Brookhaven National Laboratory https://scienceblogs.com/ en Muons on the Move https://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/2013/06/11/muons-on-the-move <span>Muons on the Move</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Big science is a massively collaborative endeavor. From the initial theoretical puzzles to the brilliant engineers that build on-of-a-kind machinery, experts come together to make discoveries happen. Case in point: We’re  <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/newsroom/news.php?a=11535" target="_blank">moving this 50-foot-wide physics</a> experiment over 3,200 miles of land, sea, and river, starting on Long Island, NY and ending in Batavia, IL. Sometimes understanding the fabric of the universe requires a very technical and very long journey.</p> <div style="width: 584px;display:block;margin:0 auto;"><a href="/files/brookhaven/files/2013/06/muon1-hr.jpg"><img class=" wp-image-493 " alt="The muon ring assembled at Brookhaven Lab." src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/files/2013/06/muon1-hr-1024x680.jpg" width="574" height="381" /></a> The 50-foot-wide muon ring assembled at Brookhaven Lab. </div> <p>The experiment is called <a href="http://muon-g-2.fnal.gov/" target="_blank">Muon g-2</a> (pronounced gee-minus-two), and will study the properties of muons — tiny subatomic particles that exist for only 2.2 millionths of a second. The core of the experiment is the massive machine built at Brookhaven in the 1990s (assembled above), and a circular electromagnet made of steel and aluminum filled with superconducting cable is its centerpiece. These powerful cables produce a field of 1.45 Tesla, or about 30,000 times magnetic field of our planet.</p> <p>Back when we ran the experiment, our scientists caught a tantalizing glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model. But they could only claim a 3-sigma result, which is insufficient to announce a physics-shaking discovery. Clearly, you can't just leave a question about the nature of the not-so-empty vacuum unanswered.</p> <p>Our friends at <a href="http://www.fnal.gov/" target="_blank">Fermilab</a> are giving this instrument a second life. As they explain on the <a href="http://muon-g-2.fnal.gov/index.shtml" target="_blank">experiment website</a>:</p> <blockquote><p>A muon has an internal magnet, sort of like a miniature bar magnet. It also has an angular momentum, much like a spinning top. One way to study as yet unobserved particles and forces residing in the vacuum is to study the behavior of muons in a magnetic field. The Muon g-2 experiment aims to do just that.</p></blockquote> <p>Fermilab can produce a more pure and energetic muon beam than we could back in the day, so they can <a href="http://muon-g-2.fnal.gov/2-the-physics-of-g-2.shtml" target="_blank">explore particle puzzles</a> with even greater precision. But we can’t take that giant ring apart, so we have to move the whole thing very, very carefully. This beastly project includes installing a custom-built suspension system, slowly rolling along multiple lanes of highway (<a href="http://youtu.be/IE2AEdiHnQg" target="_blank">watch the animation!</a>), traveling by barge around the tip of Florida, and then floating up the Mississippi River before arriving in Illinois.</p> <p>We’ve had some great coverage from the media, including local outlets that will see this big ring float or drive by. Our favorite headline has to be this gem from CleanTechnica: <a href="http://cleantechnica.com/2013/05/09/honk-if-you-love-muons-3200-mile-road-trip-planned-for-muon-g-2-storage-ring/" target="_blank">Honk If You Love Muons</a>. More updates to come after the move begins this Sunday, June 16!</p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jeure" lang="" about="/author/jeure" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jeure</a></span> <span>Tue, 06/11/2013 - 06:14</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/accelerator-technology" hreflang="en">accelerator technology</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/physics" hreflang="en">Physics</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brookhaven-national-laboratory" hreflang="en">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/fermilab" hreflang="en">fermilab</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/muons" hreflang="en">muons</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/accelerator-technology" hreflang="en">accelerator technology</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/physics" hreflang="en">Physics</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Categories</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/channel/physical-sciences" hreflang="en">Physical Sciences</a></div> </div> </div> <section> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275757" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1370968530"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>If it's big, it must be meaningful!</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275757&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="sM5f7KNJ6v9rGNIPwTjL1zHyGshWtwkaALxx5LY4S2w"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Ignacio Gallo (not verified)</span> on 11 Jun 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275757">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275758" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1370975211"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The first paragraph reads as if you are conducting a new test of translational invariance!</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275758&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="HXuAd_HvTsWTGVNhfn3Ep2x8OGqiu-UDVaXT9VNPLfY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Patrick M. Dennis (not verified)</span> on 11 Jun 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275758">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275759" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1371074456"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Hi Justin- </p> <p>Re. this: "Back when we ran the experiment, our scientists caught a tantalizing glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model. But they could only claim a 3-sigma result, which is insufficient to announce a physics-shaking discovery."</p> <p>Dude, don't just keep us in suspense until 2016 or later! ;-) Seriously, say more. Understood that the results aren't up to the normal standards, and speculation is speculation. But it would be most interesting to have a glimpse, so we (laypeople) know what to watch out for in the science news. </p> <p>Does whatever-it-is extend the Standard Model, or does it call some of it into question?</p> <p>I read the material here:<br /><a href="http://muon-g-2.fnal.gov/1-muon-g-2-collaboration-to-solve-mystery.shtml">http://muon-g-2.fnal.gov/1-muon-g-2-collaboration-to-solve-mystery.shtml</a></p> <p>and here:<br /><a href="http://muon-g-2.fnal.gov/3-how-does-muon-g-2-work.shtml">http://muon-g-2.fnal.gov/3-how-does-muon-g-2-work.shtml</a></p> <p>It suggests the possibility of new particles that aren't yet understood. </p> <p>Would that be because the new particles were too short-lived for the previous apparatus to catch unequivocally? Or because they have different properties than what the system was designed for? Or something else? </p> <p>(The articles at Fermilab describe muons as decay products of pions, each composed of an electron and two neutrinos. But elsewhere, they say that muons break down into neutrinos and positrons. In either case, is there any theoretical or practical reversibility to the breakdown of muons into neutrinos and positrons or electrons?)</p> <p>As I understand it, the vacuum is basically a froth of virtual particles that pop into and out of existence, and average to a net value of zero. Is there any theoretical lower limit to the longevity or other values of those particles?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275759&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="tNc9NcindE976_Y4zhDYb4gt-AiFp7yKfC8JpQ3qPEg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">G. (not verified)</span> on 12 Jun 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275759">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <div class="indented"> <article data-comment-user-id="165" id="comment-2275760" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1371118618"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Thanks, G, for the excellent questions. I'll do another post later on about the physics behind g-2 (both past and future), but in the mean time one of our experts weighed in on your comment. Physicist Bill Morse worked on the experiment here at Brookhaven, and he'll stay involved with it at Fermi. He gets technical, but I'll flesh out some of the finer points in a future post.</p> <p><strong>On the anomaly seen when the experiment ran at Brookhaven Lab:</strong></p> <blockquote><p>A charged spin ½ particle creates a tiny magnetic field. That magnetic field is given by the magnetic moment = egS/2m. All the physics is in g, the rest just makes the units come out right, well except for the 2. The Dirac equation predicted g=2 for spin ½ point particles. The electron has g = 2.002…, where the 0.002… is the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) due to virtual particles. However, the proton g value was measured in the 1930s to be 5.6! This was finally explained in the 1960s by the quark model. So maybe the muon is made up of other stuff also (predicted by some models called prions). There is another muon anomaly found at the PSI Lab. Muonic hydrogen (bound state of a muon and a proton) gives different spectroscopy from what you would expect from hydrogen (bound state of an electron and a proton). There are models about a new force that couples to muons, but not electrons. Other models go by the names Super-symmetry, and Dark Light.</p></blockquote> <p><strong><em>Does whatever-it-is extend the Standard Model, or does it call some of it into question?</em></strong></p> <blockquote><p>Great question! Some theorists say the former, and some the latter.