metabolic disease https://scienceblogs.com/ en Guest Post: A time for everything – but speed it up, please! https://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/2015/10/12/guest-post-a-time-for-everything-but-speed-it-up-please <span>Guest Post: A time for everything – but speed it up, please!</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><div style="width: 156px;float:left;"><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2015/10/Zwighaft.jpg"><img class="wp-image-916" src="/files/weizmann/files/2015/10/Zwighaft.jpg" alt="Zwighaft" width="146" height="181" /></a> <em>Ziv Zwighaft</em> </div> <p>Ziv Zwighaft is a research student in the group of the Weizmann Institute’s Dr. <a href="http://www.weizmann.ac.il/Biological_Chemistry/Asher/" target="_blank">Gad Asher</a>. <a href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/natural-metabolite-might-reset-aging-biological-clocks#.VhpJTSt4_uc" target="_blank">Their new findings </a>reveal some intriguing connections between our circadian clocks – which tick according to cycles of day and night – metabolism and aging. Here is his description:</p> <blockquote><p>King Solomon said: “There is a time for everything, and a season for every activity under the heavens.”</p> <p>Our research tries to take this insight into the condition of living creatures a few strides forward. How strictly does it apply? Our lives are regulated by a biological clock – it’s actually many clocks working in synergy, orchestrating our waking, sleeping and eating, our growth and life stages and, recent research suggests, our metabolism. So first and foremost, the new findings are strong support for the claim that our circadian clocks are strongly intertwined with our body’s metabolic activities. We showed that the daily changes in the levels of a group of essential metabolites called polyamines are regulated from two sides – both by eating times and by the ticking of the clock. Polyamines are naturally occurring metabolites that are known to play a role in various essential cellular processes, as well as pathologies. Our research shows that they also play an active role in setting the tempo of our internal timing. (<em>The research revealed that polyamines both regulate and are regulated by a circadian clock. WSW</em>)</p> <p>Dysfunction in the clock can lead to a wide range of diseases, starting with sleep disorders and on to metabolic disorders like obesity and diabetes, and up to psychological illnesses.</p> <p>One of the things I found most encouraging was our success in reproducing the results we obtained in tissue culture and raising them to the level of the whole animal. Here, a deviation from the natural polyamine levels translated into clock malfunction. For example, low levels of polyamines made the clock run slow, and this situation was reversible by enriching the diet with polyamines.</p> <p>This phenomenon – a drop in polyamine levels and impairment in the clock’s accuracy – is typical of the process of aging. So by investigating the joins between two worlds – circadian clocks and metabolism – we able to demonstrate how to “rejuvenate” the internal pace of timekeeping in old mice.</p> <p>This particular study is finished, but the work has not been completed. In these days we are continuing to look for additional connections between the circadian clocks and metabolic processes in the body; these connections may lead to new strategies in the war against age-related disease.</p></blockquote> <p> </p> <p>So bad news and good: On the one hand, polyamine levels of tend to drop as we age, and our internal clocks lose time. On the other hand, we get polyamines from food too. When the researchers added a polyamine supplement to the diets to old mice, their slow circadian clocks gained minutes.</p> <p>Asher says that much more research will be needed before we can tell whether such food supplements will have an effect on aging in humans. In the meantime, however, it can’t hurt to stick to a healthy diet and add some extra edamame, peas or lentils to the menu.</p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a></span> <span>Mon, 10/12/2015 - 00:41</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biochemistry" hreflang="en">biochemistry</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biomedical" hreflang="en">Biomedical</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/circadian-clocks" hreflang="en">circadian clocks</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/metabolic-disease" hreflang="en">metabolic disease</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/obesity" hreflang="en">obesity</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/aging" hreflang="en">aging</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/cell-metabolism" hreflang="en">cell metabolism</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/gad-asher" hreflang="en">Gad Asher</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/ziv-zwighaft" hreflang="en">Ziv Zwighaft</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biochemistry" hreflang="en">biochemistry</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/circadian-clocks" hreflang="en">circadian clocks</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/obesity" hreflang="en">obesity</a></div> </div> </div> <section> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909290" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1444656214"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Hm?<br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3022763/">http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3022763/</a><br /> doi: 10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5572</p> <p>"... On the other hand, the cell growth promoting effect may also be negative in relation to cancer development. It has been shown that increased polyamine levels are associated with increased cell proliferation as well as expression of genes affecting tumor invasion and metastasis (21)."</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909290&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="Tfs43b9GrjHXqTrnEXx6AKHX2BHo4dUa8GOx9w6QkZY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Hank Roberts (not verified)</span> on 12 Oct 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909290">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909291" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1444715496"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Dear Hank,</p> <p>You are right, elevation in polyamine levels had been previously linked with cancer development. With that been said, in our research we restored the polyamine levels to basal levels and worked well inside the physiological range and far from the pathological concentrations. Like many things in life, too much or too little from something might hurt you...