Eldad Tzahor https://scienceblogs.com/ en Guest post: Dr. Gabriele D’Uva: How to Grow New Heart Cells https://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/2015/04/13/guest-post-dr-gabriele-duva-how-to-grow-new-heart-cells <span>Guest post: Dr. Gabriele D’Uva: How to Grow New Heart Cells</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><em>Dr. Gabriele D'Uva is finishing up his postdoctoral research at the Weizmann Institute. Here is his account of three years of highly successful research on regenerating heart cells after injury. Among other things, it is the story of the way that different ideas from vastly different research areas can, over the dinner table or in casual conversation, provide the inspiration for outstanding research:</em><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2015/04/Gabriele.jpg"><img class="alignright wp-image-876" src="/files/weizmann/files/2015/04/Gabriele.jpg" alt="Gabriele" width="112" height="118" /></a></p> <p>Three years ago, when I joined the lab of <a href="http://wws.weizmann.ac.il/Biological_Regulation/tzahor/" target="_blank">Prof. Eldad Tzahor</a>, the emerging field of cardiac regeneration was totally obscure to me. My scientific track at that time was mainly focused on normal and cancer stem cells: cells that build our bodies during development and adulthood.  The deregulation of these cells can lead to cancer. I have to admit that I didn’t know even the shape of a cardiac cell when my postdoc journey started…</p> <p>Eldad’s lab was also switching fields -- well, not drastically, like me, but still it was a transition from a basic research on the development of the heart to the challenge of heart regeneration during adult life.</p> <p> </p> <div style="width: 222px;float:left;"><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2015/04/Tzahor_heart-cell-division.jpg"><img class="wp-image-877 size-medium" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2015/04/Tzahor_heart-cell-division-212x300.jpg" alt="" width="212" height="300" /></a> Two neonatal cardiomyocytes (staining in red) undergoing cell division after treatment with NRG1 </div> <p>In contrast to most tissues in our body, which renew themselves throughout life using our pools of stem cells, the renewal of heart cells in adulthood is extremely low; it almost doesn’t exist. Just to give an approximate picture of renewal and regeneration processes: Every day we produce billions of new blood cells that completely replace the old ones in a few months. In contrast, heart cells renewal is so low that, many cardiac cells remain with us for our entire life, from birth to death! Consequently, heart injuries cannot be truly repaired, leading to (often lethal) cardiovascular diseases. This might appear somewhat nonsensical, since the heart is our most vital organ: No (heart) “beat” no life.</p> <p> </p> <p>Hence a challenge for many scientists is to understand how to induce heart regeneration Scientists have been trying different strategies, for example, the injection of stem cells. We decided to adopt a different strategy – one that mimics the natural regenerative process of healing the heart in such “regenerative” organisms as amphibians and fish, and even newly-born mice. In all these cases the regeneration of the heart involves the proliferation of heart muscle cells called cardiomyocytes. Therefore the challenge before us was: “<a href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/heart-cells-regenerated-in-mice#.VRunDuH-7uc" target="_blank">How can we push cardiomyocytes to divide</a>?”</p> <p>We adopted a team strategy. Cancer turned out to be a somewhat useful model for a “strategy.” After all, the hallmark of this disease is continuous self-renewal and cell proliferation. Starting from this thought, Prof. Yossi Yarden, a leading expert in the cancer field, suggested: “Why don’t you try an oncogene, such as ERBB2, whose deregulation can lead to uncontrolled cellular growth and tumour development?” The idea was that cardiomyocytes could be pushed into a proliferative state by this cancer-promoting agent. To Eldad, this was a nice “life” circle closing, since Eldad, when he was a PhD student in Yossi’s lab, focused exactly on the ERBB2 mechanism of action in cancer progression. I must admit, the idea sounded very intriguing and I really liked it.</p> <p>Eldad, as a developmental biologist, had a different approach. Based on his field of expertise, his tactic was to apply proliferative (and regenerative) strategies learned from the embryos, when heart cells normally proliferate to form a functional organ. It turned out that a key player in driving embryonic heart growth is again… ERBB2!</p> <p>So, Yossi and Eldad, from different fields of expertise, had the same idea: Look to ERBB2, which is a receptor on the cell surface that amplifies and transmits growth factor signals. It looked, back then, like a challenging idea; I was very happy to take the dare.</p> <p>So this is exactly how my three and half years of post doc research started. At that stage, ERBB2 looked like a perfect candidate for cardiac regeneration. The idea to bring together cancer and developmental knowledge doubled the percentage of our success. The odds were on my side!</p> <p>A first rule to starting a project regarding the role of any protein is to check for its expression. Therefore I started to analyse the kinetic of expression of ERBB2 in a normal heart during post-natal development. Interestingly, I noticed a dramatic reduction in ERBB2 levels in the heart during the first week of post-natal life. I have to mention that mouse cardiomyocytes stop dividing soon after birth, in about a week. It’s probably a residual proliferative ability of their embryonic life. My initial results revealed a strong reduction in ERBB2 expression, exactly coincident with the period in which heart cells lose their proliferative and regenerative capabilities.</p> <p>I was very intrigued by this result, which immediately opened a very important question: “Is the loss of the regenerative ability of the heart in mice due to the decline of ERBB2 expression after birth?” After hundreds of experiments I can confidently answer: Yes. ERBB2 levels are reduced in cardiomyocytes shortly after birth, and this down-regulation limits the proliferative and regenerative ability of cardiac muscle cells.