</p></blockquote> <p><strong>On the possibility of new particles:</strong></p> <blockquote><p>The LHC discovered the Higgs, the last particle predicted by the Standard Model, but didn’t see Super-symmetry. However, the g-2 interpretation would predict that they wouldn’t have seen Super-symmetry, until they double the LHC energy (specifically for large tan (beta) models). The LHC is now off for two years in order to double their beam energy.</p></blockquote> <p><em><strong>The articles at Fermilab describe muons as decay products of pions, each composed of an electron and two neutrinos. But elsewhere, they say that muons break down into neutrinos and positrons. In either case, is there any theoretical or practical reversibility to the breakdown of muons into neutrinos and positrons or electrons?</strong></em></p> <blockquote><p>Great question! Some theories say yes, and some say no. So far none have been discovered. I actually did one of those experiments, before I joined g-2. That’s a very interesting, but different, story.</p></blockquote> <p><em><strong>As I understand it, the vacuum is basically a froth of virtual particles that pop into and out of existence, and average to a net value of zero. Is there any theoretical lower limit to the longevity or other values of those particles?</strong></em></p> <blockquote><p>This is due to Quantum Mechanics. Bohr said that anyone who thinks they understand Quantum Mechanics, and is not deeply disturbed by it, doesn’t understand Quantum Mechanics. Anyway, the quantum fluctuations in the vacuum go as (dE) (dt) = Planck’s constant. dE is the energy fluctuation. dt is the time it does it. The average value is close to zero; however, the muon’s spin is precessing due to the magnetic moment egS/2m. Suppose the muon briefly turns into a W particle (500 times more massive than the muon with S=1, and a neutrino). The mass and spin are very different, for this very brief time. The TOTAL angle the muon’s spin has precessed will be different, i.e., we don’t have to “catch it in the act” for this extremely short dt, we just know it did it. It’s like you are driving from NY to LA on a paved highway at 65mph, but briefly go over a rubble strip at 64mph. The time it takes to get to LA will be different!</p></blockquote> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275760&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="5h9u-2p-5JttCcKCLmnk4bFrZDx_t7yvnj7Y4DZyqHU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jeure" lang="" about="/author/jeure" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jeure</a> on 13 Jun 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275760">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jeure"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jeure" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/2275759#comment-2275759" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">G. (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> </div> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/brookhaven/2013/06/11/muons-on-the-move%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Tue, 11 Jun 2013 10:14:53 +0000 jeure 112650 at https://scienceblogs.com Weaving Superconducting Magnets https://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/2013/06/04/weaving-superconducting-magnets <span>Weaving Superconducting Magnets</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Magnets are neverendingly awesome, and superconductors may be the ultimate in cool—they are, after all, literally extremely cold. And not just anyone has the tools to weave superconducting magnets with compressed metallic thread. It's a more essential skill than you might think.</p> <p>Ultra-cold superconducting magnets steer high-speed particles inside colliders, keeping the beams tight and guiding them smoothly through the curves of circular racetracks. But those magnets generally rely on iron, an intrinsically magnetic metal, for key structures. That works beautifully for the particle acceleration, but what about when the beams collide?</p> <p>Physicists actually track and identify many different bits of subatomic debris based on their paths through precisely defined magnetic fields—iron and other magnetic pipes would seriously throw off any sensitive detector. The challenge, then: Build a superconducting pipe without using those pesky magnetic metals.</p> <div style="width: 563px;display:block;margin:0 auto;"><a href="/files/brookhaven/files/2013/06/D3840409.jpg"><img class=" wp-image-480" alt="Superconducting Magnet Assembly" src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/files/2013/06/D3840409-1024x779.jpg" width="553" height="420" /></a> The first pass in winding a final focus magnet for the International Linear Collider. </div> <p>We stitch superconducting wires (niobium titanium with thin copper jacket) onto non-magnetic stainless steel and fiberglass tubes—that’s the process unfolding above. Just before charged particles such as electrons or protons smash together inside a <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/rhic/" target="_blank">collider</a>, these superconducting magnets must squeeze them into a tight beam as they enter the hearts of the detectors. The tighter the squeeze, the more fruitful the collision.</p> <p>The magnet seen here is actually a prototype for the proposed <a href="http://www.linearcollider.org/" target="_blank">International Linear Collider</a>, which will push particle physics beyond the capabilities of our <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/rhic/" target="_blank">Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider</a> or CERN’s <a href="http://home.web.cern.ch/about/accelerators/large-hadron-collider" target="_blank">Large Hadron Collider</a>.</p> <p>Beyond that, the same techniques are crucial to one of the great challenges in fundamental physics: trapping antimatter. Our magnet team built the magnetic bottle insert that the ALPHA project at CERN used to hold antihydrogen inside a near-perfect vacuum <a href="http://press.web.cern.ch/press-releases/2011/06/cern-experiment-traps-antimatter-atoms-1000-seconds" target="_blank">for 1,000 seconds</a>.</p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jeure" lang="" about="/author/jeure" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jeure</a></span> <span>Tue, 06/04/2013 - 08:08</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/accelerator-technology" hreflang="en">accelerator technology</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/instrumentation" hreflang="en">Instrumentation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/physics" hreflang="en">Physics</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/superconductivity" hreflang="en">superconductivity</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brookhaven-national-laboratory" hreflang="en">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/cern" hreflang="en">cern</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/particle-accelerators" hreflang="en">particle accelerators</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/rhic" hreflang="en">RHIC</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/superconductors" hreflang="en">superconductors</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/accelerator-technology" hreflang="en">accelerator technology</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/physics" hreflang="en">Physics</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/superconductivity" hreflang="en">superconductivity</a></div> </div> </div> <section> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/brookhaven/2013/06/04/weaving-superconducting-magnets%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Tue, 04 Jun 2013 12:08:01 +0000 jeure 112649 at https://scienceblogs.com Gluon Walls: A New Form of Matter? https://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/2013/01/10/gluon-walls-a-new-form-of-matter <span>Gluon Walls: A New Form of Matter?</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><div style="width: 258px;float:right;"><img class=" " title="Raju Venugopalan" src="http://www.bnl.gov/today/body_pics/2013/01/d1530612-rajuvenugopalan-355px.jpg" alt="" width="248" height="329" /><p>Theoretical physicist Raju Venugopalan</p> </div> <p>We sat down with Brookhaven theoretical physicist Raju Venugopalan for a conversation about “color glass condensate” and the structure of visible matter in the universe.</p> <p><strong><em>Q. We've heard a lot recently about a "new form of matter" possibly seen at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe — a state of saturated gluons called “color glass condensate.” Brookhaven Lab, and you in particular, have a long history with this idea. Can you tell me a bit about that history?</em></strong></p> <p>A. The idea for the color glass condensate arose to help us understand heavy ion collisions at our own collider here at Brookhaven, the <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/rhic/">Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)</a>—even before RHIC turned on in 2000, and long before the LHC was built. These machines are designed to look at the most fundamental constituents of matter and the forces through which they interact—the same kinds of studies that a century ago led to huge advances in our understanding of electrons and magnetism. Only now instead of studying the behavior of the electrons that surround atomic nuclei, we are probing the subatomic particles that make up the nuclei themselves, and studying how they interact via nature’s strongest force to “give shape” to the universe today.</p> <p>We do that by colliding nuclei at very high energies to recreate the conditions of the early universe so we can study these particles and their interactions under the most extreme conditions. But when you collide two nuclei and produce matter at RHIC, and also at the LHC, you have to think about the matter that makes up the nuclei you are colliding. What is the structure of nuclei before they collide?</p> <p>We all know the nuclei are made of protons and neutrons, and those are each made of quarks and gluons. There were hints in data from the HERA collider in Germany and other experiments that the number of gluons increases dramatically as you accelerate particles to high energy. Nuclear physics theorists predicted that the ions accelerated to near the speed of light at RHIC (and later at LHC) would reach an upper limit of gluon concentration—a state of gluon saturation we call color glass condensate.