</p> <p>Thank you for commenting, hope you enjoyed our project.</p> <p>Ziv</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909291&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="CEU7sSiedrOKEJkQwtHKWax-kEiNEKko2UIfzKs4wwo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ziv zwighaft (not verified)</span> on 13 Oct 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909291">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909292" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1449325841"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The fact it can cause cancer is pretty scary.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909292&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="4kfzIqvLmPWYfZ4GTkQu8XufRGe7k1DqISPztUwy2X4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Margaret (not verified)</span> on 05 Dec 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909292">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/weizmann/2015/10/12/guest-post-a-time-for-everything-but-speed-it-up-please%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Mon, 12 Oct 2015 04:41:13 +0000 jhalper 71292 at https://scienceblogs.com Getting the Whole Picture https://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/2015/02/12/getting-the-whole-picture <span>Getting the Whole Picture</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>What's in a picture?</p> <p>Prof. Benny Shilo knows the value of a good picture. We recently mentioned his book: <a href="Shilobook.weizmann.ac.il" target="_blank"><em>Life’s Blueprint</em>,</a> which uses photographs of things like bread dough and yeast cells to illustrate the process of biological development. Here is the image from the most recent piece we have uploaded on his research:</p> <p><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2015/02/beta-cells.jpg"><img class="aligncenter size-medium wp-image-858" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2015/02/beta-cells-300x300.jpg" alt="beta-cells" width="300" height="300" /></a></p> <p>This is an individual Islet of Langerhans, as you’ve never seen it before. The white dots are the insulin-containing vesicles inside the beta cells, which both sense glucose levels and secrete insulin. Shilo and his team managed to get “close-up shots” of the individual cell membranes, <a href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/cells-with-an-edge#.VNxKEy7-7uc" target="_blank">and found that they have straight edges </a>where both sensing and secretion functions are located.</p> <p>We love the images in this <a href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/use-it-or-lose-it-0#.VNxKSi7-7uc" target="_blank">new article on the work of Prof. Talila Volk</a> because, aside from their eye-catching colors, these ones really do illustrate the story her work tells.</p> <p>Volk’s work investigates how muscle fibers get renewed through exercise. It may all come down to a protein that senses muscle contraction and tells the DNA in the cell nucleus to make more muscle proteins.</p> <p><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2015/02/Volk-2.jpg"><img class="aligncenter wp-image-859" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2015/02/Volk-2-300x171.jpg" alt="Volk-2" width="461" height="268" /></a></p> <p>In this image, red is muscle fiber in fruit fly larvae, green is nuclei (muscle fibers are large cells with multiple nuclei) (A) shows normal muscle fiber, the others show what happens when the protein is missing.</p> <p>How does it work? This image says it all:</p> <p><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2015/02/Volk-4.jpg"><img class="aligncenter wp-image-860" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2015/02/Volk-4-300x145.jpg" alt="Volk-4" width="475" height="220" /></a></p> <p>In the left image you can see how the protein structure encircles the cell nucleus. At the other end of its arms (red) it connects to the cell’s skeletal structure – the cytoskeleton. On the right, in green, you can see the protein structure. Its arms are springy – so that a pull on the end transmits a signal to the middle.</p> <p>Volk and her group refer to the protein as a biological “mechanosensor,” and, indeed, there is something rather mechanical about the right-hand image.</p> <p>Assuming that form follows function, Volk has surmised that similarly-shaped proteins in human muscle fibers do the same thing.</p> <p>Third, we have some cancer research images from the lab of Prof. Lea Eisenbach:</p> <p><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2015/02/Eisenbach_cells.jpg"><img class="aligncenter wp-image-861" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2015/02/Eisenbach_cells-300x97.jpg" alt="Eisenbach_cells" width="596" height="194" /></a></p> <p><a href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/seek-and-destroy#.VNxKfC7-7uc" target="_blank">These tell the story of anti-cancer immune activity.</a> Tissue and tumor cells appear in blue, pink shows immune cells that attack the cancer cells. When tumor cells appear in the back, there are many immune cells (left); but in the brain (middle) the same tumor cells attract relatively few immune cells. In fact, the normal brain tissue (in the same brain) on the right has no immune cells. If you first inject the tumor into the rat’s back, where there is immune activity, and then inject the tumor cells from the back into the brain, the brain will be protected from the cancer.</p> <p> </p> <p>And, oh yes, they are pretty too. This image, again from Talila Volk, of a 3-D computer model of a fruit fly larva muscle fiber was the inspiration for a sewing project:</p> <p><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2015/02/DSCN3880.jpg"><img class="alignright size-medium wp-image-863" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2015/02/DSCN3880-225x300.jpg" alt="DSCN3880" width="225" height="300" /></a><a href="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2015/02/Volk_blog.jpg"><img class="alignleft wp-image-862" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2015/02/Volk_blog-e1423655733756-122x300.jpg" alt="Volk_blog" width="126" height="310" /></a></p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a></span> <span>Thu, 02/12/2015 - 03:02</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biochemistry" hreflang="en">biochemistry</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biophysics" hreflang="en">Biophysics</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/cancer-research" hreflang="en">Cancer