If you don't know someone's age, over time they may let out clues that tell you when they were born based on what they remember, or things they claim to have done. This can be very inaccurate. My wife said something the other day that would cause anyone to infer that she was at least ten years older than she is, but it turns out the TV show she was referring to came to her home as syndicated re-runs. (My own personal memory of the recently deceased Soupy Sales is a similar example.)
You can always ask a person his or her age, but you have to infer the age of inanimate objects like The Universe. You can use radiometric dating to find the age of a lot of rocks on Earth. Maybe there are meteors on Earth that are older. Maybe there are rocks on the Moon that are older. You can then put together the ages of the oldest rocks that you can lay your hands (and instruments) on and combine that with a theory about how the Earth and the other planets formed. This would provide a minimum estimate for the age of The Universe, providing that The Universe is older than our solar system.
Which it is.
Then, if you have a theory about how the visible universe formed and a few more facts you can provide a more accurate estimate of the age of the universe. As you probably know, that gets tricky because of "expansion." Well, it is said to be tricky, but really it is quite simple. Think, temporarily, as "distance" as a thing (Which it is, though the properties we would naturally attribute to the thing labeled by the English word "distance" do not exhaustively describe a whole thing ... distance is an aspect of spacetime. But let's set that aside here.) So expansion is this: Distance is this thing that during the history of The Universe has gotten larger. It continues to get larger, but it probably got larger really fast at some earlier time. Since light is moving along this "distance" thing, the actual (final) distance the light went is farther than it could have been at maximum speed without expansion happening. Light, which goes as fast as something can go and is the only thing that goes that fast, went faster than itself because it cheated. Much like Rosie Ruiz.
Assuming that we know the numbers, it is possible, given a "big bang" and few parameters, to estimate the age of the universe more accurately than you can estimate the age of a horse or a person using only physical evidence such as tooth wear or claims about what television show a person watched while still a kid. But it is still an estimate, not as well confirmed as if you had a birth certificate, and subject to minor perturbations depending on the exact numbers that are used to make the estimate So, additional empirical data are nice to have, and such data usually comes in the form of a galaxy or a nova (exploding star) that is really far away in spacetime.
So let's say you know a person, and can't figure out if she's in her 30s or 40s. If she blurts out a knowing reference to the TV show "Edge of Darkness" then you would guess 30s. If she makes a knowing reference to Survivors, you'd guess 40s. Oh, and you'd guess her origin to be British.
Or there were reruns.
Every once in a while The Universe blurts out a reference to something that suggests its age, and that happened recently. As recently reported in Nature, astronomers have observed a gamma ray burst from a dying star and dated this event to 13.1 billion light years away. Previously, the earliest direct empirical clue to the age of the universe was 12.9 billion light years away.
From the abstract of the paper:
Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to result from the explosions of certain massive stars, and some are bright enough that they should be observable out to redshifts of z > 20 using current technology. Hitherto, the highest redshift measured for any object was z = 6.96, for a Lyman-alpha emitting galaxy. Here we report that GRB 090423 lies at a redshift of z approximately 8.2, implying that massive stars were being produced and dying as GRBs approx630 Myr after the Big Bang. The burst also pinpoints the location of its host galaxy.
The red shift is how speed relative to us is measured, and in an expanding universe model (i.e., a Big Bang model .... the cosmological phenomenon, not the hit TV series) that speed is higher for objects farther away.
So next time you look at a person and are wondering how old he or she is, glance up at the sky (which is where The Universe is) and know that you're never going to guess the answer to your unspoken question as accurately as astronomers will know the answer to the ultimate age-old question. Unless, of course, The Universe has something equivalent to re-runs.
Which it doesn't.
For a refresher on the history of The Universe watch this video:
Tanvir, N., Fox, D., Levan, A., Berger, E., Wiersema, K., Fynbo, J., Cucchiara, A., KrÃ¼hler, T., Gehrels, N., Bloom, J., Greiner, J., Evans, P., Rol, E., Olivares, F., Hjorth, J., Jakobsson, P., Farihi, J., Willingale, R., Starling, R., Cenko, S., Perley, D., Maund, J., Duke, J., Wijers, R., Adamson, A., Allan, A., Bremer, M., Burrows, D., Castro-Tirado, A., Cavanagh, B., de Ugarte Postigo, A., Dopita, M., Fatkhullin, T., Fruchter, A., Foley, R., Gorosabel, J., Kennea, J., Kerr, T., Klose, S., Krimm, H., Komarova, V., Kulkarni, S., Moskvitin, A., Mundell, C., Naylor, T., Page, K., Penprase, B., Perri, M., Podsiadlowski, P., Roth, K., Rutledge, R., Sakamoto, T., Schady, P., Schmidt, B., Soderberg, A., Sollerman, J., Stephens, A., Stratta, G., Ukwatta, T., Watson, D., Westra, E., Wold, T., & Wolf, C. (2009). A Î³-ray burst at a redshift of zâââ8.2 Nature, 461 (7268), 1254-1257 DOI: 10.1038/nature08459
Wow. This science stuff sure is complicated. Isn't it a lot easier just to read an old (relatively speaking) book and believe what it tells you there? I mean, 6000 years is close enough . . . isn't it??
