From Concerned Members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 2016</h1> <p>On September 20, 2016, 376 members of the National Academy of Sciences, including 30 Nobel laureates, published <a href="http://responsiblescientists.org/">an open letter to draw attention to the serious risks of climate change</a>. The letter warns that the consequences of opting out of the Paris agreement would be severe and long-lasting for our planet’s climate and for the international credibility of the United States.</p> <h1>Letter of Concern about the Views of Donald Trump on Scientific Reality, 2016</h1> <p><a href="https://act.notwhoweare.us/petitions/members-of-the-scientific-community-say-donald-trump-is-not-who-we-are">A letter from a broad coalition of scientists</a> was released in fall 2016 expressing concern that presidential candidate Donald Trump's stated views on many topics are at odds with scientific reality and represent a dangerous rejection of scientific thinking.</p> <h1>Letter to President-Elect Trump and the 115th Congress, 2016</h1> <p>Thousands of scientists joined an <a href="http://www.ucsusa.org/center-science-and-democracy/promoting-scientific-integrity/open-letter-president-elect-trump?_ga=1.118693065.1533318837.1479840523#.WD8pEvnx4dW">open letter</a> in November 2016 calling on the incoming Trump administration and 115th Congress to ensure that science continues to play a strong role in protecting public health and well-being and that scientists be protected from political interference in their work. The letter has been signed by thousands of scientists, including 22 Nobel Prize winners.</p> <h1>An Open Letter from Women of Science, 2016</h1> <p><a href="https://500womenscientists.org/#our-pledge">https://500womenscientists.org/#our-pledge</a></p> <p>In November 2016, over 10,000 women of science signed an open letter noting that science plays a foundation role in “a progressive society, fuels innovation, and touches the lives of every person on this planet.” The letter expressed deep concern that</p> <blockquote><p><em>“anti-knowledge and anti-science sentiments expressed repeatedly during the U.S. presidential election threaten the very foundations of our society. Our work as scientists and our values as human beings are under attack. We fear that the scientific progress and momentum in tackling our biggest challenges, including staving off the worst impacts of climate change, will be severely hindered under this next U.S. administration. Our planet cannot afford to lose any time.”</em></p></blockquote> <p>The letter reaffirmed a commitment to build a more inclusive society and scientific enterprise, reject hateful rhetoric targeted at minority groups, women, LGBTQIA, immigrants, and people with disabilities, and attempts to discredit the role of science in our society. The signers also set out a series of scientific, training, support, and policy pledges.</p> <h1>Letter from All Major US Scientific Societies/Organizations to Trump Transition Team, 2016</h1> <p>Amidst the nationwide concern about future challenges facing a Trump Administration, the nation’s scientific, engineering, and higher education community <a href="https://mcmprodaaas.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/content_files/Multisociety%20CEO%20Transition%20Letter.pdf">wrote an open letter</a> in November 2016 urging the quick appointment of a nationally respected presidential science advisor.</p> <p> </p> <p>[A shortened version of this essay is posted at <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-h-gleick/from-nuclear-war-to-clima_b_13354064.html">Peter Gleick's Huffington Post column, here</a>.]</p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/pgleick">pgleick</a></span> <span>Thu, 12/01/2016 - 03:52</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Categories</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/channel/environment" hreflang="en">Environment</a></div> </div> </div> Thu, 01 Dec 2016 08:52:45 +0000 pgleick 71134 at https://scienceblogs.com New Major US Water Policy Recommendations: “Water Strategies for the Next Administration” https://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2016/11/03/new-major-us-water-policy-recommendations-water-strategies-for-the-next-administration <span>New Major US Water Policy Recommendations: “Water Strategies for the Next Administration”</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>My new <em>Science Magazine</em> article “Water Strategies for the Next Administration” has just been released (embargo lifts 11am Pacific, November 3<sup>rd</sup>; the print version will appear in the November 4<sup>th</sup> issue of <em>Science</em>). It identifies six major water-related challenges facing the United States and offers explicit recommendations for strategies the next Administration and Congress should pursue, domestically and internationally. The article begins:</p> <p><em>“Issues around fresh water are not particularly high on the U.S. political agenda. They should be. Water problems directly threaten food production, fisheries, energy generation, foreign policy, public health, and international security. Access to safe, sufficient, and affordable water is vital to well-being and to the economy. Yet U.S. water systems, once the envy of the world, are falling into disrepair and new threats loom on the horizon.” </em></p> <p>The six key challenges addressed are:</p> <ol><li><strong>Inconsistent, overlapping, and inefficient Federal responsibilities for fresh water.