Research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/development" hreflang="en">development</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/elegance-vs-complexity-biology" hreflang="en">Elegance vs. complexity in biology</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/metabolic-disease" hreflang="en">metabolic disease</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/proteins-living-cells" hreflang="en">Proteins in living cells</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/benny-shilo" hreflang="en">Benny Shilo</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brain-cancer" hreflang="en">Brain cancer</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/cancer" hreflang="en">cancer</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/islet-langerhans" hreflang="en">Islet of Langerhans</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/lea-eisenbach" hreflang="en">Lea Eisenbach</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/muscle-cell" hreflang="en">Muscle cell</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/photos" hreflang="en">Photos</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/talila-volk" hreflang="en">Talila Volk</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/weizmann-institute" hreflang="en">Weizmann Institute</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biochemistry" hreflang="en">biochemistry</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biophysics" hreflang="en">Biophysics</a></div> </div> </div> <section> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/weizmann/2015/02/12/getting-the-whole-picture%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Thu, 12 Feb 2015 08:02:53 +0000 jhalper 71278 at https://scienceblogs.com Artificial Sweeteners, Your Gut Bacteria and You https://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/2014/09/17/artificial-sweeteners-your-gut-bacteria-and-you <span>Artificial Sweeteners, Your Gut Bacteria and You </span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Could artificial sweeteners be helping cause the very thing they are supposed to prevent? They may well do so, and you can probably blame your microbiota – those masses of mostly-friendly bacteria that live in your gut. According to <a href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/gut-bacteria-artificial-sweeteners-and-glucose-intolerance#.VBkYeRaBr0Q" target="_blank">a paper by Weizmann Institute scientists </a>that appeared today in <em>Nature</em>, artificial sweeteners not only encourage the wrong kind of bacteria to expand their numbers, they also induce mix-ups in the cross-communication between these bacteria and your body. Those mix-ups can lead to glucose intolerance – the first step toward metabolic syndrome and diabetes. So, ironically enough, if you consume the recommended amounts of zero-calorie drinks, you could begin developing glucose intolerance in just a week. That is what happened to human volunteers who consumed artificially sweetened food and drink for the experiment.</p> <p><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2014/09/can.jpg"><img class="aligncenter size-medium wp-image-821" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2014/09/can-300x200.jpg" alt="medfr07665" width="300" height="200" /></a></p> <p>The Weizmann Institute’s <a href="http://wws.weizmann.ac.il/immunology/elinav/" target="_blank">Dr. Eran Elinav</a>, who conducted the research together with <a href="http://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~eran/" target="_blank">Prof. Eran Segal</a>, says that this is not really a surprising finding. Your body does not absorb artificial sweeteners – they pass right through you. Even if it did, the human body could not yet have evolved tolerance to the sweeteners – substances that have only existed for about a century. Your gut bacteria, on the other hand, evolve rapidly, and they pretty much eat what you eat, including those zero-calorie drinks.</p> <p>We have known for a while that the composition of your internal population of bacteria can, among other things, affect your tendency to gain weight, and that diet has an effect on this composition. But this knowledge is still fairly vague: No one can tell you, yet, just what to eat for the most healthful microbiome, or what, exactly, that mix of bacteria will do for you. So the <em>Nature</em> paper makes a pretty strong statement: Your gut microbiota cannot be ignored any longer. Their intimate relationship with your body is vital; its consequences for your health are critical.</p> <div style="width: 310px;display:block;margin:0 auto;"><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2014/09/Elinav-A.jpg"><img class="wp-image-819 size-medium" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2014/09/Elinav-A-300x225.jpg" alt="Gut microbiota -- better without artificial sweeteners" width="300" height="225" /></a> Gut microbiota -- treat them right, and they'll treat you right </div> <p>The researchers worked with both mouse and human subjects. The mouse research was pretty damning on its own: Mice fed artificial sweeteners (in FDA-permitted doses) developed glucose intolerance while those that had been treated with antibiotics to eliminate their gut bacteria did not. In the meantime, sterile mice that had the microbiota from glucose intolerant mice implanted in their guts quickly developed the same glucose intolerance. Even gut bacteria grown in a lab dish with artificial sweeteners and then implanted in mice could induce glucose intolerance.</p> <p>The human research was, as is usually the case, a bit more complicated. The findings suggest that some people may not be affected either way by artificial sweeteners, while for many others the effect will be negative. The difference is, again, in the makeup of their gut microbiota. The researchers first discovered these two different patterns in a large trial they have been conducting called the Personalized Nutrition Project (<a href="http://newsite.personalnutrition.org/WebSite/Home.aspx" target="_blank">www.personalnutrition.org</a>). The trial, in which hundreds have already participated, aims to figure out how each individual’s mix of heredity, habits and gut microbiota come together to determine how their food will affect them. The ultimate goal of this project, says Segal, is to give people the knowledge they need to avoid such diet-related diseases as obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and atherosclerosis.</p> <p>The human volunteer <a href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13793.html" target="_blank">experiment backed up these findings</a>. As with the mice, the composition of their gut microbiota changed with that one change in their diets, and for many, this led to the onset (thankfully reversible) of glucose intolerance.