* The collision of these super-dense gluon force fields is what produces the matter at RHIC, so learning more about this state would help us understand how the matter is created in the collisions. The theory we developed to describe the color glass condensate also allowed us to make calculations and predictions we could test with experiments.</p> <p><strong><em>Q. Have we seen hints that this color glass condensate exists at RHIC?</em></strong></p> <p>A. The very first experimental hints of color glass condensate came from early collisions of gold ions at RHIC in 2000 and more significantly later from collisions of light deuterium ions with the heavier gold ions. The precursor for the LHC phenomenon was seen around 2006 by scientists from RHIC’s STAR collaboration and subsequently PHENIX and PHOBOS. They all saw signs that particles streaming out of the collisions were correlated in an interesting and surprising way that showed up as a little bump on the graph—which we called a “ridge” because it looked like a mountain ridge. RHIC and LHC scientists now use sophisticated analyses to break down this signal into subtle wiggles of varying strengths, which can be further analyzed.</p> <p>Key aspects of the wiggles in particle correlations could be explained by the “flow” of the hot dense matter produced when the ions collide—which we now know is a liquid-like plasma of quarks and gluons. But the surprising correlations also carried important information about the very earliest stages of matter formation, telling us about how gluons inside the colliding nuclei were creating this matter in the first place. The experimental information was consistent with the structures being generated by very strong gluon force fields at very short distances within the colliding nuclei—distances, predicted by gluon saturation, to be much smaller than the proton size.</p> <p>The other strong piece of evidence for color glass condensate and gluon saturation we alluded to came from deuteron-gold collisions at RHIC in 2003, which do not create quark-gluon plasma. Certain particles streaming out in the “forward” direction, which the BRAHMS experiment was particularly designed to detect, were suppressed. That is, fewer particles with a given momentum were coming out at this particular angle than had been expected. It appeared that instead of the deuteron colliding and interacting with individual protons or neutrons in the gold nucleus, the smaller particle was hitting a bunch of protons simultaneously—or a dense field of gluons that acts like sticky molasses, making it harder for particles with a given momentum to be produced. PHOBOS, STAR and PHENIX also saw similar suppressions. This was a genuine prediction of the color glass condensate picture. Further experiments at RHIC by STAR and PHENIX during the 2008 deuteron-gold run drew out more details on particle correlation patterns predicted by the CGC theory.</p> <iframe src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/wYmzj5A2G50" frameborder="0" width="560" height="315"></iframe><p> <strong><em>Q. Do the “ridge” correlations have any significance aside from being possible indications of gluon saturation?</em></strong></p> <p>A. All the extra wiggles give you much more information about the structure of the flow—similar to the way astronomers have learned how subtle fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation have left their fingerprints on the structure of the universe today. So the discovery of the “ridge effect” at RHIC led us to understand how the details of the initial conditions could lead to detailed variations in the flow of the matter produced at both RHIC and the LHC. To understand the properties of the quark-gluon plasma, we need to understand the initial conditions in detail.</p> <p>In addition, the ridge may be imaging how strong force field lines behave between color charges, just as the distribution of iron filings around a magnet tells us about the magnetic flux around a magnet. If this analogy is borne out, that would be quite fundamental information about the strong force.</p> <p><strong><em>Q. How did these findings affect the development of theory?</em></strong></p> <p>A. There were still other possible explanations. That’s how science works. You need to accumulate more and more evidence. With each experimental finding, your model gets tested and refined. The next piece of data can fracture it. Some people try to disprove the model. Other people did a lot of work to refine the theory and make it stronger. So, we made some predictions about what we might see in future experiments, both at RHIC and the LHC. Thus far the heavy ion results from the LHC are consistent with our expectations.</p> <p>Then, physicists from the CMS collaboration at the LHC, several of whom had worked on RHIC’s PHOBOS detector, used their experience with RHIC collisions to look for the same thing in proton-proton collisions at LHC—at 14 times the energy of the highest-energy proton-proton collisions at RHIC. Because of the higher energy level, they were able to look at extremely rare events where more than 110 charged particles come out in a single collision of two protons. By picking the events with lots of particles, they are essentially choosing the events where gluons are at their highest concentration in the colliding protons. In these rare events, they saw a tiny ridge, just like the one in gold-gold collisions at RHIC.</p> <p>We spent half a year trying to understand this. We had developed this theory to predict and explain the ridge, but we thought it would only be observed in heavy ion collisions. But one of the theorists had predicted it would be there in proton-proton collisions at the LHC, and there it was. It couldn’t be due to quark-gluon plasma, because you don’t have a big enough system with proton-proton collisions. It had to be caused by gluon saturation, not flow of QGP. When we looked in detail at the LHC data, we were able to explain how these effects would change with various conditions, and we were able to explain things more quantitatively.</p> <p>Then, when we knew they were going to be doing a very short preliminary run of proton-lead collisions at LHC in late 2012, we made some predictions about what would be seen there.</p> <p><strong><em>Q. What did the LHC proton-lead experiments observe? Did these data match your predictions?</em></strong></p> <p>A. So the LHC did these proton-lead collisions in a pilot run for just four hours, but they got an immense amount of data—sufficient to see something really dramatic. They observed the same ridge effect we had seen in gold-gold collisions at RHIC. These collisions were at much higher energy—25 times the energy of the deuteron-gold collisions at RHIC. So you get more of a gluon shockwave and a lot more particles coming out. There was enough data to do much more stringent tests of the idea of gluon saturation by looking for these correlations.</p> <p>In proton-lead collisions they saw a bigger signal than in proton-proton collisions—about six times larger, even in collisions with the same number of particles coming out. The QGP flow explanation would have given you roughly the same signal size for the same number of particles produced, so that seems unlikely to me. Instead, to me, the result is sort of a “smoking gun” that they were seeing gluon saturation, because the bigger signal associated with the same particle number has to be due to more gluons at the initial stage, before the collision.</p> <p><strong><em>Q. What kind of further tests can you do?</em></strong></p> <p>A. The LHC will get a lot more data to test these ideas from the proton-lead run coming up this winter. Our models are so well detailed that a significant deviation would be able to knock down the model. That’s a good thing. A sign of a good model is that its predictions are sufficiently detailed and clear that it can be tested and even disproved, and one learns something in the process of doing so. If this idea of the color glass condensate is to fail, we would still learn a great deal from the failure of these ideas and we’d have to think deeply about what would replace it.</p> <p>Even though our model works, there are a number of fundamental things we do not understand and are forced to model imperfectly. That is why we really need an <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/rhic/news2/news.asp?a=2870&amp;t=today">electron ion collider</a>, where we could collide electrons with heavy ions to probe the structure of the gluon fields directly. Though it may not have the tremendous energy reach at the LHC, an electron ion collider would allow us to explore the structure of matter with much greater precision. Subtle details of the properties of these extreme states of matter will give us a much more detailed picture, at the most fundamental level, about the structure of matter.</p> <p>But in the meantime we can do some very interesting things at RHIC. One thing we’d like to do is collide polarized protons with heavy ions at RHIC. RHIC is the world’s only polarized proton collider, where the spins of the particles (and thus the quarks and gluons within) can be aligned in a chosen direction. When the spin of the polarized quarks and gluons in the proton interact with the gluon shockwave of the nucleus, the spin can be changed in different ways, depending on where the proton travels through the nucleus. Teasing out how the spin directions scatter off the internal gluons will help determine how dense that gluon field is at different parts of the nucleus.</p> <p>These studies may help us understand how the orbital motion of the quarks and gluons within the proton contributes to proton spin. And they give us a different way of probing gluon saturation.</p> <p><strong><em>Q. What will confirmation of gluon saturation mean for physics—and the rest of us?</em></strong></p> <p>A. We are studying the structure of matter in its most fundamental form to learn something very deep about the structure of the proton, the most fundamental stable piece of matter we know of in the universe. We are going further than our wildest imagination ever thought possible. What we once thought of as fundamental objects are turning out to be much more complex. What is the origin of visible matter in the universe? It is the quarks and gluons. And we are probing the complexity of those particles as much as possible under the most extreme conditions.