Since the "measuring stick" is expanding as the universe expands, why would there be any redshift? The space itself is expanding so there is no change in the wave length since the units of measure are expanding as well. Why not more red = more intervening dust?
Jim: More intervening dust = dimmer, but no change in redness (except to block out certain spectrum). The idea of using GRB is that it is sufficiently high energy to penetrate a lot of that, so we can see just what the redshift is.
For the first point, space is expanding and things are getting farther away. The light took 13.(coughcoughcouch) billion years to get here, but the farthest objects are some 70+ billion light years away. Make sense?
Here is something which floated up in my thoughts recently. We know very little about the present universe because information comes in at the speed of light, creating the event horizon. We don't know what the sun is doing in real time, we only know what it was doing eight minutes ago. Same for a star a hundred light years away, or a galaxy a million light years away. We have no possible observation of what is going on there now. On the other hand we know a great deal about the history of the universe. We know what the sun was like eight minutes ago, etc. Anyway, it surprised me when it occurred to me.
Jim: re why redshift?
remember the science experiment in school where you send waves along a string? Well, imagine that string.
You start moving your arm up & down at 1Hz (i.e. a complete wave every second).
That results in a wave train traveling down the string at some velocity. The speed that waves travel along the string is 'constant' in that medium. (i.e. the wave propagates at a constant speed, regardless of the frequency of the wave. If you start a wave at time t, it will reach a distant point d, at some time t-prime. The ratio of distance over time is a constant - double the distance, the wave will take exactly twice as long to get there).
Also - since the speed is constant, the wavelength (distance between peaks) is inversely proportional to the frequency of the wave. Hence we can talk synonymously about '30-centimeter waves' or 'Gigahertz' waves (light traveling at 300 million meters per second, approx. = 1000 million 30-centimeter waves per second)
Now imagine we STRETCH the string after we create a wave!
The point previously at distance 'd' is now some distance farther at 'd-prime'. Assuming* the propagation speed is unchanged (still original d/t), the wavelength of the propagated wave is therefore greater (stretched by the same factor of d-prime/d). The frequency of the propagated wave is therefore lower.
We *know* this, since we observe the redshift of known spectral lines (eg Hydrogen). The emission spectra for Hydrogen is presumed to be constant. Changes to the emission spectrum is therefore direct evidence of redshift, and therefore of expansion. see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_line
* this assumption holds for General & Special Relativity since it is a postulate of both theories that light in a vacuum has a constant rate of propagation for all observers.
Jim: The redshift is caused by more than one thing, actually. But space expanding is one of the things that actually does.
I love the TV Show metaphor, and may reuse it to explain why fossils do not tell us absolute dates for phylogenetic lineages sometime, if you don't mind.
Incidentally, Bare Naked Ladies claim the Big Crunch is still an option. I think that's been dropped now...
if you want more info on the age of the universe and expanding space etc go check out Starts with a Bang. it is another blog here at Science Blogs. look at the series of articles written last month on the subject.
And here I thought you were going to talk about passing gas.
John: Use it, of course! Personally I liked it too. Works with temporally distinct musical genre as well.
Regarding the big crunch, doesn't this all come down to if we believe in Dark Matter? Which we probably do, of course.
Rob: Yeah, the link I give above is to a SWAB article. I would strongly recommend people go check it out.
NASA's latest Astronomy Picture of the Day is relevant here:
Regarding the big crunch, doesn't this all come down to if we believe in Dark Matter? Which we probably do, of course.
Any extra gravitational effect due to Dark Matter should be more than compensated for by Dark Energy (whatever it might be) which is causing the Universe's expansion to accelerate.
Right but ... this is like the time my daughter (when she was very little) asked me if I believed in the Easter Bunny.
"Why does it matter if the Easter Bunny is real?" I asked.
"Because if the Easter Bunny is real, it would sure make it a lot easier to believe in Santa Claus."
Anyway, I figured Dark Energy is there to offset the Dark Matter and therefore fix up all the calculations. Dark matter makes it a lot easier to believe in dark energy.
Greg: Dark energy is more a means to describe a known property of the universe (accelerating expansion). This puts 'big crunch' out of contention in general. It's really a kind of placeholder (IMO, anyway) to describe whatever it is that causes this observed result.
Dark energy is most probably vacuum energy or scalar fields, neither of which we have a good grasp on. Vacuum energy would make sense in Einstein's world, and he's a bad choise to bet against.
Dark matter is same thing, different problem. Gravity points to places where apparent mass isn't, so there must be some sort of matter there that we can't properly detect. Because of where it tends to be (like, when two galaxies pass through each other the regular matter gets all tangled up and the dark matter just cruises on as if nothing happened) we can imply that it doesn't interact the same way as regular mass does. Hence the probable weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)
In other words: you can believe them or not, but the results are real phenomena. The math is an afterthought.
It is my understanding that if a light object is moving away from the earth, it would have a red shift. If a light object is moving toward the earth it would have a blue shift.