</p> <p>To prove that, we first generated mice in which we deleted the Erbb2 gene specifically in heart cells. Loss of the ERBB2 gene (and protein) led to reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and consequently to a very thin and poorly contracting heart. In the absence of ERBB2, the heart at birth was so weak that it could not tolerate the blood pressure and became dilated, a cardiac disease in humans known as dilated cardiomyopathy. The conclusion was that EBB22 is required for proper proliferation and growth of heart during embryonic development and its expression is physiologically reduced soon after birth to allow maturation of the cardiomyocytes.</p> <div style="width: 310px;display:block;margin:0 auto;"><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2015/04/Hearts_3.jpg"><img class="wp-image-878 size-medium" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2015/04/Hearts_3-300x238.jpg" alt="Cardiomegaly (giant heart) in adult mice upon induction of Erbb2 (heart on the right) compared to normal mice (heart on the left)" width="300" height="238" /></a> Cardiomegaly (giant heart) in adult mice upon induction of Erbb2 (heart on the right) compared to normal mice (heart on the left) </div> <p>Because of its major role in cancer, the only way to study ERBB2 involvement during heart regeneration was to search for a sophisticated system to finely, and transiently, increase its levels in the heart, within defined time windows. For this, we generated mice in which we could switch ERBB2 ON or OFF in cardiomyocytes. The results were amazing. Persistent ERBB2 induction led to a giant heart, two to three times bigger than normal in just a week or two. The analysis of the mechanism demonstrated that ERBB2 gets muscle cell to “rejuvenate” to an earlier stage (a phenomenon called “dedifferentiation”) and to reacquire the ability to proliferate -- similar to what happens during embryonic development. In addition, ERBB2 increases the size of the cardiomyocytes (a phenomenon called “hypertrophy”).</p> <p>Thus far, the project had been proceeding in the right direction. However we soon realized that a bigger team could improve the project’s success. A very talented master’s student, Alla Aharonov, joined me in this effort. Alla’s help was precious in many ways. In particular, she contributed to our resolving the specific molecular pathways that are mediated by ERBB2 activation. Precious help in the analyses of cardiac functions were obtained from the lab of Profs. Jonathan Leor and Michal Neeman. Very important were also the “dinner discussions” with my wife, Mattia Lauriola (who was conducting a parallel postdoc in Yossi Yarden’s lab), in addition to Yossi’s scientific support and help from the beginning of the project. At certain point Eldad also involved Prof. Richard Harvey, a good friend of his and a leading scientist in heart development, whose suggestions turned out to be very effective. The project and the team were blooming.</p> <p>The main findings, which we are happy to report, are that transient activation of ERBB2 (ranging from 10 days to 3 weeks) can trigger cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation and proliferation. These two processes in turn are critical to achieving cardiac regeneration after the injury that we had induced in mice to mimic human heart attacks. (termed myocardial infarction). Therefore, the activation of ERBB2 is one strategy to promote heart regeneration. It’s important to mention that one of the therapies currently being tested in clinical trials is a growth factor stimulus called Neuregulin1 (NRG1), which activates ERBB2 signalling. However, since we uncovered the fact that that ERBB2 levels are very low in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, we suggest that the efficacy of NRG1 therapy might be limited in adulthood. Further experiments in cardiomyocytes derived from human patients could answer this question.</p> <p>The good news is that, according to our results, heart patients will definitely improve if we can, in the future, find a way to fine-tune ERBB2 levels. We need to find a way to control the expression of this receptor, or its signalling partners, for a short time to repair the damaged heart. How? That’s the next challenge; but it which could help millions patients worldwide!</p> <p><em> Our findings point to a central role of ERBB2 in cardiomyocyte cell division and regeneration.</em></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a></span> <span>Mon, 04/13/2015 - 02:10</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biomedical" hreflang="en">Biomedical</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/cancer-research" hreflang="en">Cancer Research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/embryonic-development" hreflang="en">Embryonic development</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/heart-disease" hreflang="en">heart disease</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/scientific-collaboration" hreflang="en">scientific collaboration</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/dedifferrntiation" hreflang="en">dedifferrntiation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/eldad-tzahor" hreflang="en">Eldad Tzahor</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/gabriele-duva" hreflang="en">Gabriele D&#039;Uva</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/growth-factor-receptor" hreflang="en">growth factor receptor</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/heart-cell-regenertation" hreflang="en">heart cell regenertation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/scientific-collaboration" hreflang="en">scientific collaboration</a></div> </div> </div> <section> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909258" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1428910617"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>This was such an interesting read! I am amazed by the continuous progress being made under the radar. Is it possible to manipulate the heart from birth to ensure that levels of ERBB2 never decrease? I am looking forward to see how these results will alter the treatment of heart conditions.