</strong></li> <li><strong>Incomplete basic water science and data.</strong></li> <li><strong>Obsolete and decaying critical water infrastructure.</strong></li> <li><strong>Growing links between water conflicts and threats to US national security.</strong></li> <li><strong>The failure to provide safe, affordable water to all Americans.</strong></li> <li><strong>The worsening threat of climate change for US water resources.</strong></li> </ol><p>The paper also offers recommendations in each of these areas and suggests that water policy offers an opportunity for bipartisan agreement. National water issues have been sadly neglected for far too long. The new Administration has many opportunities to build a 21<sup>st</sup> century national water system with broad public support. During the 2016 campaign, both presidential candidates have indicated their backing for clean water and concern over recent water-quality problems in cities like Flint, Michigan.</p> <p>Among the recommendations I make in the <em>Science</em> Policy Forum piece are a call for a bipartisan water commission to make specific policy suggestions to Congress and the White House, an expansion of national efforts to collect, manage and share water data, modernization of federal water-quality laws, the testing for lead and other contaminants in every school in the country and remediation of any problems, new incentives for improved urban and agricultural water use technologies, an expansion of diplomatic efforts to reduce water conflicts, a boost in resources available for domestic and international programs to provide safe water and sanitation for all, and the integration of climate science into water management and planning at federal agencies and facilities.</p> <p>The paper closes:</p> <p><em>“We have neglected the nation’s fresh water far too long. The next Administration and Congress have the opportunity and responsibility to ensure federal agencies, money, and regulations work to protect our waters, citizens, communities, and national interests.”</em></p> <p> </p> <p>[<strong>Update: November 8, 2016</strong>: The full article can be accessed, for non-commercial use only, here:</p> <p><a href="http://pacinst.org/publication/water-strategies-next-administration/">http://pacinst.org/publication/water-strategies-next-administration/</a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><em>[The author, Dr. Peter Gleick, is co-founder and president emeritus of the Pacific Institute and currently serves as chief scientist. He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and a MacArthur Fellow.]</em></p> <p><em>Copies of the embargoed Science paper are distributed only by the AAAS Office of Public Programs, to working journalists. Reporters should contact </em><a href="tel:%2B1-202-326-6440"><em>+1-202-326-6440</em></a><em> </em><em>or </em><a href="mailto:scipak@aaas.org"><em>scipak@aaas.org</em></a><em>. Others seeking copies of the paper may order them from </em><a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/"><em>www.sciencemag.org</em></a><em>.</em></p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/pgleick">pgleick</a></span> <span>Thu, 11/03/2016 - 05:05</span> Thu, 03 Nov 2016 09:05:31 +0000 pgleick 71133 at https://scienceblogs.com Clinton and Trump on Western Water Policy https://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2016/09/19/clinton-and-trump-on-western-water-policy <span>Clinton and Trump on Western Water Policy</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><div style="width: 410px;"><img class="wp-image-629 size-medium" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2016/09/trump-fresno-2-400x313.png" alt="trump-fresno-2" width="400" height="313" /> Donald Trump speaking in Fresno, California, May 2016 </div> <hr /><table><tbody><tr><td width="480"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Clinton on Western Water</strong></span></td> <td width="480"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Trump on Western Water</strong></span></td> </tr><tr><td width="480">“Recognizes that the current long-term drought across much of the West poses a dire risk to the health and prosperity of Western communities and believes the federal government can and should be a better partner in supporting state and locally-led efforts to improve water security.”</td> <td width="480">“There is no drought. They turn the water out into the ocean.”</td> </tr><tr><td width="480"><strong><u>Explicit policy proposals:</u></strong> <p>Increase federal investment in water conservation through a coordinated, multi-agency Western Water Partnership.</p></td> <td width="480">“We’re going to solve your water problem. You have a water problem that is so insane. It is so ridiculous. Where they’re taking the water and shoving it out to sea.”</td> </tr><tr><td width="480">Unlock new resources for local water infrastructure as part of her $275 billion infrastructure plan.</td> <td width="480">“You know my environmental standard is very simple and I’ve said it to everybody: I want clean air and I want clean water. That’s what I want. Clean air, clean water.”