</p> <p>We don’t really know where that will lead. It could open up completely new directions. 100 years ago, people were asking the same kinds of questions about electrons and photons, which we now use in so many ways in our everyday lives. If you had told them then that there would be something like our National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) accelerating electrons and using photons to look at atomic-level structures of things like superconductors, proteins, and ribosomes—to make better materials for energy applications or drugs to treat disease—they would never have believed you. But those are the kinds of advances that come out of in-depth studies of subatomic particles and their interactions.</p> <p> </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/kmcwalsh" lang="" about="/author/kmcwalsh" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kmcwalsh</a></span> <span>Thu, 01/10/2013 - 04:50</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/physics" hreflang="en">Physics</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/rhic" hreflang="en">RHIC</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brookhaven-national-laboratory" hreflang="en">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/nuclear-physics" hreflang="en">nuclear physics</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/quark-gluon-plasma" hreflang="en">quark-gluon plasma</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/physics" hreflang="en">Physics</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Categories</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/channel/physical-sciences" hreflang="en">Physical Sciences</a></div> </div> </div> <section> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275736" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1358687585"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Karen<br /> Thank you for this interview.</p> <p>Raju<br /> I do appreciate that you take the time to explain your research.<br /> It is very important and exciting research.</p> <p>And I have tried to follow your words as best I can. But I have some questions about what don't understand about your work.</p> <p>I need some "big animal pictures", if you will to be able to better visualize your work. Is it like:<br /> 1) We observe a statistical distribution of (what kind of particles in the detector, photons, electrons, magnetic charged or electric or neutral) and this population distribution can only arise from a color glass condensate (which is what exactly e.g. an area smaller than a proton in which there are thousands of gluons that act as a single quantum object traveling at the speed of light in circles or a more complex pattern, or e.g. something else)<br /> 2) or is a gluon wall a more extensive quantum object (e.g. bigger than and outside of a proton) that could in certain circumstances (e.g. early history of the universe or..) be a stable quantum object. And would such a stable quantum (larger than proton) quantum object (obviously a high energy object) be detectable by observational means. Meaning could a collection of such energetic objects (though maybe somehow confined like a geon to a macroscopic space), could such a collection of gluon walls be responsible for dark matter observations. And thus in some sense, the early epochs of the universe are present today not only in particle accellerators on Earth but are present in the galaxtic particle accellerators know as dark matter halos?</p> <p>OK these are my questions.</p> <p>Any thoughts, clarifications, insights will be appreciated.<br /> I am a layman, an amateur without and bias (religious or psuedoscientific); so I defer to your understanding.</p> <p>My question is to understand better; not to argue my understanding versus yours; because frankly, I admit that I do not understand. I've scanned your paper arXiv:1208.5731 to understand as best I can. And I've scanned another paper What if Dark Matter Gamma-Ray Lines come with Gluon Lines? <a href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1206.2279v1.pdf">http://arxiv.org/pdf/1206.2279v1.pdf</a> Hence my dark matter question.</p> <p>If you have no time to answer. I understand, you are busy.</p> <p>Again, much thanks for this interview.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275736&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="r2NJxQMolbPZylvQDklmEMFHbpOBx33RtiXbah9TodA"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">OKThen (not verified)</span> on 20 Jan 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275736">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275738" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1374569129"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>IMO that is the best text published so far on this web page. You simply want to study.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275738&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="tq9-HGwWSQh57MPrgmwzJRfn3Hun5FyWld8GpUhfJEw"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">情趣用品 (not verified)</span> on 23 Jul 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275738">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275739" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1375061510"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>nice article Mr.Raju , thanks alot</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275739&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="UNVtr8CDe-j1YyGlpeUHb4E9BPhJQedHtH6Qk7rHvHs"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Jas Pengantin (not verified)</span> on 28 Jul 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275739">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275746" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1383312108"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>nice article Mr.Raju , thanks alot. I wait for the next article.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275746&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="2--pWnscMVG9hWMVLAXgxEIEerfmqkqFZuHRNJSUREw"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Klinik Gigi (not verified)</span> on 01 Nov 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275746">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/brookhaven/2013/01/10/gluon-walls-a-new-form-of-matter%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Thu, 10 Jan 2013 09:50:13 +0000 kmcwalsh 112645 at https://scienceblogs.com Watch Live Action Lithium-Ion Reactions https://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/2012/11/27/watch-live-action-lithium-ion-reactions <span>Watch Live Action Lithium-Ion Reactions</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><iframe src="http://player.vimeo.com/video/54380534?badge=0" frameborder="0" width="500" height="375"></iframe><p> See the way those smooth, amorphous blobs rapidly transform into textured honeycombs? Something similar is probably happening right now inside your laptop or smartphone’s battery, providing you with portable power.</p> <p>But the cherished efficiency and portability of those compact lithium-ion batteries comes with a cost: each cycle of discharge/recharge degrades the material’s essential structure and ultimate longevity - you’ve probably noticed that your older electronics just don’t hold a charge like they used to. Preventing this persistent degradation requires insight into a process that plays out on the elusive scale of just billionths of a meter.</p> <p>Fortunately, Brookhaven scientists just demonstrated <a href="http://1.usa.gov/UnK1K3" target="_blank">a breakthrough transmission electron microscopy technique</a> that captures live action lithium-ion reactions with nanoscale precision.</p> <blockquote><p>“We’ve opened a fundamentally new window into this popular technology,” said physicist and lead author Feng Wang. “The live, nanoscale imaging may help pave the way for developing longer-lasting, higher-capacity lithium-ion batteries. That means better consumer electronics, and the potential for large-scale, emission-free energy storage.”</p></blockquote> <p>These real-time experimental observations, including the movie above, revealed that the lithium ions swept rapidly across the surface of iron fluoride nanoparticles in a matter of seconds. The transformation then moved slowly through the bulk in a layer-by-layer process that split the compounds into distinct regions (similar to <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinodal_decomposition">spinodal decomposition</a>).</p> <p>Imagine watching a fire spread across the surface of a log and then steadily eating its way through the layers of wood—only rather than smoke, the lithium ion reaction forms trails of new molecules. Just as burnt wood reveals fundamental characteristics of fire, the changes in morphology and structure in these individual nanoparticles provided crucial information about the lithium reaction mechanisms.</p> <p>Get the full story at the <a href="http://bit.ly/UnK1K3">official press release</a>.</p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jeure" lang="" about="/author/jeure" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jeure</a></span> <span>Tue, 11/27/2012 - 08:20</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/chemistry-0" hreflang="en">Chemistry</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/energy-0" hreflang="en">energy</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/materials-science" hreflang="en">Materials Science</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brookhaven-national-laboratory" hreflang="en">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/nanoscience" hreflang="en">nanoscience</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/physics" hreflang="en">Physics</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/chemistry-0" hreflang="en">Chemistry</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/energy-0" hreflang="en">energy</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/materials-science" hreflang="en">Materials Science</a></div> </div> </div> <section> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275713" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1354136669"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>I would be interested if these are being Discharged, and if so, Have they taken images, of the battery, being Charged?