</p> <p>[15044922]</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909258&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="EtauxLVsyLWtxzIq9sHoxoEWiCjGp0tQJVYSMwfi3IU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Estie-Lome&#039; Mouton (not verified)</span> on 13 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909258">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909259" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1428921968"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>What are the chances of succeeding in finding a way to fine-tune ERBB2 levels and a way to control the expression of this receptor, or its signalling partners, for a short time to repair the damaged heart in the future?and is it guaranteed that when you succeed in these findings heart patients will improve?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909259&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="iBrPqP_afl_9Ls8gcecsudGsa49FywDkUOJE8aKYQWk"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" content="Matanhire Michelle u14241308">Matanhire Mich… (not verified)</span> on 13 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909259">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909260" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1428922410"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Wow that is amazing! More research should definitely be done on the subject. I am confident that these findings will help to ensure that heart diseases will be treated easily and that people with weak hearts will have a chance to live a normal life. (15001548)</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909260&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="4rPRHphAYn8kc_kvIqwpOn0S6oajE6V1o3adFPuRa_s"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Antoinette van Wyk (not verified)</span> on 13 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909260">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909261" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1428922915"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>what is the difference between cardiac and tissue cell that give rise the high frequent renewal of the tissue cells but extremely low to the cardiac cell?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909261&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="x37GxylWxsEk9Nmbm9NbbqAEmkLCG1y7hyUukHM3MGY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" content="Sifiso Dubazana (15198163)">Sifiso Dubazan… (not verified)</span> on 13 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909261">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909262" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1428927424"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>That is excelent work indeed.I claim with no doubt that these findings can extend to other interesting researches about the heart.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909262&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="Fg54bojiJgZlaNAvdIOlt42eSc-G_dsDeLMzxVkvlWE"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" content="Boysana Ramalope(u15265626)">Boysana Ramalo… (not verified)</span> on 13 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909262">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909263" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1428927949"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I find this research ground-breaking and indicates that science is one step closer to finding the life-saving therapy and treatment that patients with cardiovascular disease need. It is enlightening to also know how heart cell stop regenerating from birth which highlights the importance not taking one's heart health for granted. It would be great if similar research can be done on the regeneration of neuron cells in the body which like this research, will cure other various degenerative diseases.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909263&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="_FsC-U5UCVwKWB6dglxV96rv7X6rS0KI8W74AKaBkdY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Refiloe Motsatsi (not verified)</span> on 13 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909263">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909264" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1428932763"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I find this research very remarkable and proves that science is one step closer to finding a cure for patients suffering from various cardiovascular diseases. Can the same approach be used to treat other damaged tissues such as the in the brain when a patient has suffered a stroke?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909264&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="rnzg_PJEnCZqaag5CMTKfZzNx9de3YcHBpRdtUStWGs"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Refiloe Motsatsi (not verified)</span> on 13 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909264">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909265" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429024673"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>It is incredible to turn something negative into something positive. Can the same cancer growth idea be used for other organs as well? I would love to see how this idea can be used in the brain or nervous system to cure auto immune degenerative diseases. It is unbelievable to imagine where the medical research will be in 20 years from now. The life expectancy can increase drastically.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909265&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="AsVO-TW9XoxoEVCK16jDRSowxg2PXqRN4q82V5RoNwg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Danielle van Wyk (not verified)</span> on 14 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909265">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909266" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429038988"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>with such groundbreaking studies it would now seem that soon the world would be populated by older and older people. Is there no possible way of programming the heart cells to function like those of the liver?