</td> </tr><tr><td width="480">Expand water reuse. Increase investments in water reuse through additional grants and loans, with a goal of doubling public-private partnership investments in water reuse and reclamation in the first term.</td> <td width="480">“And you know I should say this, I’ve received many, many environmental rewards. You know, really. Rewards and awards. I have done really well environmentally and I’m all for it.”</td> </tr><tr><td width="480">Establish a new Water Innovation Lab to develop cutting edge efficiency, treatment and reuse solutions that can be deployed by local water utilities, agricultural and industrial water users, and environmental restoration projects across the country.</td> <td width="480">“If I win, believe me, we’re going to start opening up the water so that you can have your farmers survive.”</td> </tr></tbody></table><p><strong>Source: Clinton Campaign/Policy Factsheets</strong> <a href="https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.hillaryclinton.com_briefing_factsheets_2016_06_01_hillary-2Dclintons-2Dplan-2Dfor-2Dconservation-2Dand-2Dcollaborative-2Dstewardship-2Dof-2Damericas-2Dgreat-2Doutdoors_&amp;d=DQMFaQ&amp;c=B73tqXN8Ec0ocRmZHMCntw&amp;r=jotZA5kqPXDR8yg6ZY87yMSWUJ-PwJgDWfpfuVCizSU&amp;m=qmu1J7U0YGkINBpanrzY60H79Y_tAEaXvbErljOugjE&amp;s=1WkiZE6BZsyLFgZlCNQO2Vd6nuUXEG1fYKdCAssItKM&amp;e=">https://www.hillaryclinton.com/briefing/factsheets/2016/06/01/hillary-clintons-plan-for-conservation-and-collaborative-stewardship-of-americas-great-outdoors/</a></p> <p><strong>Source: Transcript from Trump speech in Fresno, California, May 28, 2016</strong> <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-h-gleick/donald-trump-there-is-no_b_10176882.html">http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-h-gleick/donald-trump-there-is-no_b_10176882.html</a>?</p> <p><em>[As of 9/19/2016 there were no water or environment policy papers or statements on the official Donald Trump campaign website.]</em></p> <p><em>[Update 10am (Pacific), 9/20/2016: All four Presidential candidates have now responded to a set of science questions, including <a href="http://sciencedebate.org/20answers#10">one on water (Question #10 at ScienceDebate.org)</a>. Here are their answers: <a href="http://sciencedebate.org/20answers#10">http://sciencedebate.org/20answers#10</a>]</em></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/pgleick">pgleick</a></span> <span>Mon, 09/19/2016 - 11:20</span> Mon, 19 Sep 2016 15:20:04 +0000 pgleick 71132 at https://scienceblogs.com Diablo Canyon, Climate Change, Drought, and Energy Policy https://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/index.php/2016/06/24/diablo-canyon-climate-change-drought-and-energy-policy <span>Diablo Canyon, Climate Change, Drought, and Energy Policy</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><div style="width: 410px;"><img class="wp-image-626 size-medium" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2016/06/Diablo-Canyon-400x232.jpg" width="400" height="232" /> Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, courtesy PG&amp;E </div> <p>The announcement that Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&amp;E) will close the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant when its current operating licenses expire in 2025 has caused what can only be described as consternation mixed with occasional conniptions among the nuclear industry and some strongly pro-nuclear groups.</p> <p>That’s understandable. Diablo Canyon is aging, but is not the oldest nuclear plant in the fleet and PG&amp;E could have chosen to push for a renewal of the license to continue operations for many more years. Diablo Canyon’s two reactors are also California’s last operating nuclear plants, following the closure many years ago of Rancho Seco near Sacramento, and more recently, the last of the San Onofre reactors. As such, the closure is symbolic of the broader woes of the nuclear power industry in the United States, which has been unable to build new reactors and is seeing the current reactors being shuttered, one by one.</p> <p>The decision to phase out Diablo also rankles those who see <strong><em>all</em></strong> non-carbon energy sources as critical in the fight against the real threat of climate change. This has led to an internecine dispute among those who claim the mantle of “environmentalist,” who are legitimately concerned about climate, but who split on their positions around the pros and cons of nuclear power.</p> <p>I get it. The climate threat is the most urgent one facing the planet and shutting down major non-carbon energy sources makes it that much harder to meet carbon reduction goals. But old nuclear plants have to be retired and replaced at some point, simply due to age, economics, and updated environmental challenges. It would be great if there was a new generation of replacement reactors that was safe, cost-effective, and reliable and if there was a satisfactory resolution to the problem of nuclear wastes and accumulating spent fuel. But at the moment, there isn’t. The good news is there are other non-carbon alternatives available.