A picture from the website hubblesite.org of the Omega Centauri globular cluster shows a number of lights that are red and some lights that are blue.
Could you take a look at the picture and explain why some of the lights are red and some are blue? Would it be safe to conclude that some objects in the universe are moving towards us and some objects are moving away from us?
Jerry: Others can probably comment on this better but a star that is red shifted has a spectrum that is shifted to the left but that does not mean the star would appear red. If you look at the spectrum of a star you can see absorption lines for hydrogen. If a star is red-shifted, the absorption lines will be shifted slightly to the red end of the spectrum but especially if the star is close and the shift is very small the star would not appear red. There's a nice sample image explaining it at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redshift
The example you chose was the Centauri system which is one of the closest stellar systems to us so and red shift would be extremely small. The reason some stars appear blue while some appear red in this case simply has to do with the temperature and size of the stars themselves. Blue stars burn hotter than cooler (relatively speaking of course) red stars.
I don't know about this particular picture, but plenty of galaxies are moving towards us. Most are not, and critically, the farther away a galasy is, the more red shifted it is, because of expansion.
When my graphic designer chose the Orion nebula for the cover of my e-book at http://www.suprarational.org she learned that Hubble's images are made in black and white. They are later "colorized" by NASA. For more detail, here is their link:
This update is added in order is to address a recent sophisticated yet simultaneously clumsy attempt to try to discredit the Theory of the Big Bang/Big Crunch Infinite Cycle of the Universe and to render confusion in a paper and book by Stephen Hawking crony, Robert Penrose, plus some political updating:
Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics
The Capitalist Dictatorship Deliberately Falsifies Basic Science!
Stephen Hawking, Michio Kaku, Wendy Freedman, Dennis
Overbye, Nicholas Wade, Brian Greene, etc. Are Exposed as Liars!
Self-Described Neo-Creationists Hawking and Kaku Are
Leading a Takeover Attempt of Theoretical Astrophysics!
Today basic medicine, science including climatology, astrophysics and even both Einsteinâs Special Theory and General Theory of Relativity are brazenly and routinely falsified at the direction of genuinely Fascist elements for political/religious reasons. These scientifically fabricated and bizarre distortions are mixed in with some actual science and are passed off as âthe new scienceâ in exhaustive mesmerizing falsifications lasting for hours on NOVA, FRONTLINE, National Geographic Channel, CUNY TV, âDiscovery Channelâ and even the so-called âHistory Channel.â There is also a simultaneous attempt to create a sense of panic in order to help generate the Mass Psychology of Crisis based on falsely claimed imminent threats from space from rogue asteroids to Stephen Hawkingâs alarmist claim of future invasions by inevitably hostile space aliens. See section below on UFOs and Extraterrestrial Life. In addition, the above-mentioned so-called âcosmologistsâ publish an endless stream of books, videos and magazine and newspaper articles, not to mention the new textbooks, to try to popularize their fiction and pass it off as good coin. The media, including the science media is simply a privatized arm of the U.S. âintelligence agency,â an actual army of legions of professional liars in every area of politics and academic discipline and includes even so-called âcomediansâ working in service to the capitalist dictatorship of millionaires and billionaires. The U.S. media is very similar to Blackwater, Dyncorp, Custer Battles and Triple Canopy, etc. the armed military contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan, except that the media has always been privatized. Can you say Total Brainwash of the youth? Not to mention the adult population! Note that Stephen Hawking and Michio Kaku, who are leading the takeover attempt of theoretical astrophysics and âcosmology,â now both openly describe themselves as neo-creationist/âintelligent designâ advocates and are campaigning through their statements to make neo-creationism the default belief taught in schools, colleges and universities! (See below.) Although Hawking simultaneously tries to deny this all his statements are contrived to lead to the same âconclusion.â The title and contents of Hawkingâs book: âThe Grand Designâ is an example.
There is also a maximal attempt to confuse the masses in order to keep them susceptible to the constant stream of lies originating from NASA and the U.S. government. These lies include but are not limited to multiple false theories of the origin of life which include: 1.) so-called âpanspermia,â 2.) evolution of life from submarine vents and now preposterously 3.) hypothetical civilizations based on arsenic (!) not phosphorus, all of which are fully disproved below. NASA first threatened to ram through a revisit of the Moon and a Mars mission before Obama under some public pressure temporarily cancelled the Moon and Mars ventures and made asteroids the first priority in order to lay the groundwork for an asteroid fear campaign to help reinforce the Mass Psychology of Crisis partially achieved by the âWar on Terror,â complete with multiple U.S.-government-assisted and/or instigated mass provocations. U.S. âintelligenceâ has increased the number of these provocations in order to manipulate support for the Final Stage of Capitalism: Permanent War and State Terrorism! See below. There is also no possibility that a manned trip to Mars would ever return. Rocketry is a primitive form of space travel and there is no acknowledged attempt of efforts to develop the nuclear powered electromagnetic anti-gravity engine used by so-called UFOs, which are documented to have visited the Earth for Millennia. Such âspace missionsâ along with âSupply-Side Economicsâ and the $4.7 trillion bank bailouts (!), are another fraudulent pretext to divert money from social spending and to decrease the U.S. living standard in accordance with Globalism, while trying simultaneously to try to boost U.S. patriotism from its nadir. The widespread academic opposition to these far-ranging falsifications of science in order to manipulate the public consciousness is never given equal time! We demand and will take some time to refute the U.S.-led capitalist dictatorshipâs lies.