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909266&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="8sw5Tnx1MpFIeB_QyBurhM5RGkCD5qma_j8jGe8ly14"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Damean Billson (not verified)</span> on 14 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909266">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909267" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429084736"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>i would pose the same question as you danielle, can it also be used for other organs? so that finally we can get a cure for cancer not a guarantee of losing a loved as soon as they have cancer, this would help a lot of people in different ways.Excelent work being down by our scientist and physicians</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909267&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="jv4N0ZFTBHWgeuH8nLqXx1a0WTqs_BUBrFnHxS8RUwc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" content="u14241308 M Matanhire">u14241308 M Ma… (not verified)</span> on 15 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909267">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909268" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429084928"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>excellent work being done by our scientist and physicians i meant</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909268&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="4jK4S7r3hqmQfzL7SDojE8pA0Rlxv6scgdIHf_g1KzU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" content="u14241308 M Matanhire">u14241308 M Ma… (not verified)</span> on 15 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909268">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909269" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429086512"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The fact that this discovery has been made could have unlimited possibilities! would it be possible to synthesize ERBB2 that is might be possible in humans to utilize it when it is needed, for example in patients with failing hearts? Or perhaps a way unto which the production of ERBB2 could be increased to an extent that humans continue to produce it only to regenerate heart cells without the side effect of an enlarged heart as seen by the mouse heart three times the size of a normal mouse heart. Very interesting read though and cannot wait for further advancements in this field. u15016677</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909269&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="efIeFSVV2xYsIX39uRT3j2SRiNGIodmBWFTetWt0jT4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Theo Hohls (not verified)</span> on 15 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909269">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909270" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429118797"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>If these ERBB2 cells are known to stimulate growth, could it not also be used in other areas of the body where for example there is a cell deficiency, or maybe with diabetes where there is a low production of the necessary components. There should be a way to use ERBB2 in other areas of the body as well.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909270&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="w_qO5qfEVz3bq5pxYTUwPkc5bN2jmSsJ7hSsaZ-1PbU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Marcelle de Jong (not verified)</span> on 15 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909270">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909271" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429124026"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I find this research very interesting, I can even see myself doing perhaps something similar in the future. This research not only have the potential to change the way we look at the human heart but also the way we look at various degenerative diseases. It will change the medical world drastically. One thing I am wondering about is why the heart has such a low renewal rate?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909271&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="Xf32xrr7H_m_JIBOIti6m9KTNpndpFoaojKsvYWARiQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Adam Boyens (not verified)</span> on 15 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909271">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909272" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429127309"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Well done on the research conducted and progress made in the field of cardiac regeneration. It truly made for a very informative read and it was interesting to note about the almost non-existing renewal of heart cells. The research provides hope that damaged hearts could be repaired in the near future. Keep up the good work! (04648685)</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909272&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="PrblhKKPT7ZbInwDRS0cfGYN-C22zQp649Jsa3dEbic"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">OvN (not verified)</span> on 15 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909272">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909273" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429175263"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>It is amazing! More research ought to certainly be done on the subject. I am certain that these discoveries will help to guarantee that heart sicknesses will be dealt with effectively and that individuals with frail hearts will have an opportunity to carry on with a typical life</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909273&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="-BCr2jA21CDupZIPpH302qV37kUw_tsV3N1KuZt6vQQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" content="dr Nadim M. Zacca, M.D.">dr Nadim M. Za… (not verified)</span> on 16 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909273">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909274" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429183676"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>This is amazing, to think that researchers has come this far in a matter of a few years. The regeneration of heart cells is maybe one of the most important medical fields to explore to ensure that people with heart damage can live a full life despite their condition.<br /> 14010926</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909274&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="6ESWJp_tBx9n0fEhQPM7dqo-DXgNLramTgbVj4xy3s4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Charne Coetzer (not verified)</span> on 16 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909274">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909275" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429295331"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Since ERBB2 seems to be triggered in all the cardiac tissue, leading to hypertrophy, which in itself is potentially fatal, how would one limit its action or generation to specific areas affected by myocardial infarction, which are necrotic? Put another way, how would one achieve a patch effect?