<br /> I wonder if the material,stays in this form or reverts to it's original shape?<br /> I have noticed a loss of available Power, in the battery's that are used in Model Aircraft. The lower available power, was thought to result from the vibration, and shocks that these battery's are subjected to. It would be real nice to have these battery's last longer.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275713&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="TCSsmV4mby4C0XjwK3O8_dAnVwx5KXT-4f2WO0_0ZAc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">James Fenton III (not verified)</span> on 28 Nov 2012 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275713">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <div class="indented"> <article data-comment-user-id="165" id="comment-2275716" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1354277157"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Thanks for your interest! Feng Wang, a study coauthor, was able to respond:<br /> No, we have not been able to reverse the reaction, and we are working on that. But we learned from our ex-situ TEM studies (not published) that the materials do not return to their original shapes, but instead become much more disordered and smaller in size.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275716&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="xJVhN0jWtKDPw8_3m2uDdxfUmVTtCWxXVY2xMRZjMFk"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jeure" lang="" about="/author/jeure" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jeure</a> on 30 Nov 2012 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275716">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jeure"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jeure" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/2275713#comment-2275713" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">James Fenton III (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> </div> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275714" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1354144334"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>We are looking at a depth of discharge reaction at Room Temperature and 100% DoD. correct?</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275714&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="A6aJRedFOfbqodoDYk9XJM7w3bDV3EDF2hl17l3mMTU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Charlie Scuilla (not verified)</span> on 28 Nov 2012 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275714">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <div class="indented"> <article data-comment-user-id="165" id="comment-2275715" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1354277059"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Thanks for the question! Feng Wang resonded: Yes, actually we recorded the details with videos at a frequency of 2 frames/second, from the pristine to the 100% DOD.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275715&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="q4WSatLeDoH023TqovuypSAXRCK6T880nZ7EKMHpBvc"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <a title="View user profile." href="/author/jeure" lang="" about="/author/jeure" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jeure</a> on 30 Nov 2012 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275715">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/author/jeure"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/author/jeure" hreflang="en"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/comment/2275714#comment-2275714" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="en"></a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Charlie Scuilla (not verified)</span></p> </footer> </article> </div> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/brookhaven/2012/11/27/watch-live-action-lithium-ion-reactions%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Tue, 27 Nov 2012 13:20:11 +0000 jeure 112642 at https://scienceblogs.com Bursting Super-cold Superconducting “Bubbles” https://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/2012/11/20/popping-super-cold-superconducting-bubbles <span>Bursting Super-cold Superconducting “Bubbles”</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>High-temperature superconductors (HTS), capable of storing and transmitting electricity with perfect efficiency, are a theoretical stumbling block. The mechanism underlying HTS behavior is a mystery, and the subject of significant contention and investigation among scientists. This puzzle, unlike headline-making unknowns such as dark energy (admittedly awesome and worth losing sleep over), could revolutionize our entire energy infrastructure. But before HTS materials can flood the electricity market, they need to work their magic closer to room temperature (high-temperature is a bit misleading, as these still need to be chilled to hundreds of degrees Fahrenheit below zero). Engineering the next generation of materials means manipulating HTS at its most fundamental.</p> <p>And way down at the fundamental level, HTS gets weird. Physicists at Brookhaven Lab <a href="http://bit.ly/WtXYbw">just probed HTS fluctuations</a>, and they got some unexpected results.</p> <p>Water, way less exotic and much better understood, can help decode the findings. On its way to a rollicking boil, water develops isolates bubbles of gas – these appear suddenly along the bottom of a pot and then float up through the liquid. This is an in-between zone, the transition space between two very different phases of matter. Water doesn’t transform instantaneously into vapor, instead exhibiting fluctuations across a wide threshold.</p> <p>As it turns out, as copper-oxide insulators cool down, they exhibit similarly fleeting “bubbles” of superconductivity. Inside that superconductor-insulator transition zone, intermittent islands flit in and out of existence. And that’s not even the strangest part. Cooled down even closer to absolute zero, these superconducting fluctuations vanish entirely – and that’s what really surprised physicists.</p> <p>This unexpected quenching of superconductivity finds a useful analog, again, in water. Imagine that the flow of electricity between electrodes resembles the motion of a river rushing downhill. Custom-built conductors act as a channel designed to carry electric current as efficiently as possible, just as a smoothly engineered canal carries water.</p> <p>If the canal is poorly constructed, full of sudden and jagged pits, the water level directly impacts the quality of the flow. A high volume of water will race along continuously, even if occasionally given to the turbulence of crashing whitewater. If, however, the water level falls below some critical value, the current will tumble into those pits, slowing to a trickle or stopping completely.</p> <div style="width: 356px;float:right;"><a href="/files/brookhaven/files/2012/11/D2021009_Bozovic-HR.jpg"><img class="wp-image-378 " title="Bozovic" src="/files/brookhaven/files/2012/11/D2021009_Bozovic-HR.jpg" alt="Ivan Bozovic and the ALL-MBE" width="346" height="262" /></a> <p>Physicist Ivan Bozovic with his custom-built Atomic Layer-by-Layer Molecular Beam Epitaxy (ALL-MBE) system, which grows atomically precise materials.</p> </div> <p>In these HTS experiments, the scientists measured the flow of electricity to discern the structure of custom-built copper-oxide “canals.” The water volume corresponds to the density of electrons in the system, which was  fine-tuned with that giant device seen to the right. While atomically smooth, the materials contained deliberately built-in defects – randomly distributed strontium atoms. Once super-cold, these imperfections acted like pits that trapped flowing electrons, rendering them immobile.</p> <p>“The traps are there all the time, but the electrons only become stuck at extremely low temperature,” said Brookhaven physicist Ivan Bozovic. “This behavior, called electron localization, makes the material insulating. With some heating, however, the electrons gain enough kinetic energy to jump out of the holes and maintain metallic conductivity – and, in the present case, superconductivity.”</p> <p>There’s (at least) one more layer of weird to add to these frigid traps. The researchers not only discovered that the fluctuations vanish beyond that super-cold threshold, but that the trapping pattern changes with each test. Resistivity depends not just on temperature, but also on the material’s memory – how and where the electrons were previously trapped. This phenomenon, called hysteresis, strongly indicates that the underlying mechanism behind the superconductor-insulator transition is tied to electron localization.</p> <p>The study unveiled new characteristics of high-temperature superconductivity, and it offers another step in the ongoing quest to understand and harness the phenomenon. Get the full story in the <a href="http://bit.ly/WtXYbw">official press release</a>, and get deep into the full electron-doping chemistry in <a href="http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nmat3487.html">the scientific paper</a>.