</p> <p>Elinav believes that the widespread use of artificial sweeteners may even be contributing to the global obesity epidemic. In the not so distant future, a personalized nutrition evaluation – including a check of one’s gut microbiota – might be used to recommend the proper diet for avoiding such health problems as artificial-sweetener-induced glucose intolerance.</p> <p>In the meantime, they suggest you drink water!</p> <p> </p> <p>Here is a nice video they made at the<a href="http://online.wsj.com/articles/research-shows-zero-calorie-sweeteners-can-raise-blood-sugar-1410973201" target="_blank"> Wall Street Journal: </a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a></span> <span>Wed, 09/17/2014 - 11:08</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biomatics" hreflang="en">Biomatics</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biomedical" hreflang="en">Biomedical</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/chemical-communication" hreflang="en">Chemical communication</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/metabolic-disease" hreflang="en">metabolic disease</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/microbiota" hreflang="en">microbiota</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/obesity" hreflang="en">obesity</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/artificial-sweetenters" hreflang="en">artificial sweetenters</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/eran-elinav" hreflang="en">Eran Elinav</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/eran-segal" hreflang="en">Eran Segal</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/nutrition" hreflang="en">nutrition</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/obesity" hreflang="en">obesity</a></div> </div> </div> <section> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/weizmann/2014/09/17/artificial-sweeteners-your-gut-bacteria-and-you%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Wed, 17 Sep 2014 15:08:37 +0000 jhalper 71269 at https://scienceblogs.com A Matter of Time https://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/2014/02/05/a-matter-of-time <span>A Matter of Time</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p> </p> <p>The next time you reach into the fridge for a midnight snack – take heed: <a title="Timing" href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/time-is-of-the-essence#.UvH_IPsfj0d" target="_blank">New research by Weizmann Institute scientists </a>has shown that the time at which you eat your meals might have a profound effect on your liver triglyceride levels. Their research was conducted on mice, but if found to be true for humans as well, it may have clinical implications in the way patients could be treated for fatty liver and other metabolic diseases, which are characterized by abnormally elevated levels of lipids in blood and liver cells.</p> <p><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2014/02/meal-time.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-thumbnail wp-image-723" alt="f" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2014/02/meal-time-150x150.jpg" width="150" height="150" /></a>Our bodies are naturally cued to carry out various biological processes such as eating and sleeping at certain times of the day, and disruptions to this timing system, for example, eating at inappropriate times, may disturb the body’s natural rhythm and lead to disease. It’s no coincidence that shift-workers or those who travel frequently have been found to have a higher incidence as fatty liver and obesity, among other diseases.</p> <p><a href="http://www.weizmann.ac.il/Biological_Chemistry/scientist/Asher/" target="_blank">Dr. Gad Asher </a>of the Weizmann Institute’s Biological Chemistry Department researches the "biological clocks" known as circadian rhythms that are responsible for the fluctuating behavior of various biological processes. He and his colleagues have discovered that the levels of triglycerides – those nasty lipids that can build up in the liver and contribute to various heart problems – are regulated by these biological clocks, with their levels rising and falling according to a specific timetable. No big shocker there, but their next finding was quite surprising: When they restricted the mice’s meals to nighttime hours only, they saw a shift not only in the time the triglycerides had accumulated in the liver, but they observed a dramatic 50% decrease in overall levels. (And before you go ahead and open that fridge – remember: Mice are nocturnal animals so whatever works for them would be the opposite in us, humans.)</p> <p>No drugs currently available for treating hyperlipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia – common diseases characterized by abnormally elevated levels of lipids in the blood and liver cells – have been shown to change lipid accumulation as efficiently and drastically as simply adjusting meal time. In other words, this research could lead to an alternative therapeutic intervention for such diseases:  simply adjusting mealtimes. As an added benefit, one would not have to suffer any of the side effects usually associated with the drugs.</p> <p>Not only that, but the scientists say it could have  some farther-reaching implications. Just think about blood tests:  These are usually only carried out in the morning hours,  often after a fast. It is possible that the same test, carried out in the late afternoon, would yield different results? And the same holds true for animal researchers: Their data could  depend on the timing of samples or feeding schedules.</p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a></span> <span>Wed, 02/05/2014 - 03:31</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biochemistry" hreflang="en">biochemistry</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biomedical" hreflang="en">Biomedical</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/circadian-clocks" hreflang="en">circadian clocks</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/inflammation" hreflang="en">inflammation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/metabolic-disease" hreflang="en">metabolic disease</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/obesity" hreflang="en">obesity</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/eating-times" hreflang="en">eating times</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/gad-asher" hreflang="en">Gad Asher</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/lipid-accumulation-liver" hreflang="en">lipid accumulation in liver</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/triglyceride-level" hreflang="en">triglyceride level</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biochemistry" hreflang="en">biochemistry</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/circadian-clocks" hreflang="en">circadian clocks</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/inflammation" hreflang="en">inflammation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/obesity" hreflang="en">obesity</a></div> </div> </div> <section> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909140" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1391685543"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>And what is the case for humans who are basically nocturnal, or who are completely detached from the conventional clock and don't usually see daylight?