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909275&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="tS_JSuJWSwgHUBIoQGFgtJ7GjMzOmMBjY-JLiiZQPE8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Marnel (u15008160) (not verified)</span> on 17 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909275">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909276" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429326814"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>This research is so inspirational and very interesting. I can't wait to see how damaged hearts will be repaired in the future. It is amazing how medical science has improved.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909276&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="xExQtGG1MJ-UdZKrws7It3W-Zk3-gO1_LOp4IrZakqk"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" content="Carike Odendaal u15032729">Carike Odendaa… (not verified)</span> on 17 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909276">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909277" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429331683"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Well done to medical science! It is amazing how the world of medicine has improved.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909277&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="3fB3TfRUUA2po8VJ_O0pa-P5nPaqLYcu4uNu2_L01x0"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Carol (not verified)</span> on 18 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909277">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909278" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429331894"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>This is very interesting. I can not wait to see how damaged heart will be repaired in the future. This is outstanding work done by scientists and physicians. Science just keep improving our lives day by day.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909278&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="GQswmQYbH2ENGefuxtXSf-BayhpcZbBXnAXXrpkE1L8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" content="Carike Odendaal u15032729">Carike Odendaa… (not verified)</span> on 18 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909278">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909279" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429341662"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I found this article not only interesting but inspiring, To take the concept and idea of what cancer does to the cell, then to apply it to an organ where regenerative capabilities are needed?. My only question is are we able to control ERBB2 receptors and the growth of the heart cells? and as asked in comment #8 can this be applied to other internal organs??</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909279&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="tL4iflX-KoD3_jToPvYQ4o77ChfdO2sH_gAjYgoRJpI"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" content="Jaclyn Moneron (u14089476)">Jaclyn Moneron… (not verified)</span> on 18 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909279">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909280" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429353087"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>What are the chances of cardiac regeneration in baby's born with holes in their hearts,especially baby's born with down syndrome? Will this research project be of any help to them?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909280&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="WYUMaPknzO5SXuV1W3sLLhP7MfXYOdoo7uhkfMyRQn4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" content="ZG Manzini (u15037097)">ZG Manzini (u1… (not verified)</span> on 18 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909280">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909281" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429358605"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>This is truly fascinating. I had no idea that heart cells could not be renewed or repaired. An interesting point to acknowledge however is why try to repair an organ that is destined to fail at some point? Why not replace the organ with a more reliable, longer lasting piece of equipment? I believe further studies should be focused on cybertronics.<br /> u15001319</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909281&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="9cWUi1uc_ms9DQ73mAdnTs9pWr1FQ__VaDnHX-Ct__A"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Kyle (not verified)</span> on 18 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909281">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909282" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429369709"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>15008160</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909282&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="kKtz95Bnh_4hD32pdOgzz4NFVnx51CW6nxQAiPOS59U"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Marnel (not verified)</span> on 18 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909282">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909283" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429450326"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I'm really impressed with this research and hope to one day partake in this exciting search to cure the heart!!!