The Capitalist Dictatorshipâs Attempt to Falsify the
Age of the Universe to Help Provide False Belief in âgodâ
The capitalists have tried to falsify the actual age of the Universe and the infinite cycle of a Big Bang followed by a Big Crunch, meaning a closed rather than an open Universe, because the reality of a closed Universe does not fit with the religious brainwash of a single creation and belief in a supernatural fictitious âgod.â (The statecraft of capitalismâs alliance with religion and belief in âgodâ and other superstition is exposed further below.) The reality is that the process of contraction of the Universe began soon after the Big Bang, which began the process of expansion. The process of contraction began with the first condensations of gas after the Big Bang. At first the process of expansion was dominant, but the processes of expansion and contraction exist simultaneously from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and all galactic matter is finally drawn into Supermassive Black Holes, which today form the centers of all spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies in the process of becoming spiral galaxies. These Supermassive Black Holes, which are growing larger continuously, finally link up all existing matter of the Universe at one spot, one huge super-maximal Black Hole known as the Singularity in the Big Crunch, at which time Critical Mass in the true and ultimate sense is reached for another Big Bang Cycle and the beginning of another Universe. This analysis clearly and conclusively demonstrates that THERE WAS NO âMOMENT OF CREATIONâ because all the matter for this Universe already existed in its pure nuclear form in the Singularity from a previous Big Crunch which preceded the Big Bang which began our present Universe. And the origin of matter is PROVED to be an unknowable. (See below.) This is the ONLY explanation which fits the facts! See below for comment on Roger Penrose and his recently published paper and book where he invents a highly contrived but easily disproved counter âtheoryâ to the Big Bang Big Crunch Cycle of the Universe in order to try to discredit the cyclic nature of the Universe.
Ninety-five Percent of Matter in the Universe Exists in the Form of Energy According
To Einsteinâs Formula E=mc2! Black Holes Completely Reverse that Relationship and
Solve the Equation for Mass: m=E/c2 thus Supplying the so-called âMissing Massâ!
The critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity, which predicted Black Holes. Neutrinos are now known to have mass which may be sufficient to supply the supposed âmissing mass.â (See below.) But probably even more significant is the recent paper in Science, November 21, 2008, (Vol. 322, 5905:1198-1199 and 1124-1127), which shows that 95% of matter in the Universe exists in the form of energy according to Einsteinâs formula E=mc2. This relationship would reverse in a Black Hole and the so-called âmissing massâ would gradually appear as the contraction of the Universe allowed the energy-mass relationship to shift so that in a practical and real sense Einsteinâs formula would be solved for mass: m=E/c2. Though the authors of the paper fail to draw this conclusion that is the inescapable significance of those papers. See below. The fact that the expansion and contraction of the Universe occur simultaneously is one more example of the Law of Unity of Opposites, the Second Law of Dialectical and Historical Materialism and demonstrates the correctness of the scientific philosophy of Dialectical and Historical Materialism, as opposed to the false philosophies of idealism and metaphysics, which are the only philosophies permitted to be seriously taught in U.S. colleges and universities, and which form the underlying basis for all phony âcosmologicalâ theory! See further below!
Black Holes Rotate on an Axis and Have
Mass and a Size, which Can Be Calculated!
In addition, in the Big Crunch matter most certainly does NOT collapse to âless than the size of a single molecule,â a totally ridiculous assertion by the so-called âstring theoristsâ (see below) designed to try to discredit the Theory of the Big Bang/Big Crunch Cycle of the Universe. The Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy is 15 million miles in diameterânot âthe size of a single moleculeâ! Black Holes are formed exclusively of condensed nuclear material; protons and neutrons (composed of quarks) and electrons (composed of leptons) devoid of their orbits and all motion, all collapsed together. The end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called âSingularity.â The size of the final âSingularityâ which forms prior to the Big Bang would thus be quite large because it must contain all the nuclear material in the entire Universe. All Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole. See above cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. Note that while some of the information provided below may appear to be somewhat technical it is necessary for any subsequent challenges which might be made of this dialectical and historical materialist analysis. An educated reader should be able to understand most of it and follow for the most part the explanations, which have in turn vast political implications. A few key references are provided and the reader can research the area independently.
