New Picture Stone Found at Stenkyrka


Per Widerström called me today and told me he'd just found a picture stone. This is breaking news, mainstream media not yet alerted. Photographs courtesy of the finder, and I hope to get some shots in horizontal lighting too where the relief scenes will be visible.

Scandinavian 1st Millennium art isn't very rich in figural scenes, focusing more on abstract or heavily stylised decorative motifs. But the picture stones of Gotland form an exception. Starting in the 5th century and surviving into the 12th, this tradition offers a rare peek into the mythology of eastern Scandinavia, far from the Norwegian coast where the Icelandic literature originated. Lovely, lovely stuff.


Per found the new stone during a watching brief in Stenkyrka churchyard, north of the church, where it lay buried face-down near the surface. There was no sign of any foundation stones. The stone's a little less than two meters tall and features two (?) Viking ships and a number of human figures. Most likely it dates from the 8th or 9th century, and it is unlikely to have been found in its original location. Most such stones are found re-used either in churchyards or in 11th century late pagan graves (as I have discussed in my dissertation, vol. 2, p. 73).

Per and myself talked a little about how bizarre it is that Swedish churchyards (often going back to the 12th or even 11th century) are not registered ancient monuments. Congregations are allowed to continue digging graves there with impunity, constantly wearing away at valuable archaeological source material. In my opinion, they should be required to fund a proper rescue excavation every time they want to dig a grave, or preferably establish a new cemetery in some nearby field that can be machine-stripped and freed from archaeological remains in advance. Such a reform would probably prove impopular among the locals. But they're too few to pack a lot of democratic punch, mwahaha. Almost everyone lives in cities these days and are buried in cemeteries established in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Per Widerström, by the way, runs a one-man archaeological consultancy firm. He has my heartfelt recommendations.


Here's an example of what these picture stones can look like once the figural scenes have been made out.

[More blog entries about , , , , , ; , , , , , .]

More like this

In the mid-to-late 19th century, just as Scandy (and thus, it's fair to say, world) archaeology was making its first big breakthroughs, a lot of furnished 11th century female burials unexpectedly turned up in the churchyards of Gotland. The chain of events that led to this windfall of new data is…
Re-run from 22 December 2005. The Viking Period was a funny time, only three centuries long, leaving a huge footprint in terms of ideas and archaeology. Speakers of Scandinavian languages lived mainly in the fertile southern third of Scandinavia, most of them being subsistence farmers. The endless…
Polyhedrical weight. 9/10th century. Photograph Tobias Bondesson. (Martin here, posting from the hostel of Norsholm on the Göta canal, using my handheld and the cell phone network. To get the post on-line, my dear scibling Janet has kindly agreed to act as go-between.) Coin struck for Heinrich II…
Dear Reader, let me tell you about my on-going research. Written history begins late in Scandinavia. The 1st Millennium AD is an almost entirely prehistoric period here. Still, Scandinavian archaeologists have long had a pretty good general idea about late 1st Millennium political geography. The…

Given the relatively short distance from Gotland to the Estonian islands, has anything similar been found on Saaremaa or Hiiumaa? Or on the mainland, for that matter?

Yeah, three or four of those stones are known to have travelled. One featuring two ducks has been found in a cemetery in Latvia/Lithuania. Another one has been bought/stolen on Gotland and taken to Uppland in the 11th century, where it received a runic inscription informing the reader that the stone was taken from Gotland!

Then, very rarely, there are other types of picture stones on the mainland, and illustrated rune stones. But they aren't at all as detailed and finely made as the Gotlandic limestone ones.

Thanks, Martin. Are there any references for these (doesn't matter if not in English)?

a watching brief in Stenkyrka churchyard

A what?

By Tegumai Bopsul… (not verified) on 17 Oct 2007 #permalink

Andy, check out Nylen & Lamm's popular book Bildstenar for the Uppland one. As to the Baltic States one, there's a Fornvännen paper from the early 90s, but I can't seem to find it right now. I'll check tomorrow.

Tegumai, a watching brief is when the County Archaeologist tells a developer that they can start digging at their building site but that they'll have to pay an archaeologist to stand around the edge of the trench watching, to see if anything interesting turns up.

I agree, that is a good method though you need to see the stone to know which lines are artificial in tricky cases. The traditional method is to simply fill the lowered surfaces in with paint under horizontal lighting, but that is seen as too invasive these days.

It would certainly be a very good idea to keep an archaelogical eye on the surroundings of churches. I suspect there is a lot to be found there. A late Viking age/early middle age main farm connected to a nice 12th century stone church would be high on my personal "wanting-list".

Nice find by the way!!

They are keeping an eye on the churchyards to some extent, as shown by Per's watching brief at Stenkyrka. But this is only for construction-related digging. What I'm suggesting is that the County Archaeologist shouldn't just send people to watch passively as people dig pits and trenches in Medieval churchyards. Nobody should be allowed to even bring a shovel to a churchyard without a permit from the County Council / Lst.

Andy, about the Baltic States picture stone. It was found on a grave mound at Scandy-infested Grobin in Latvia and is published in Fornvännen 1991:1. V.P. Petrenko describes the find and interprets the motif as a stylised ship. J.P. Lamm then, in a brief note, explains courteously that in comparison to better-preserved specimens on Gotland, the "ship" must in fact be two geese facing each other with erect necks. (-;

J.P.L. also mentions two more Gotlandic picture-stones outside of Gotland: both have been found on the nearby island of Öland. The Uppland one was found at Norrala church.

Its gotta be hard trying to restore the stone. Perhaps an installations as a replica beside the stone will help visitor understand its function more. Soluble salts contents from environment might have seaped into any pourous pores within the stone, making restoration work even harder. But a lovely found I must say!