</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909283&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="Ky699rLgnMzVtqBFAn5ZZXkvenZR-LtM-tLqaE-e4WA"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Jayjay (not verified)</span> on 19 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909283">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909284" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429450429"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>WOW hopefully by the time my heart gives in this research would have been completed and my heart saved ;)</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909284&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="nw3cXgv4GaKJqbFwg2BpXYa10LCnOAIqb85rs6ok_xg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">tsepho (not verified)</span> on 19 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909284">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1909285" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429510876"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>To all you South African commenters: sorry if your comments did not appear immediately. I was on vacation, but tried to get them up as soon as I could.</p> <p>Please keep up your interest in this site and in science!</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909285&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="CniglXKO0QdNvLHoJTs-ksm4BteVZsby-CD9dg3ghu8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 20 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909285">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/weizmann/2015/04/13/guest-post-dr-gabriele-duva-how-to-grow-new-heart-cells%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Mon, 13 Apr 2015 06:10:12 +0000 jhalper 71281 at https://scienceblogs.com DiGeorge Syndrome Demystifed https://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/2013/01/17/digeorge-syndrome-demystifed <span>DiGeorge Syndrome Demystifed</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Does your face reveal what’s in your heart? It might – even more than you know. Take, for instance, a common group of birth defects – forms of a disorder called DiGeorge syndrome. Around one in 4000 is born with this syndrome, which arises from a deletion of a short segment of chromosome 22.  Among other problems, this deletion nearly always involves deformations in both the face and the heart.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="/files/weizmann/files/2013/01/Face-Heart.jpg"><img class="size-medium wp-image-410 aligncenter" title="Face-Heart" src="http://scienceblogs.com/weizmann/files/2013/01/Face-Heart-289x300.jpg" alt="" width="289" height="300" /></a></p> <div class="mceTemp mceIEcenter"> <dl id="attachment_410" class="wp-caption aligncenter" style="width: 299px;"><dd class="wp-caption-dd">Sculpture: Igor Mitoraj</dd> </dl></div> <p>The Institute’s <a href="http://www.weizmann.ac.il/Biological_Regulation/tzahor/" target="_blank">Prof. Eldad Tzahor</a> had already shown that face and heart go together: Very early on in the developing embryo,  the progenitor cells that will become heart and facial muscles start out together in the same “classroom” – a small area in the neck region. It’s not just incidental: It turns out that these cells not only arise from the same population, they need to “talk” to one another before they can move off to their respective places in the developing embryo.</p> <p>But this didn’t explain why a single chromosomal deletion can cause a whole range of problems, from relatively mild defects to debilitating ones that require urgent intervention at birth. Tzahor and his student, Itamar Harel began looking for the answer in transcription factors -- the proteins that initially control genetic activity.</p> <p>After identifying a number of relevant transcription factors, Tzahor, Harel and their collaborators around the world spent months developing and testing knockout mice that would reveal, in detail, the functions of these regulatory proteins in the development of the heart and face progenitors. Even more challenging was the creation of double-knock out embryos, missing two of the transcription factors.</p> <p><a href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/when-the-network-is-defective#.UPfTOx0yx8E" target="_blank">Their ultimate finding </a>was that the transcription factors form a network. There are upstream and downstream effects, but also sideways and indirect interactions. And that network tends to be at least partly self- correcting. When two transcriptions factors were lacking, the network’s outputs collapse, but with only one missing, others apparently stepped in to pick up some of the slack, resulting in a few “slip-ups,” but more or less complete hearts and facial muscles.</p> <p>And yes, they revealed that, at least for those with DiGeorge syndrome, a face can tell something about the heart. They found that knockouts of specific transcription factors that were not previously linked to Digeorge were tied to distinctive combinations of facial muscle and cardiac defects resemble the congenital defects in babies. Tzahor and Harel suggest that certain birth defects in a newborn’s face could tell doctors to check for a corresponding heart problem.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a></span> <span>Thu, 01/17/2013 - 04:40</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-networks" hreflang="en">Biological networks</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biomedical" hreflang="en">Biomedical</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/embryonic-development" hreflang="en">Embryonic development</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/genes" hreflang="en">genes</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/birth-defects" hreflang="en">birth defects</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/chromosome-deletion" hreflang="en">chromosome deletion</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/digeorge-syndrome" hreflang="en">DiGeorge syndrome</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/eldad-tzahor" hreflang="en">Eldad Tzahor</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/embryonic-development" hreflang="en">Embryonic development</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/transcription-factor" hreflang="en">transcription factor</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/basic-research" hreflang="en">basic research</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biological-regulation" hreflang="en">biological regulation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/genes" hreflang="en">genes</a></div> </div> </div> <section> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909082" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1358497010"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Greg, don't leave us in suspense ... what are the facial changes to look for???