</p> <p>And Diablo Canyon faced a unique set of problems, including the need in the next few years to replace its old once-thru ocean cooling system with a far costlier, but more environmentally friendly system, challenges with steam generators and a growing risk of leaks, the long-standing earthquake risk at the site, and cheaper alternatives. Even with the sunk costs at Diablo Canyon, these challenges made it clear that cheaper options exist and “<a href="https://www.pge.com/en/about/newsroom/newsdetails/index.page?title=20160621_in_step_with_californias_evolving_energy_policy_pge_labor_and_environmental_groups_announce_proposal_to_increase_energy_efficiency_renewables_and_storage_while_phasing_out_nuclear_power_over_the_next_decade">that California's new energy policies will significantly reduce the need for Diablo Canyon's electricity output.”</a></p> <p>Moreover, the claim that current nuclear energy is cheap is false: even at Diablo Canyon – never a cheap nuclear plant – <a href="http://www.sfchronicle.com/opinion/editorials/article/Shutting-Diablo-Canyon-s-reactors-reflects-8316329.php">additional updates to address existing problems could cost a massive additional $10 billion</a>.  As Peter Bradford, a former member of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission said,</p> <blockquote><p>“The unraveling of the [hoped for nuclear] renaissance was not a surprise to anyone who understood the workings of the power markets.”</p></blockquote> <p>Diablo isn’t shutting down tomorrow. The plan gives the utility nearly a decade to phase out the plant and replace it with renewable energy and energy efficiency. As the <a href="https://www.pge.com/en/about/newsroom/newsdetails/index.page?title=20160621_in_step_with_californias_evolving_energy_policy_pge_labor_and_environmental_groups_announce_proposal_to_increase_energy_efficiency_renewables_and_storage_while_phasing_out_nuclear_power_over_the_next_decade">official announcement</a> notes:</p> <blockquote><p>“The Joint Proposal would replace power produced by two nuclear reactors at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) with a cost-effective, greenhouse gas free portfolio of energy efficiency, renewables and energy storage.”</p></blockquote> <p>This time frame is important. When San Onofre closed its last reactor in 2012, with no formal replacement plan in place, there was a short-term spike in natural gas consumption (worsened by the simultaneous arrival of a multi-year drought, which cut hydroelectricity generation) and an increase in California’s greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear proponents cherry pick this point as evidence that shutting Diablo will similarly lead to an increase in emissions. But within a couple of years, the rapid construction of non-carbon wind and solar systems made up for San Onofre’s lost electricity, and natural gas use -- <a href="http://pacinst.org/publication/impacts-of-californias-ongoing-drought-hydroelectricity-generation-2015-update/">excluding excess natural gas burned to make up for lost hydroelectricity due to the drought</a> --dropped again. The Figure below shows total non-fossil fuel electricity generation in California from 2001-2015 (solid red line) and what it <strong><em>would</em></strong> have been without the drought (dotted red line). Without the drought, expansion of new solar and wind completely made up for San Onofre’s closure.</p> <div style="width: 530px;"><img class=" wp-image-624" src="http://scienceblogs.com/significantfigures/files/2016/06/CA-energy-non-fossil-to-2015-400x294.jpg" alt="Total non-fossil fuel electricity generation with (solid red line) and without the drought (dashed red line). Data from US EIA." width="520" height="382" /> Total non-fossil fuel electricity generation with (solid red line) and without the drought (dashed red line). Data from US EIA. </div> <p>With the longer timeframe to prepare for closing Diablo Canyon, and with the specific agreement to accelerate investment in renewables, there is no reason California’s carbon reduction targets can’t be met. Will they? We don’t know: that ultimately depends on the nature and timing of efforts to continue California’s transition to non-carbon energy.</p> <p>But even this argument misses the key point: While it is certainly far better from a climate perspective to replace old fossil fuel plants rather than old nuclear plants, even old nuclear plants have to be replaced eventually. We should keep them open as long as feasible from an economic, environmental, and safety point of view, but when the decision is made to replace them, make sure other non-carbon generation and energy efficiency options are part of the decision.</p> <p>That’s what happened here and it is a model for the future.</p> <p><a href="https://www.facebook.com/PeterGleick.Scientist">Peter Gleick Facebook</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/c/petergleick">Peter Gleick YouTube</a></p> <p><a href="https://twitter.com/PeterGleick">Peter Gleick Twitter</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.gleick.com/">Peter Gleick personal</a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/pgleick">pgleick</a></span> <span>Fri, 06/24/2016 - 05:48</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Categories</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/channel/environment" hreflang="en">Environment</a></div> </div> </div> Fri, 24 Jun 2016 09:48:43 +0000 pgleick 71131 at https://scienceblogs.com