Black Holes have mass and size just as neutron stars (pulsars) also have mass!! All Black Holes, both Stellar Black Holes and Supermassive Black Holes (the result of combination of millions of solar masses) which form the center of evolving elliptical galaxies and all spiral galaxies, also rotate extremely rapidly just like neutron stars, some of which are estimated to be only 8 to 20 miles in diameter, and rotate in 1.4 milliseconds to 30 seconds! Black Holes rotate as fast or faster. All stars rotate on a central axis to some degree due to the angular momentum of gas approaching the center of the proto-star prior to the ignition of hydrogen fusion. In other words the gravitational collapse of gas in star formation is not uniform just as its opposite, an explosion such as the Big Bang is not uniform. When the radius of the star is reduced drastically in stellar collapse the angular momentum remains the same but the momentum of inertia is sharply reduced. The standard example is that of a figure skater spinning with outstretched arms who speeds up by pulling in his/her arms. Black Holes are formed from the collapse of the largest Blue Giant stars 5 to 20 or more solar masses. Neutron stars are formed from the explosion of stars with 1.35 to 2.1 solar masses in a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova explosion. The rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes is in fact the reason Spiral Galaxies exist in the flattened disk form they do with spiral armsâbecause of the huge gravitational force exerted by the rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes which form their galactic centers! As mentioned this fact is entirely covered up and denied by the phony NASA âscientistsâ on television, e.g., National Geographic TV. As the rotating Supermassive Black Hole in the galactic center gradually increases in size through accumulation/accretion of more stellar material and gas, the early elliptical galaxies, in the process of becoming a spiral galaxies, begin to flatten due to the rapid rotation of the Supermassive Black Hole in their center which causes the flattening. It should also be noted that as would be expected there exist a high number of stellar black holes in the galactic center drawn by their strong gravitational fields on their way to join the central Supermassive Black Hole. According to observations of the Chandra X-Ray Telescope released in a July 16, 2005 report there are 10,000 stellar black holes along with numerous neutron stars orbiting the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy, officially designated Sagittarius A (SGR A)! The Supermassive Black Hole at the center of the Milky Way has a mass of 3.7 million solar masses. The largest known Supermassive Black Hole in the OJ 287 Quasar contains 18 billion solar masses!
The spiral arms comprised of outlying stars are formed by the combination of the gravitational force coming from the rapidly rotating galactic center and the relative gravitational attraction of one outlying star to another based on their actual distances from one another. As the outlying stars approach neighboring stars due to gravity this leaves other areas where stars are much less concentrated giving rise to the appearance of usually 2 major spiral arms originating from each end of the central bar often found in the galactic center, as well as several minor spiral arms, all of which are actually in the process of being gradually drawn inexorably toward the galactic center. The gravitational force of the Black Hole, the mass of which is steadily increasing, gradually overcomes the outward centrifugal force caused by its rapid rotation. Central bars form after the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a large spiral galaxy reaches a certain size and are therefore found more prevalently in more massive galaxies where the required mass is reached sooner. Central bars form when stellar orbits in a spiral galaxy become unstable and deviate from a circular path. The tiny elongations in the stars' orbits grow and become locked into place, forming a bar. The bar becomes even stronger as it locks more and more of these elongated orbits into place. Eventually a high fraction of the stars in the galaxy's inner region join the bar. The galactic center thus attracts both gas and stars. This concentration of gas at the center of spiral galaxies does result in the formation of new stars but does not represent the primary or original source of star formation, which occurs in the beginning of formation of galaxies from gravitational condensation and collapse of primordial gas clouds. The central bars draw a large amount of gas towards the galactic center, fueling this new star formation, building central bulges of stars, and feeding the Supermassive central Black Hole. The formation of a bar may be one of the last stages in the evolution of a spiral galaxy prior to its eventual total collapse entirely into its central Supermassive Black Hole.
Information Overload by NASA and U.S. Government Propagandists is used to Distract
Focus Away from the Significance and Central Role Black Holes Play in the Process
Of Contraction of the Universe which Finally Becomes Dominant in the Big Crunch!
In the interest of accuracy it is also important to mention that this information is being misused by NASA and other U.S. government propagandists to try to distract from and obscure the significance of black holes and the central role black holes play in the process of contraction of the Universe, which ultimately becomes dominant over the simultaneous process of expansion. First, it is a fact that matter generally enters a black hole through a combination of both gravitation and magnetism. Matter in the accretion disk, which spins around the black hole, can only enter the black hole after it loses its angular momentum. The inertia of the material in the accretion disk keeps it spiraling in a disk rather than falling straight into the black hole. The inertia in turn is due to the mass of the material in the disc and the gravitational field caused by the extremely rapid rotation of the black hole itself. An accretion disc is a rotating disk of gas, dust and other matter that may form around any of a variety of stars or other massive objects from protostars to white dwarfs to neutron stars to stellar black holes and Supermassive Black Holes and even quasars (see below). While the accretion disc of a young star or protostar usually contains dust which later consolidates or accretes to form planets and other objects, the accretion disk of a black hole, which may also contain stars, feeds matter directly into the black hole.