</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909082&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="KoF0brL3LRIJKm7Nm2vDjlRZuVrcwHGgoEsO35ZtdLQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Amateur Observer (not verified)</span> on 18 Jan 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909082">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1909083" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1358518153"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>First of all, these were observed in mice -- more observations will be needed in humans to point to specific connections with any certainty. Second -- check out the paper if you have a subscription to PNAS.</p> <p>ps -- the name's not Greg.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909083&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="uWcgqh_Fi67ZS_mHul_mcEra3qg7ISn8599TBfHHEp4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 18 Jan 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909083">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909084" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1358521638"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>DiGeorge Syndrome is named after my father doctor Angelo DiGeorge who died three years ago. I enjoy following the tremendous research being done all over the world in connection with DiGeorge Syndrome, which is by all accounts the most common chromosomal genetic deletion syndrome. In fact, the actual incidence may be even higher than 1 in 4,000. I am also pleased that you correctly refer to it as "DiGeorge Syndrome" rather than as 22 q 11 deletion syndrome or by one of its many other monikers. For more than forty years it has been known is "DiGeorge Syndrome" in all of the medical text books and literature, but lately there seems to be a mighty effort by various institutions to rename it under there own flag. My father dedicated his entire career to this and to helping the children born with it. Accordingly, I urge all DiGeorge researchers, "DiGeorge families", and the entire medical community to respect and honor the remarkable man who first described the syndrome and who discovered the role of the thymus gland in human function by continuing to call it what it is, DiGeorge Syndrome.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909084&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="dl15C1S37B1x8X25H5HJdsdrkR1tU3D2v37sT6oT0lY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Christopher DiGeorge (not verified)</span> on 18 Jan 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909084">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <div class="indented"> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1909085" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1358583204"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Thanks for this.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909085&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="oV0ObeEsrJ4Bxbna6EHppHSNqwY6HmyhWoeohjy-BNw"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 19 Jan 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909085">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/1909084#comment-1909084" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Christopher DiGeorge (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1909088" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1358834484"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Itamar Harel writes: </p> <p>I agree that there is confusion in regard to the name of the syndrome. The reason for this is that the symptoms of DiGeorge syndrome vary considerably. The original classifications included velo-cardio-facial syndrome, Shprintzen syndrome, 22q11 deletion syndrome, Sedlackova syndrome and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome. All are now considered to be included within DiGeorge syndrome. The syndrome is usually caused by a deletion in the 22nd chromosome. However, some patients share similar symptoms without this deletion. As our research shows, a plausible explanation for this might be that additional 'genetic modifiers' of the syndrome could contribute to the syndorme. </p> <p>Thank you for your comment.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909088&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="nZ1EKsbEcf73bM1LrwWR51-dMoL8fga1cVn35q9fs68"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 22 Jan 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909088">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/1909084#comment-1909084" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Christopher DiGeorge (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> </div> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909086" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1358735240"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>So, any speculations on why the evolutionary need for facial and heart muscle connection?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909086&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="-5ey3wcQm9QFMJ3CI9LkYrCApSFYCMJZvZCO4rmPUhc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Theo51 (not verified)</span> on 20 Jan 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909086">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <div class="indented"> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1909087" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1358745307"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Apparently, it goes back to some worm ancestors, who had no hearts. Digestion and circulation used the same muscles: <a href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/heart-and-face-muscles-go-hand-in-hand#.UPzcMvK0dMs">check it out here</a>.