</p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/jeure" lang="" about="/author/jeure" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jeure</a></span> <span>Tue, 11/20/2012 - 09:49</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/chemistry-0" hreflang="en">Chemistry</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/energy-0" hreflang="en">energy</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/materials-science" hreflang="en">Materials Science</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/nanoscience" hreflang="en">nanoscience</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/superconductivity" hreflang="en">superconductivity</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brookhaven-national-laboratory" hreflang="en">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/high-temperature-superconductor" hreflang="en">high-temperature superconductor</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/physics" hreflang="en">Physics</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/chemistry-0" hreflang="en">Chemistry</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/energy-0" hreflang="en">energy</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/materials-science" hreflang="en">Materials Science</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/nanoscience" hreflang="en">nanoscience</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/superconductivity" hreflang="en">superconductivity</a></div> </div> </div> <section> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275709" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1353749158"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>It is an intersting article. I would be seriously reading it and related reports. However, to make right step to understand the origin of superconductivity, we need to understand why BCS theory could not explain the phenomenon in general (i.e. superconductivity of convensional metallic superconductors and HTS). As shown in [ <a href="http://www.scribd.com/doc/110441679/Intrinsic-Problems-Superfluid-Theories">http://www.scribd.com/doc/110441679/Intrinsic-Problems-Superfluid-Theor…</a> ] BCS theory or other similar theories of superconductivity have intrinsic problems ]. Consequently, in spite of their mathematical accuracy, they can not reveal clear, complete and experimentally consistent understanding of the phenomenon. The phenomenon of such a great importance needs to have its correct theoretical understanding as soon as possible and in this respect we should not ignore newer ideas such as that developed in [ <a href="http://www.scribd.com/doc/110681115/First-Quantization-Theory-of-Superconductivity">http://www.scribd.com/doc/110681115/First-Quantization-Theory-of-Superc…</a> ]. I would greatly appreciate if we can discuss the merits and demerits of these studies.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275709&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="FQ3T7RZEax9UOJ58Lu00u_DFb5kQXeW5NE0AWYCmpfA"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Yatendra S Jain (not verified)</span> on 24 Nov 2012 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275709">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> <article data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-2275710" class="js-comment comment-wrapper clearfix"> <mark class="hidden" data-comment-timestamp="1362563104"></mark> <div class="well"> <strong></strong> <div class="field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Thank you for another magnificent post. Where else could anyone get that kind of info in such a perfect way of writing? I've a presentation next week, and I'm on the look for such info.</p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=2275710&amp;1=default&amp;2=en&amp;3=" token="lKFl0pObXkFGtoB5pZ83NpCoOCqNciktR9W1dyypJFo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </div> <footer> <em>By <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Guess The Word Cheat (not verified)</span> on 06 Mar 2013 <a href="https://scienceblogs.com/taxonomy/term/29463/feed#comment-2275710">#permalink</a></em> <article typeof="schema:Person" about="/user/0"> <div class="field field--name-user-picture field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <a href="/user/0" hreflang="und"><img src="/files/styles/thumbnail/public/default_images/icon-user.png?itok=yQw_eG_q" width="100" height="100" alt="User Image" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </a> </div> </article> </footer> </article> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/brookhaven/2012/11/20/popping-super-cold-superconducting-bubbles%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Tue, 20 Nov 2012 14:49:05 +0000 jeure 112641 at https://scienceblogs.com Launching Biological Samples with Sound https://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/2011/07/07/ultrasonic <span>Launching Biological Samples with Sound </span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>At first glance, this video might look like it's playing in reverse. But don't worry, these stroboscopic images were patched together in the right order. </p> <div style="width: 500px; float:left; margin: 0 auto; padding-right: 10px; padding-bottom: 5px"> <iframe width="500" height="405" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/QvldS8ucYEA?rel=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen=""></iframe><div><em><br /><div style="text-align: center;">Courtesy of Labcyte, Inc.</div> <p></p></em></div> </div> <p>The video shows a technique called acoustic drop ejection (ADE) - an idea based on sending ultrasonic waves near the surface of a liquid to eject very small droplets. First demonstrated in the early 1920s, ADE is now being used by researchers to help them study extremely small biological molecules - like proteins and viruses - with x-rays at machines like Brookhaven's future <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/ps/nsls2/about-NSLS-II.asp">National Synchrotron Light Source II</a> (NSLS-II).</p> <p>NSLS-II's bright x-ray beams will enable scientists to reveal the atomic arrangement of increasingly smaller biological crystals - structures comprised of many copies of a particular molecule. But as a crystal's size decreases, it becomes harder for scientists to position it in the line of x-ray fire. To address this technological gap, scientists from Brookhaven and <a href="http://www.labcyte.com/">Labcyte, Inc</a>. used ADE to launch very small droplets (2.5 nanoliters) containing even smaller biological crystals through the air and to a mounting mesh.</p> <p>They found that the fragile microcrystals, which are nearly impossible to see even with powerful microscopes, were unharmed by the technique, paving the way for more studies of this kind. Their results were recently <a href="http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bi200549x">published</a> in the journal, <em>Biochemistry</em>. </p> <p>You can read more <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/today/story.asp?ITEM_NO=2467">here</a>.</p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/ksnyder" lang="" about="/author/ksnyder" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ksnyder</a></span> <span>Thu, 07/07/2011 - 02:02</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biology" hreflang="en">biology</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/nsls-ii" hreflang="en">NSLS-II</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/acoustic-drop-ejection" hreflang="en">acoustic drop ejection</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/ade" hreflang="en">ADE</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brookhaven-national-laboratory" hreflang="en">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/crystallography" hreflang="en">crystallography</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/labcyte" hreflang="en">Labcyte</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/synchrotron" hreflang="en">synchrotron</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biology" hreflang="en">biology</a></div> </div> </div> <section> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/brookhaven/2011/07/07/ultrasonic%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Thu, 07 Jul 2011 06:02:53 +0000 ksnyder 112618 at https://scienceblogs.com Next-generation Aerosol-sampling Stations to Head for India https://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/2011/06/14/tricked-out-aerosol-sampling-s <span>Next-generation Aerosol-sampling Stations to Head for India</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><em>This guest post is written by Stephen R. Springston, an atmospheric chemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory. After receiving his Ph.D. in chemistry from Indiana University, he completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Utah before joining Brookhaven in 1986.<br /></em></p> <div style="width: 200px; float:left; margin: 0 auto; padding-right: 20px; padding-bottom: 5px"> <p><a href="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-c7a22c500240682d9f1048a65555ca75-Springston.jpg"><img src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-4b04a5ce3847e4d13b02b5b435cb1404-Springston-thumb-200x197-66169.jpg" alt="i-4b04a5ce3847e4d13b02b5b435cb1404-Springston-thumb-200x197-66169.jpg" /></a><br /><br /><br /></p><div style="text-align: center;"><em>Stephen Springston</em></div> </div> <p>After studying clouds and climate in <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=1262">Oklahoma</a> during tornado season and storms atop <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=1207">Colorado</a> mountaintops, a group of atmospheric scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory will soon be helping to sample the skies over India. </p> <p>We've been asked to share our expertise on conducting ground and aircraft field campaigns, and have outfitted two mobile laboratories with equipment to be deployed during the <a href="http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/amf2011gvax">Ganges Valley Aerosol eXperiment</a> (GVAX), a nine-month field study aimed at researching how aerosols -- small particles like dust and soot in the air -- affect the formation of clouds and amounts of rainfall. Findings from the study, conducted by the Department of Energy's (DOE) <a href="http://www.arm.gov/">Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility</a>, will be used to improve computer models that simulate Earth's climate.</p> <p>Peter Daum, chair of Brookhaven's environmental sciences department, has been advising the lead program scientist, Rao Kotamarthi, of Argonne National Laboratory, on aircraft operations for the study. Daum will also be visiting sites in India later this week to talk with our counterparts there about strategies for deploying the Indian research aircraft.