According to a report in the July 22, 2006 Nature, and another 2008 paper by F. Casse Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 124020 (9pp) confirming the 1973 theory of Starobinsky and Churilov, the spinning gas in an accretion disc generates its own magnetic field which powers a wind of charged particles directed away from the black hole. The wind of charged particles transfers angular momentum from the inner regions of the disk outward in a twin jet phenomenon perpendicular to the plane of the accretion disk allowing angular momentum to be conserved, meaning to remain balanced or constant. This transfer of angular momentum outward slows down the spinning gas near the center, allowing gravitation to draw matter into the black hole. The magnetic field also causes turbulence and friction to build up within the disk. The friction heats up the gas to millions of degrees, causing it to glow brilliantly in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands. In Supermassive Black Holes large jets of plasma flow away from the accretion disc perpendicular to its center at almost the speed of light. These jets of plasma travel outward along the magnetic field lines which are twisted by the rotating accretion disk. It should be noted that the material which flows outward in the jets represents only a tiny amount of material extracted from the accretion disk. (Plasma, which is found in the accretion disk closest to the black hole, is a partially ionized gas, where a certain proportion of electrons are free, not being bound to atoms or molecules, unlike the gas form of matter. This permits electrical conduction of magnetic fields. Plasma is considered the fourth state of matter in addition to solid, gas and liquid.
Redshift Measurement of Quasars puts
The Age of the Universe at 28 Billion Years!
The process where matter enters a black hole from its accretion disk may be greatly expanded during the formation of quasars where a Supermassive Black Hole at a galactic Center accretes a huge amount of matter in the order of billions of stars. When two black holes combine or a stellar black hole enters a Supermassive Black Hole in a galactic center the process causes the emission of radio waves and even visible light. When hundreds of millions to billions of stars and enormous amounts of gas first combine to create a Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a galaxy the energy released is exponentially increased and is known as a quasar. In a quasar this radiation is emitted across the entire spectrum almost equally, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays. Quasars are the most visibly luminous objects in the Universe and are also the strongest energy source in the Universe. A quasar is simply an accelerated process of formation of a Supermassive Black Hole in an early galaxy. The release of gravitational energy by matter falling towards a massive black hole in the formation of a quasar is the only process known that can produce such high power continuously, energy far greater than the fusion process which powers stars. Quasars easily outshine their host galaxies. (The light we see is from the huge superheated accretion disk, which is greatly enlarged due to the high density of matter in such galaxies. Stellar explosions such as Supernovas and gamma-ray bursts can create the same level of energy, but only for a few minutes. Gamma ray bursts are generated by hypernova, which are simply very large supernova, the collapse of a stars with masses 100 to 200 times that of the sun. Contrary to the lies designed to create confusion, which appear on the National Geographic so-called Discovery Channel âHow the Universe Worksâ programs, not all early galaxies possessed enough mass to produce a quasar. There is no evidence for example, that the Milky Way Galaxy, as claimed by Micho Kaku & Co. was a quasar! The Supermassive Black Hole at its center is far too small! And the mass extinction on Earth 440-450 million years ago was undoubtedly NOT caused by a gamma ray burst from a hypernova, but from the continental drift of a large landmass (Gondwana) into the south polar region causing a global temperature drop, glaciation and lowering of sea level which destroyed 60% of habitats around the continental shelves at a time when all life was confined to the seas and oceans. Evidence documenting this was found in deposits in the Sahara Desert.
All observed quasar spectra have red shifts between 0.06 and 6.5. Applying Hubble's law to these red shifts, it can be shown that they are between 780 million and 28 billion light-years away, a measurement which is NOT due to gravitational lensing, although this has been reported for some extremely bright quasars. This is proof that the Universe itself is at least 28 billion years old! So the most recent âestimatesâ of the Hubble Constant and the actual age of the Universe by NASA, Wendy Freedman and company and the media (a privatized arm of the U.S. âintelligence communityâ) are obviously TOTALLY FALSE! (See below.) The process of quasar formation occurred regularly in the early Universe in the formation of galaxies with huge densely concentrated gas and stars. It should be obvious that the first galaxies to form in the Universe generally contained the highest volume and concentration of gas, which in turn created the highest concentration and densities of stars. The Supermassive Black Holes at the center of those early galaxies became quasars. Galaxies without such high densities of matter develop more along the lines of our own Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda, for example. Formation of galaxies is still occurring but generally they do not become quasars because the volume and density of gas is insufficient. An exception is 3C 273 in the constellation Virgo which is only 33 light years away with a luminosity equal to 2 trillion times that of our sun or about 100 times the total light of the Milky Way. Their discovery by Maarten Schmidt in 1967 was early strong evidence against the totally discredited steady state theory of Fred Hoyle, and in favor of the Big Bang Theory. Blazers, incidentally are the same as quasars but have their perpendicular jets in direct alignment with our galaxy, while quasars have their jets pointed away in another direction.