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909087&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="iLgHXhYpq1OIdSA5vYqOBUqmopMjXO81snCTTq2kAf0"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 21 Jan 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909087">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/1909086#comment-1909086" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Theo51 (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> </div> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909089" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1362691598"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>facial features that I have unopened ear folds, long face, long bulbous tip nose, fish like mouth, small chin, hooded eyelids slanting downward. Christopher Di George I'm glad you and your father Dr. Anthony Di George agree with keeping the name all over facebook I've been fighting to keep it Di George Syndrome the doctors know we are susceptible to infection and calcium drops..THX</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909089&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="E9JaSqNGdeT0jU34GwTtz6ca_Q9hvQAGE38brmpFE_4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">michele lynn O&#039;Neill (not verified)</span> on 07 Mar 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909089">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909090" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1367508216"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Greetings! Very useful advice in this specific article! It's the small changes that will make the largest changes. Many thanks for sharing!</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909090&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="YP3lkP9a0kfJtd7nwnNcNUiId5k_xjr82W2RMJ41JRI"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">acne treatment (not verified)</span> on 02 May 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909090">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909091" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1372191334"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I drop a leave a response each time I appreciate a post on a weblog or if I have some factor to valuable to contribute to the discussion. Usually it's a result of the fire communicated in the post I looked at. And after this post Reach Your Resolution! What?? It&amp;. I was actually moved enough to drop a comment I do have 2 questions for you if it's allright. Is it just me or do a couple of of the comments look like left by brain dead visitors? And, if you are writing at additional online sites, I would like to keep up with anything fresh you have to post. Would you make a list the complete urls of your shared pages like your linkedin profile, Facebook page or twitter feed?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909091&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="TyHRSpSJCsiguvvw0NSAksO_2ZyT7sjLDDwFsTAI3BM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">手機行動電源 (not verified)</span> on 25 Jun 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909091">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <div class="indented"> <article data-comment-user-id="122" id="comment-1909092" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1372216343"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Here is our main site: </p> <p><a href="http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il">http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/</a></p> <p>Twitter and Facebook:<br /><a href="https://twitter.com/WeizmannScience">https://twitter.com/WeizmannScience<br /></a><br /><a href="https://www.facebook.com/WeizmannInstituteOfScience">https://www.facebook.com/WeizmannInstituteOfScience</a></p> <p>Some of the visitors may be brain dead -- I only check to make sure the content somewhat relates, is not malicious and is not meant to sell dresses online. (In Asian languages, I have to rely on Google translate. Sorry)</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909092&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="dNt197HtChn53pdiy7VeZm_CPodR_R0VJsPzyJ3eiNY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jhalper" lang="" about="/author/jhalper" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jhalper</a> on 25 Jun 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909092">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jhalper"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jhalper" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/1909091#comment-1909091" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">手機行動電源 (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> </div> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909093" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1379882109"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>MY daughter who was born in 1979 was diagnosed with DiGeorge Syndrome at Children's Hospital is Boston. How lucky were my wife and I that Angelo's son Tony was the admitting physician that evening. We subsequently moved to Philadelphia where Angelo saw Melissa at St Christophers. We were also lucky to live right wround the corner from their beautiful home on Queen Lane. Angelo, his wife, and Tony were always so gracious and supporting. Melissa passed in 2009 at the age of 29. she lived at home and lived a very productive life (google her name). We owe it all to Tony and his dad. Tony continues to practice, and used to have a website, which I have been unable to locate of recent. If anyone has it please forward<br /> Thanks</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909093&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="4eTMOOHyntRM834NaTFbc2gwDSnKV2gZl5EilrVr7FQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Bob Doyle (not verified)</span> on 22 Sep 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909093">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-1909094" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1429099593"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>This was such an interesting read, thanks for sharing this! It is so fascinating to know that the progenitor cells of the heart and facial muscles communicate with one another before moving to their separate regions of development in the embryo. Also, the fact that the network of transcription factors can partially self-correct itself is phenomenal. How amazing is the human body!</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=1909094&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="SSoGIBqVlC3xkCECNaMPpsgVHXV1oDFFZ3HmkK3epb8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">epstead 15029574 (not verified)</span> on 15 Apr 2015 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/20290/feed#comment-1909094">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/weizmann/2013/01/17/digeorge-syndrome-demystifed%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Thu, 17 Jan 2013 09:40:36 +0000 jhalper 71231 at https://scienceblogs.com