</p> <p>Both of those are norms in the culture of programmers and related engineering professions. Someone needs to study the time-related health variables in this sector of society, upon whom we depend for much of our modern infrastructure.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909140&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="rx6AkD0JiADPX7GDu7TyEHJKJWrDpFq0fPneUgdZY9s"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">G (not verified)</span> on 06 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909140">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <div class="indented"> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1909141" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1391686190"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Other researchers do, indeed, look at the human cost (see above in the post). The above kind of study can find the exact biochemical mechanisms, which can then be applied to people. One of the problems with doing such studies in humans -- involving diet -- is in that you would not only have to take the timing into account, but to adjust for take-out pizza and coffee consumption. Clearly more research is needed, but ask yourself: How much of that programming really needs to get done at night?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909141&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="CbNXw-hjJzEiK8Dl5G3GFWCL6LBoWVfsbyt4j6DD5Es"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 06 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909141">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/1909140#comment-1909140" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">G (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> </div> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909142" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1391976638"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>It is very interesting how this plays out in the mice, but I have to question, how do other factors (like differences in circadian rhythms as G mentioned) have an effect on humans? It would also be useful and engaging to see how different individuals of varying gender and age groups would react to this study. According to the National Sleep Foundation, adolescents have a delay in their biological clock. As a teenager very interested in health and medicine, I would be curious to know the difference this age/circadian rhythm change causes on the liver triglyceride levels and how it would affect my meal times. Or if it would even make that big of a difference?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909142&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="4eiKaqjk2Ew93xqbCgxkavLJeoNwYqg-CE7E82Z6AxM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Nicole Hedrick (not verified)</span> on 09 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909142">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <div class="indented"> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1909143" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1392018603"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Dr. Gad Asher replied: I do not have a good answer, in fact this is a very good question and future studies will hopefully provide an answer to these questions.<br /> To date our studies are mostly limited to animal models which are well controlled.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909143&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="P3Lnp63hVSqUQ6pfXzrGt9ZaH7Q2Pp6R0TGT5P2KXDg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 10 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909143">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/1909142#comment-1909142" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Nicole Hedrick (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> </div> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909144" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1392078818"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>If an optimum time was found that the biological processes are occurring within the animal could you therefore have more control on obesity and heart disease that occur and possibly limit the animal to these? Also if studied on humans would this have the same effect?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909144&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="gV3UUXI35IlgtfN_kR1HRhl_VfLZH8fbn7CXK9rc5Gw"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Erin (not verified)</span> on 10 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909144">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <div class="indented"> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1909145" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1392094639"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Studies would have to be carried out on humans, of course.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909145&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="5rFIjJBxhlWi5B74OQ-LbcxEWIBciVNxfSfbKoBIz1E"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 10 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909145">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/1909144#comment-1909144" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Erin (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> </div> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909146" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1392128887"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>This is very interesting. It has never occurred to me that time can play a major role based on our biological factors. I have noticed that if I come home from a long, busy day without eating during my usual time, a disturbance in my body when I eat my "midnight dinner." I notice that I feel a little different (not by a whole lot) and it becomes harder to sleep at night right after I eat. But why does a change in your biological clock make sure a huge different later down the road on your body. For example, when someone moves to a new place over seas and they have to adjust to the time zone there, can this cause my problems down the road when they have to fully adjust to this for possible the rest of their lives? Do you think it affects younger people more, the same, or less than someone who is older? Also, based on what you eat at night I presume plays a role in how much or how little it can effect your body. Since our bodies have a nature way of healing ourselves, like forming scabes after cuts and getting better after a cold- because our homeosstatesis plays a role, it could be possible that if a person where to remain stable with a constant time on sleeping, eating etc. that the diseases possibly caused from this down the road can be "re-winded?" Do you think this can play a role in cancer also?