As part of the escalating campaign of Big Lies, in March 2009 NASA made the totally disingenuous statement on a National Geographic Channel so-called âNaked Scienceâ show that âwhile black holes are associated with galaxies we (who we?) do not yet know what that relationship is!â (!) And on May 17, 2010, Michelle Thaler of NASA disingenuously stated: âWe do not know which comes first the galaxy or the Black Holeâ (!) and further falsely stated that when 2 spiral galaxies collide the result is an elliptical galaxy âwhich does not spin!â This is another Big Lie and demonstrates a very systematized structure of lies. The truth is that the elliptical galaxy in this case is only a temporary structure. The Black Holes, which drove the 2 colliding spiral galaxies, combine and a larger spiral galaxy is formed. The motive for that feigned ignorance/Big Lie by the misnamed âintelligence communityâ is to try to obscure the documented reality that the matter of all galaxies is entering black holes as part of the ongoing contraction of the Universe, which begins shortly after the Big Bang and takes places simultaneously with the process of expansion and finally becomes dominant. As explained herein expansion of the Universe has slowed down enormously since the Big Bang and will be overtaken by the process of contraction until all mass in the Universe has again entered the final Black Hole, the so-called final Singularity in the Big Crunch. At that point there will be another Big Bang and another Universe will begin. In addition, NASA and other government propagandists have attempted to overemphasize the accretion disk/jet phenomenon and the huge energy produced as matter enters a black hole or quasar, almost to make it appear that black holes and quasars are âexpellingâ matter as much as drawing it in, virtually standing black holes on their head and falsely ascribing all sorts of false âobservationsâ to black holes, in order to divert focus from the primary role of black holes as the mechanism or engine of contraction of the Universe and the beginning of the Big Crunch!
One example is the false claim by the fraudster, James Geach, hyped in the July 7, 2009 New York Times by the determined âintelligence communityâ propagandist Dennis Overbye, that black holes fueled so-called Lyman alpha âblobs,â glowing clouds of gas in the early universe. But that lie was immediately refuted with the obvious explanation that cold gas streaming into a protogalaxy would heat up and glow from the gravitational energy alone! (See: âLyman Alpha Blobs as an Observational Signature of Cold Accretion Streams into Galaxiesâ by Mark Dijkstra and Abraham Loeb, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, June 5, 2009.) These fraudulent NASA/U.S. government propagandists hope that most viewers know absolutely nothing and will believe virtually anything that they are told by someone claiming to be a âscientistâ or âprofessorâ and that most people will not do their own research, or will remain at least confused and vulnerable to their next bizarre fantastical claim. That is why the information which appears here should be forwarded by email and networked in every possible way nationally and internationally in order to counter the U.S. capitalist dictatorshipâs Big Lies. The objective of the capitalist dictatorship is to render the population more susceptible to their lies in every area including politics and economics, which also have little to no basis in reality. The capitalist dictatorship also resorts to the come on of ânaked scienceâ in order to try to sex-up their Big Lie propaganda in theoretical astrophysics, while simultaneously presenting some truthful âNaked Scienceâ reports in other areas and in other National Geographic programs in order to help their Big Lies blend in.
In response to the heavy push on the so-called âHistory Channel,â etc. it should be noted that the Theory of the Big Bang was first proposed by Georges-Henri LemaÃ®tre, who had both a PhD in physics and was an ordained priest. LemaÃ®tre studied at the University of Leuven, the University of Cambridge, Harvard and MIT. The little read report was first published in 1927 in the Annales de la SociÃ©tÃ© Scientifique de Bruxelles (Annals of the Scientific Society of Brussels) and later in Nature: G. LemaÃ®tre, The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory, Natureâ 127 (1931), n. 3210, pp. 706. LemaÃ®tre called it âthe hypothesis of Primeval Atomâ and also referred to it as "the Cosmic Egg exploding at the moment of the creation," with the word âcreationâ obviously reflecting his religious bias. As explained above the Universe did not originate from a single point less than the size of a single molecule as falsely proposed by the string theorists, who now are pushing LemaÃ®tre. As explained above the end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called âSingularity.â As mentioned all Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole according to m=E/c2, Einsteinâs formula from the Special Theory solved for mass. See cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. The Singularity contains the combined mass of all nuclear material from all stars and gas in the Universe. The designation: âBig Bang Theoryâ first derived from a derogatory reference to the theory of an expanding Universe by Fred Hoyle on the BBC in March 1949 over 20 years after it was first proposed. The truth as explained above and herein is that the processes of expansion and contraction of the Universe coexist from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and there is a Big Crunch followed by another Big Bang and formation of another Universe.
It is a fact that LemaÃ®tre applied Albert Einsteinâs Theory of General Relativity to Cosmology, but was NOT a spearhead of religion supposedly leading physics as LemaÃ®tre is presently falsely being portrayed on the so-called âHistory Channel.â LemaÃ®tre also preceded Edwin Hubble in deriving what became known as Hubbleâs Law and even calculated the Hubble Constant but was not able to prove the linear relation which Hubble did in 1929. LemaÃ®tre has rarely been given the credit he is due for first proposing the Big Bang Theory for 3 reasons: 1.) The theory of an expanding Universe was opposed at the time he first proposed it by Einstein and others, 2.) For political-religious reasons explained herein the capitalist dictatorship has always opposed the Big Bang Theory because the natural logic of a Big Bang implies a Big Crunch and a cyclic nature of the Universe rather than a single creation which leaves the most room for âa creatorâ and 3.) U.S. nationalism/jingoism, where the U.S. capitalist dictatorship always prefers that whenever possible credit be given to an American. Edwin Hubble was an American lawyer. Although LemaÃ®tre had received numerous Belgian and international scientific honors only recently have the capitalists been pushing LemaÃ®tre in order to focus on the fact that he was a priest and that his theory speaks of a moment of âcreation.â The so-called âHistory Channelâ focuses on this language in an attempt to inject the sophisticated form of neo-creationism/intelligent design also espoused by Francis Collins, Obamaâs new choice for head of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). See below. Both Michio Kaku and Stephen Hawking have also now identified themselves as neo-creationists/âintelligent designâ advocates! See below.