</p> <div style="width: 300px; float:left; margin: 0 auto; padding-right: 20px; padding-bottom: 0px"> <p> <a href="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-31fc9009c0740291e8ba3c08a08f6709-Climate_picture.jpg"><img src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-0f3ca668d7e09c010bee81cb9f62ba93-Climate_picture-thumb-300x400-66193.jpg" alt="i-0f3ca668d7e09c010bee81cb9f62ba93-Climate_picture-thumb-300x400-66193.jpg" /></a></p> <div style="text-align: center;"><em><small>An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor, which measures mass and chemical composition of submicron aerosol particles in real time. The instrument will be part of the mobile laboratories being deployed to India. </small><br /></em></div> </div> <p>Then, this summer, during the peak time of aerosol formation in the Northeast, we'll get a chance to test out and fine-tune the mobile research units here at Brookhaven before they are deployed to India later in the fall. </p> <!--more--><p>The units are two of <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=1180">four</a> designed and equipped over the past 18 months by scientists, technicians, and others at Brookhaven with instruments purchased largely by Brookhaven for DOE under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).</p> <p>The India-bound units are designated Mobile Aerosol Observing System - Aerosol (MAOS-A) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System - Chemistry (MAOS-C). They are highly customized mobile shipping containers that provide environmentally controlled space for research-grade instruments (some made and designed at Brookhaven), plus sampling inlets and computers for control, storage, and communications. Together, the two laboratories contain more than 20 individual instrument systems used to measure atmospheric parameters needed to better understand the effects of aerosols on climate. All are installed and fully connected in shock-isolated racks for transportation, with an easy on-site setup process that requires just a couple of days. </p> <p>In the fall, both units will be leaving for the town of Lucknow in India. Members of the Brookhaven team will travel to India to set up and start the units, after which they will be operated by Indian site technical staff. Once installed, the tools will actively take data for approximately two months. </p> <p>For more information:</p> <p><a href="http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=1296">ARM news release on the kickoff of GVAX</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.arm.gov/news/features/post/13921">ARM feature story describing the whole range of instruments involved in the study</a></p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/ksnyder" lang="" about="/author/ksnyder" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ksnyder</a></span> <span>Tue, 06/14/2011 - 09:07</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/climate" hreflang="en">Climate</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/instrumentation" hreflang="en">Instrumentation</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/american-recovery-and-reinvestment-act" hreflang="en">American Recovery and Reinvestment Act</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/atmospheric-radiation-measurement" hreflang="en">Atmospheric Radiation Measurement</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brookhaven-national-laboratory" hreflang="en">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/ganges-valley-aerosol-experiment" hreflang="en">Ganges Valley Aerosol eXperiment</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/india" hreflang="en">India</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/mobile-aerosol-observing-system" hreflang="en">Mobile Aerosol Observing System</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/peter-daum" hreflang="en">Peter Daum</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/rao-kotamarthi" hreflang="en">Rao Kotamarthi</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/stephen-springston" hreflang="en">Stephen Springston</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/us-department-energy" hreflang="en">U.S. Department of Energy</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/climate" hreflang="en">Climate</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Categories</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/channel/environment" hreflang="en">Environment</a></div> </div> </div> <section> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/brookhaven/2011/06/14/tricked-out-aerosol-sampling-s%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Tue, 14 Jun 2011 13:07:29 +0000 ksnyder 112617 at https://scienceblogs.com Solar Farm, East-Coast Style https://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/2011/06/09/200-acres-of-solar-power <span>Solar Farm, East-Coast Style</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Brookhaven will soon be home to the largest solar farm in the eastern United States. The Long Island Solar Farm, being constructed by BP Solar and the Long Island Power Authority on Brookhaven Lab's campus, will produce 32 megawatts of power when complete - enough to power about 4,500 homes.</p> <div style="width: 500px; float:left; margin: 0 auto; padding-right: 10px; padding-bottom: 5px"> <p><a href="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-b9712f00af5b8f7b8bd02ca98e818de6-Solarfarm_1.jpg"><img src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-d835b8a70ef545231a68561c976e9ab1-Solarfarm_1-thumb-500x332-65424.jpg" alt="i-d835b8a70ef545231a68561c976e9ab1-Solarfarm_1-thumb-500x332-65424.jpg" /></a></p> <div style="text-align: center;"><em>The Long Island Solar Farm<br /></em></div> </div> <p>Just about six months after site preparation work began in November, the farm is now more than halfway complete. To date, workers have mounted nearly 90,000 of the 164,000 solar panels that will make up the array and have installed 4,600 of the 6,800 racks that hold the panels in place and tilt them toward the sun.</p> <div style="width: 300px; float:left; margin: 0 auto; padding-right: 10px; padding-bottom: 5px"> <p><a href="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-90ff5daea1efb3295b6da10af5bf5d77-Solarfarm_2.jpg"><img src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-2d78d8abb099176a93574a8fcb4cdea6-Solarfarm_2-thumb-300x199-65427.jpg" alt="i-2d78d8abb099176a93574a8fcb4cdea6-Solarfarm_2-thumb-300x199-65427.jpg" /></a></p> <div style="text-align: center;"><em>Construction on the solar farm is more than halfway complete.<br /></em></div> </div> <p>In addition to providing power for Long Island and New York State, the solar farm will help researchers address many of the challenges facing large-scale, grid-connected solar plants. Brookhaven scientists will use data from the farm to study the effect of northeastern weather - not always the sunniest - on power output. In addition, a small plot of the array also will be used by Brookhaven scientists to test new solar technologies. </p> <!--more--><p>The large array will incorporate advanced monitoring equipment that will allow researchers to monitor, in real time, how much power is being generated in relation to the amount of cloud cover present. This gives scientists the ability to look at the impact of microscale elements like individual clouds on the array's output. </p> <p>Researchers also are developing the ability to predict, up to 30 minutes in advance, the output of the large array based on observation, tracking, and evaluation of cloud conditions. This technique, known as "nowcasting," uses optical imaging of the clouds and sophisticated software to identify shapes, track movements, and evaluate the optical density of the clouds -- that is, how much light is filtered by clouds overhead. This type of near-term forecasting will help utilities anticipate changes -- such as dips in solar-generated power at times of cloud cover -- and make adjustments before they occur to maintain constant power on the grid. </p> <p>Research at the smaller array, while still under discussion, will likely include testing of new inverter and power supply technologies, as well as advanced energy storage devices that will enable power generated during peak output times to be saved for use during times of greatest demand - when the sun may not be shining.</p> <div style="width: 500px; float:left; margin: 0 auto; padding-right: 10px; padding-bottom: 5px"> <p><a href="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-531b5a7dbcde1052f9ee24a85cfd1f99-Solarfarm_3.jpg"><img src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-3b07f8bc691fbb556ffc6851c211b99e-Solarfarm_3-thumb-500x332-65430.jpg" alt="i-3b07f8bc691fbb556ffc6851c211b99e-Solarfarm_3-thumb-500x332-65430.jpg" /></a></p> <div style="text-align: center;"><em>More than 200 workers are on the solar farm construction site, adding thousands of panels each day and installing the power inverters and cabling that will carry electricity from the panels to the electric grid.<br /></em></div> </div> <p>For more photos, check out <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/brookhavenlab/sets/72157626851861282/">BNL's Flickr site</a>. </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/ksnyder" lang="" about="/author/ksnyder" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ksnyder</a></span> <span>Thu, 06/09/2011 - 08:23</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/construction" hreflang="en">construction</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/energy-0" hreflang="en">energy</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/bp-solar" hreflang="en">BP Solar</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brookhaven-national-laboratory" hreflang="en">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/long-island-power-authority" hreflang="en">Long Island Power Authority</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/long-island-solar-farm" hreflang="en">Long Island Solar Farm</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/nowcasting" hreflang="en">nowcasting</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/solar" hreflang="en">solar</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/construction" hreflang="en">construction</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/energy-0" hreflang="en">energy</a></div> </div> </div> <section> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/brookhaven/2011/06/09/200-acres-of-solar-power%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Thu, 09 Jun 2011 12:23:58 +0000 ksnyder 112613 at https://scienceblogs.com Answering a "Burning" Question: How do UTI-causing Bacteria Stick to Bladder Cells? https://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/2011/06/03/answering-a-burning-question-h <span>Answering a &quot;Burning&quot; Question: How do UTI-causing Bacteria Stick to Bladder Cells?