<br /> Diseases that can be caused from a disturbance does make sense because our bodies are like a machine and if the machine is not treated properly with care and maintenance the time of the machine will not work long.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909146&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="57UQAzVLO-D5Y3JpsxSNLbJapGOlJs6Uxn2n4vBl-sc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Maria (not verified)</span> on 11 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909146">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909147" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1392153813"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I found this article very interesting. The title caught my eye but I didn't expect this is what the article would be on. I am very interested in weight loss and weight management and have done some research on it before based on past experience and other peoples experiences. I have heard from people that late night cravings and snacking is bad for you but never found an article based on it like this one. This makes me rethink the next time I want a snack before bed. It makes me curious how Dr Asher thought to study the circadian rhythm to see how our trygluceride levels are effected. It is interesting to think that we could find the cure to beat obestiy and heart diseases that has been effected Americans for years. When could they start doing these types of testing on humans since they have only been testing mice? And what kind of an effect do you think this kind of testing would have on humans?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909147&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="qojjC75zEkZOrCLG0nNLzO1ke26iZ0sXWSj5WrT4b1Y"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Emily Strogen (not verified)</span> on 11 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909147">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909148" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1392230878"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I found this article to be very interesting but it's not exactly new information. It's common knowledge to not eat after a certain time to benefit a healthy weight just like it is common knowledge not to eat McDonalds when dieting. However, I think it needs to become more known just how much the late night eating can set people back when trying to maintain a healthy diet. I would be curious to know if this pertains to all "midnight snacking" or if there are certain foods that will not disturb our biological clocks. Say you eat celery at one a.m. Celery does not have much nutritional value so will that throw our clocks out of wack as well. I realize it will not have the same effect as eating a burger at this same time but my question still stands if it is ok to eat late at night if it is something healthy.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909148&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="lbwnx7l6yLncognz9urqVFICAPXup2fbqIVVpQBHv8k"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Heather (not verified)</span> on 12 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909148">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <div class="indented"> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1909150" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1392268112"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Again, the study was done on mice -- it won't tell you what a human can eat at night. The surprise was not that our eating has a biological clock function, but that there is another clock, on top of the first one, that strongly regulates lipid storage in the liver.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909150&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="NOe7jXndkhsWa3QVlp8Ex_oGNB7W7Yh6MSZ4nTOg2IY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 13 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909150">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/1909148#comment-1909148" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Heather (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> </div> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909149" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1392244238"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I found this article to be very interesting and relatable! I constantly try to watch what I eat. We always seem to get hungry when we shouldn't get hungry. Like we want what we can't have. I've read other articles by Dr. Asher where he is talking about the biological clock. This tells us whether we should wake up, if it's time to go to bed, etc. This helps you decide when it may be "too late" to eat. I'm interested to see what happens to those who may work all night and work all day., or are just nocturnal. I think that it is cool that we are able to use mice as experiments before we use humans. Are there other animals that we could use to experiment on? I think this is interesting because everyone of us can relate to us whether we like to watch what we eat or we don't have a care in the world! Either way these experiments are working closer to reduce the amount of heart disease and obesity!</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909149&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="AqGSeW9-pj15aZguZZO35W7qaXyp9DI3K0jDb8rjrjM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Bethany ONeal (not verified)</span> on 12 Feb 2014 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909149">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/weizmann/2014/02/05/a-matter-of-time%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Wed, 05 Feb 2014 08:31:16 +0000 jhalper 71258 at https://scienceblogs.com Some Thoughts on a Mechanism for Cell Suicide https://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/2012/05/20/some-thoughts-on-a-mechanism-for-cell-suicide <span>Some Thoughts on a Mechanism for Cell Suicide</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>You might not think of cell suicide as a sexy subject - but it is actually quite hot. Cells off themselves for any number of reasons: In embryonic development, cell suicide helps shape the growing organism. In adults, suicide is the last resort of a cell whose DNA is too damaged to repair, and its death prevents cancer, among other things. You can think of cell suicide as a prerequisite for the existence of multicellular life.