</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>In news that may shake the cranberry juice industry to its core, new atomic-level "snapshots" reveal how bacteria such as <em>E. coli</em> produce and secrete sticky appendages called pili, which help the microbes attach to and infect human bladder cells. </p> <p>These crystal structures -- produced at the <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/ps/nsls/about-NSLS.asp">National Synchrotron Light Source</a> (NSLS) at Brookhaven Lab and the <a href="http://www.esrf.eu/">European Synchrotron Radiation Facility</a> in Grenoble, France -- unravel a complex choreography of protein-protein interactions that will aid in the design of new antibacterial drugs. Finding ways to interfere with pili formation could help thwart urinary tract infections, which affect millions of women and men around the world each year.</p> <p>Two teams of scientists -- one at Brookhaven and Stony Brook University, and another at Washington University School of Medicine and University College London -- used a range of imaging techniques and computer modeling to produce the most complete picture yet of the pore-like transporter protein complex in the act of secreting sticky-ended pili. The research reveals two binding sites for pili subunits on this transporter protein, and details of how these sites work together to recruit, assemble, and transport pili components from the microbe cell's interior to its outer surface. </p> <div style="width: 500px; float:left; margin: 0 auto; padding-right: 10px; padding-bottom: 5px"> <p> <a href="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-e75db6452cb093296716abb7f741f19f-FimD-Usher-structures-HR.jpg"><img src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-d38212ec8a35cb78c609865f3dc06993-FimD-Usher-structures-HR-thumb-500x493-65761.jpg" alt="i-d38212ec8a35cb78c609865f3dc06993-FimD-Usher-structures-HR-thumb-500x493-65761.jpg" /></a><br /><small><br /><div style="text-align: center;"><em>The bacterial protein transport channel in its resting closed state (green) and the activated open state (blue). The channel is sealed by a plug structure that is shown in red. Note the change of the channel shape from oval to near circular and displacement of the plug when open. Some parts of the protein molecule are omitted for simplicity.</em></div> </small></p> </div> <p></p> <!--more--><p>Blocking or removing either of these two binding sites may be a way to inhibit pilus formation -- an idea already being explored in new drug-development investigations.</p> <p>The <a href="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v474/n7349/full/nature10109.html">findings</a> were published online in <em>Nature</em> on June 2. </p> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/ksnyder" lang="" about="/author/ksnyder" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ksnyder</a></span> <span>Fri, 06/03/2011 - 03:15</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biology" hreflang="en">biology</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/nsls" hreflang="en">NSLS</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brookhaven-national-laboratory" hreflang="en">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/e-coli" hreflang="en">E. coli</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/european-synchrotron-radiation-facility" hreflang="en">European Synchrotron Radiation Facility</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/pili" hreflang="en">pili</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/stony-brook-university" hreflang="en">Stony Brook University</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/university-college-london" hreflang="en">University College London</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/urinary-tract-infections" hreflang="en">urinary tract infections</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/washington-university-school-medicine" hreflang="en">Washington University School of Medicine</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/biology" hreflang="en">biology</a></div> </div> </div> <section> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/brookhaven/2011/06/03/answering-a-burning-question-h%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Fri, 03 Jun 2011 07:15:27 +0000 ksnyder 112615 at https://scienceblogs.com NSLS-II Digs Up History https://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/2011/05/25/nsls-ii-digs-up-history <span>NSLS-II Digs Up History</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Five years before becoming fully operational, Brookhaven's <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/ps/nsls2/about-NSLS-II.asp">National Synchrotron Light Source II</a> (NSLS-II) already is leading to discoveries -- of the historical kind. </p> <div style="width: 300px; float:left; margin: 0 auto; padding-right: 10px; padding-bottom: 5px"> <p><a href="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/Newspaper.jpg"><img src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-2d084c05c2209b0d3aa1e66f109eccff-Newspaper-thumb-300x236-65329.jpg" alt="i-2d084c05c2209b0d3aa1e66f109eccff-Newspaper-thumb-300x236-65329.jpg" /></a></p> <div style="text-align: center;"><em>Pieces of newspaper dug up at the NSLS-II construction site, which include a story about a boxing match scheduled for October 2, 1917 - Tommy Tuohey versus Ed Wallace<br /></em></div> </div> <p>As earthwork takes place on the NSLS-II construction site, which housed part of the U.S. Army's <a href="http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/history/camp_upton1.asp">Camp Upton</a> in the World War I and II era, artifacts ranging from rusted horseshoes to nearly 100-year-old pieces of newspaper are being dug up.</p> <p>One of the most recent finds is a large piece of painted concrete rock thought to have been part of a floor in a warehouse used in the army base in the 1940s. The rock, which has a hand-drawn emblem of a bugle, the notation "Company G," and the words "Baptized by Fire," was linked with the 14th regiment, known as the "Fighting Fourteenth" and the "Red-legged Devils" from Brooklyn. The second wave of American troops sent to France in WWI, including soldiers from Camp Upton, received their last bit of training just behind allied lines and were subject to enemy fire. This may be why the regiment adopted "Baptized by Fire" as their motto.</p> <div style="width: 300px; float:right; margin: 0 auto; padding-left: 10px; padding-bottom: 5px"> <p><a href="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-46dbc6a477dc604ab0f58f153caa713d-ArtifactWWIIBoulderD3191009.jpg"><img src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/wp-content/blogs.dir/357/files/2012/04/i-e2b9c97a299c67bbb6bb531ca3db3aff-ArtifactWWIIBoulderD3191009-thumb-300x451-65413.jpg" alt="i-e2b9c97a299c67bbb6bb531ca3db3aff-ArtifactWWIIBoulderD3191009-thumb-300x451-65413.jpg" /></a></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><em>A slab of concrete found in the NSLS-II excavation site</em></p> </div> <p>Construction workers also recently discovered a WWII dog tag that belonged to a soldier who likely passed through Camp Upton on his way to England after his basic training concluded at Fort Oglethorpe, GA, in 1943. By 1945, WWII had ended and Camp Upton was officially declared surplus. Two years later, Brookhaven National Laboratory was born.</p> <!--more--><p>These artifacts are a few of many. In fact, a makeshift museum of Sheffield milk bottles, railroad spikes, Coca-Cola glasses -- even a delicately etched Ed. Pinaud hair tonic bottle -- has been made out of a table in the NSLS-II Project construction trailer, where passersby can imagine what life was like in Upton nearly a century ago.</p> <div style="width: 500px; float:left; margin: 0 auto; padding-right: 10px; padding-bottom: 5px"> <p><a href="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/assets_c/2011/05/Dig museum_2-65410.php" onclick="window.open('http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/assets_c/2011/05/Dig museum_2-65410.php','popup','width=1800,height=1197,scrollbars=no,resizable=no,toolbar=no,directories=no,location=no,menubar=no,status=no,left=0,top=0'); return false"><img src="http://scienceblogs.com/brookhaven/assets_c/2011/05/Dig museum_2-thumb-500x332-65410.jpg" width="500" height="332" alt="Dig museum_2.jpg" class="mt-image-left" style="float: left; margin: 0 20px 20px 0;" /></a></p> <div style="text-align: center;"><em>The dig find "museum" in the NSLS-II Project construction trailer<br /></em></div> </div> </div> <span><a title="View user profile." href="/author/ksnyder" lang="" about="/author/ksnyder" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">ksnyder</a></span> <span>Wed, 05/25/2011 - 04:39</span> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline"> <div class="field--label">Tags</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/history" hreflang="en">History</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/nsls-ii" hreflang="en">NSLS-II</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/14th-regiment" hreflang="en">14th regiment</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/brookhaven-national-laboratory" hreflang="en">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/camp-upton" hreflang="en">Camp Upton</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/fighting-fourteenth" hreflang="en">Fighting Fourteenth</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/red-legged-devils" hreflang="en">Red-legged Devils</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/wwi" hreflang="en">WWI</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/tag/wwii" hreflang="en">WWII</a></div> </div> </div> <section> </section> <ul class="links inline list-inline"><li class="comment-forbidden"><a href="/user/login?destination=/brookhaven/2011/05/25/nsls-ii-digs-up-history%23comment-form">Log in</a> to post comments</li></ul> Wed, 25 May 2011 08:39:00 +0000 ksnyder 112614 at https://scienceblogs.com