</p> <p><a title="Atan Gross" href="http://www.weizmann.ac.il/Biological_Regulation/gross/" target="_blank">Prof. Atan Gross </a>has, for the past several years, been focusing on a pair of cell suicide proteins - BID and ATM. The more Gross studies these proteins, the more complex the picture appears. First, he found that the two are involved in both initiating cell suicide and preventing said suicide. <a title="wonder_wander_Gross" href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/meeting-places" target="_blank">His latest research</a> shows that the same two proteins are also active in a completely different part of the cell's life cycle - either preventing blood stem cells from differentiating or prompting them to differentiate. And there are hints that a much more convoluted set of connections may be lurking just outside the scope of his present framework.</p> <p>Yet at the very heart of the story is a simple switch - an on-off connection between BID and ATM. ATM acts as a physical restraint on BID: When it stays around the cell nucleus, the status quo is maintained. When the two don't connect, the unleashed BID molecule goes off to another organelle - the mitochondrion - where the small, destructive molecules known as reactive oxygen species are produced.  An excess of reactive oxygen species both kills the cell and initiates the differentiation of new replacement cells. To use an engineering concept, Gross describes the BID-ATM mechanism as a rheostat that senses the condition of the cell and regulates reactive oxygen species production accordingly.</p> <p>That would seem to indicate a neat, elegant suicide mechanism. (Though not terribly simple: The cell nucleus and mitochondria are apparently in cahoots, and two very different activities - suicide and stem cell differentiation - are controlled by the same switch.)</p> <p>Now for the real complexity: The various proteins in question, including the ones on the mitochondria involved in producing the reactive oxygen species, all have "day jobs," working to maintain such metabolic functions as fat regulation. And here, says Gross, is where the idea of a unique suicide mechanism starts to get fuzzy. Rather than a special "cyanide pill" kept especially for the purpose of self-destruction, the cell does itself in by overdosing on everyday substances. Instead of simple switches, the molecules involved are something like people - they behave differently in different situations and are occasionally driven to desperate acts.</p> <p><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2012/05/Super-BID-comic_low.jpg"><img class="aligncenter size-medium wp-image-241" title="Super BID comic_low" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2012/05/Super-BID-comic_low-216x300.jpg" alt="" width="216" height="300" /></a></p> <p><em>When mild-mannered BID exits the cell nucleus, it initiates cell suicide and saves the organism. But is that the whole story?</em> Illustration: Elite Avni</p> <p>Does this mean that the elegant model of a rheostat flies out the window? Not exactly. But it might be useful to think of it less as a component - something that can be isolated from a larger piece of machinery - and more as a cycle within a cycle.</p> <p>Elegant engineering or a small part of a large, highly complex cycle? The question becomes especially relevant once we start to think about fixing or adjusting the mechanism to treat disease. Gross believes that the inherent connection he and his team are uncovering between the suicide switch and cell metabolism may eventually lead to new thinking about treating all sorts of ailments.</p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a></span> <span>Sun, 05/20/2012 - 01:44</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/metabolic-disease" hreflang="en">metabolic disease</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/uncategorized" hreflang="en">Uncategorized</a></div> </div> </div> <section> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909029" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1337735435"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>A couple of years back I read Nick Lane's, "Power, Sex, Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life." It is good to read the most current thought on the matter. Thank you for posting this.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909029&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="Xu2aavuuviYcikYvpbYaKRclzX3S_ikrmExiPLFXDnU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Mike Olson (not verified)</span> on 22 May 2012 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1909029">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/weizmann/2012/05/20/some-thoughts-on-a-mechanism-for-cell-suicide%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Sun, 20 May 2012 05:44:12 +0000 jhalper 71208 at https://scienceblogs.com A Gene for Sweet Cravings https://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/2010/10/05/a-gene-for-sweet-cravings <span>A Gene for Sweet Cravings</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Feel the need to eat chocolate when under pressure? You might be able to blame it on your genes, specifically a gene in the brain that responds to stress. This gene, when active, brings out your anxiety and as well as bringing about metabolic changes that tell your body to burn sugar, rather than fat. The same metabolic changes reduce insulin sensitivity in muscles, raising sugar levels in the blood, and causing the pancreas to churn out more insulin. According to the Institute scientists who <a href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/gene-ties-stress-to-obesity-and-diabetes">revealed the gene's function</a>, if the constant stress of daily life keeps this gene overworked, the result could be metabolic disease, obesity and diabetes. </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a></span> <span>Mon, 10/04/2010 - 20:51</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/genes" hreflang="en">genes</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/metabolic-disease" hreflang="en">metabolic disease</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/obesity" hreflang="en">obesity</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/stress-response" hreflang="en">stress response</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/diabetes" hreflang="en">diabetes</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/insulin-sensitivity" hreflang="en">Insulin sensitivity</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/stress" hreflang="en">stress</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/genes" hreflang="en">genes</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/obesity" hreflang="en">obesity</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/stress-response" hreflang="en">stress response</a></div> </div> </div> <section> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1908851" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1286359429"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>These news were released over five months ago.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1908851&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="9iIapWhQZd0BxynltQ-ffMrIB8QRKzX-V9vcwPXGxJA"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span> on 06 Oct 2010 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1908851">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1908852" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1286411138"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>True. But next week's PNAS will have a paper on the next stage of this research. (That's all I can say about it at this point. Read the article.)</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1908852&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="xWjOJMXTFRT49IA5AlKQ9F0AwA1UzFGEUw92qG_jAb0"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 06 Oct 2010 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1908852">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1908853" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1286822960"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Though the brief summary here is not so intriguing, the study is pretty interesting. Choosing the rPFA to manipulate is a nice trick. </p> <p>Here is the link to the paper: <a href="http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/04/08/1003969107.abstract">http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/04/08/1003969107.abstract</a></p> <p>On a side note, I would like to see more research on emotional regulation from Dr. Chen's lab.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1908853&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="zl1O_4LWDWV0V-l9Pubc-OuBEuhKVKzbE55ZmMieQUA"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Nofutur (not verified)</span> on 11 Oct 2010 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1908853">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1908854" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1287370278"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Just wondering if there are some natural "remedies" for reducing those sweet cravings mid-day or for reducing hunger levels in general.<br /><a href="http://renadexwarning.com">http://renadexwarning.com</a></p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1908854&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="gYkN5NyJpR0s2kEu2QUadSdvxRTTYa1qre7A3Anr7sU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">brownmaria (not verified)</span> on 17 Oct 2010 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1908854">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1908855" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1287948499"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I found this study extremely interesting, however there are not as many details as I would have liked. How exactly did they go about the study? I agree with Nofutur, I would like to know the emotional regulation of this test. And are there any more details? As a person who frequently goes through stress and has a major sweet tooth, Iâd like to read more on this!</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1908855&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="gqD_0yQYP1dBatrS3EwRZPcK4o7wiVNkLrj2qrfWJiY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Varsh (not verified)</span> on 24 Oct 2010 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1908855">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1908856" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1287957386"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>This answers many questions Iâve had over the years such as why I eat chocolate when Iâm stressed or why ice cream is the only thing that can get me to bed on stressful nights. Do you think this may also be one of the reasons why people chew gum during hard tests or while writing important papers? I also understand why this is causing diabetes and obesity because if someone is being bullied on the playground for being overweight, their bodies might tell them to eat more sugar which can just add to their problems. Also, with all of the academic pressure put on our generation, itâs no wonder why the percent of obese Americans is rising year by year.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1908856&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="aVjUR5_lM4khouK3j650RDkAnWa-npZQs4tVTBN2YbE"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.callynsthoughts.blogspot.com" lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Callyn (not verified)</a> on 24 Oct 2010 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1908856">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1908857" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1427906444"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I agree with these findings as I have experienced this in my friend's family. All of the females in his family have an intense love for sweet things. So much that one of his aunt's has been diagnosed with diabetes after long years of unhealthy snacking. This study proves that, just like cancer and many other genetically transmitted diseases, a love for sweets can also be transmitted through genes and could cause many problems if not kept under control.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1908857&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="wK9-pq3-dK4i45KOiXyhl8JaJUl-AnOPrGoAV8lqWys"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Alri Richter (not verified)</span> on 01 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20118/feed#comment-1908857">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/weizmann/2010/10/05/a-gene-for-sweet-cravings%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Tue, 05 Oct 2010 00:51:08 +0000 jhalper 71157 at https://scienceblogs.com