The Hubble Constant is a calculation of the speed at which the Universe is expanding and is crucial in calculating the age of the Universe. Four methods have been used to estimate the Hubble Constant and age of the Universe. The most recent method employed by Allan R. Sandage, et al measures: 1.) the distances to Type 1a Supernovae explosions in distant galaxies and then 2.) confirms those measurements by comparing the relative luminosities of Cepheid variable stars as so-called âstandard candles,â while Wendy Freedmanâs NASA team uses Cepheid Variable stars alone, which is a lot less accurate. Freedmanâs method especially is an easy method in which to either err or to deliberately falsify results as she and her NASA team have clearly done. (See below.) The typical errors in calculating the Hubble Constant include: 1.) âthe universal, yet unjustified Period-Luminosity relation of Cepheid (variable stars), 2.) neglect of selection bias in magnitude-limited samples or 3.) the errors which are inherent to the adopted models, which cause most values of the Hubble Constant and corresponding estimates of the age of the Universe to be incorrect as explained in detail in the most comprehensive review which has yet been published, which also includes the Sandage teamâs most recent calculation of the Hubble Constant to date of 62.3 +orâ1.3, which is based on measurements to 279 galaxies: âThe expansion field: the value of the Hubble Constant,â by G.A Tammann, A. Sandage and B. Reindl, Astron Astrophys Rev (2008), 8 July 2008, 15:289-331, DOI 10.1007/s00159-800-9912-y. ((Allan Sandage died on November 13, 2010.)
This value of the Hubble Constant corresponds to an age of the Universe of approximately 13.7 billion years, which should be sufficient to permit the Big Crunch. However even this method of calculation of the Hubble Constant, which as exhaustively explained and documented by Allan Sandage et al, is fraught with potential errors cited above, which Sandage takes account of and systematically avoids. As mentioned above Wendy Freedman and Co. on the other hand use only Cepheid variable stars in their âcalculationsâ and deliberately include faulty (fraudulent) data in their calculations as explained to this writer personally by Allan Sandage, therefore making Freedman & Co.âs method of determination of the Hubble Constant even easier to falsify. Such data is systematically excluded by Sandage, et al., as explained above. In response to the withering but suppressed critique by Sandage et al, known primarily only to other astrophysicists who follow these matters, Freedman has published a slew of pathetic papers addressing such topics as âcorrection of errors involving optical extragalactic background light (EBL), sampling-induced errors, magnitude errors, and random and optimal sampling,â etc. where she always comes up with ridiculously high (fraudulent) values for the Hubble Constant. Fraudulent data was necessary for Freedman & Co. to reinvent the entirely fictitious so-called âdark energy,â Einsteinâs âCosmological Constant,â (âMy greatest blunder!â See below), which is declared to be âthe opposite of gravityâ and which has no scientific explanation whatsoever, but is falsely proffered as âthe reasonâ the capitalist dictatorship and its media (and textbook) propagandists now falsely state that the expansion of the Universe has unexplainably âspeeded up,â a âfindingâ which violates all previous findings not to mention all known rules of physics including the General Theory of Relativity! In other words this finding is totally invented, totally fabricated, a Big Lie to end all Big Lies! All designed to achieve the political-religious-propagandistic objective of a single âgenesis.â See below. Legitimate opposing viewpoints are simply ignored and in practice not permitted to be heard! How jolly!
Regarding the most recent results given above for the Hubble Constant, this writer would still prefer to accept Sandageâs previous calculation of 55 +or-5, which has been repeatedly established in papers from 1975, 1982, 1986, 1990 and 1995, although it may certainly be possible that the 62.3 +or-1.3 value is the most accurate and it is certainly can be argued that 55 +or-5 is not that far removed from the new figure. The reason for this caution is that Allan Sandage was 82 years old at publication and although he was 100% intellectually intact and in control of all of his faculties his name is listed second in the above paper indicating that he himself may not have collected the data used in the calculation giving 62.3 +or-1.3 for the Hubble Constant. This writer has not spoken or corresponded with the other members of his team, as this writer has, with Allan Sandage. Sandagesâs team also often includes A. Saha who was not included in the above paper, so this writer can not rule out alteration of the raw data to give a falsely high Hubble Constant by certain personnel who might be bribed by the NASA forces in charge of the Key Project, which was set up determined to achieve a certain result come hell or high water. This issue is important enough to the capitalist dictatorship so that they would leave no stone unturned to tweak the results in their direction for reasons explained further below. In addition, we are reminded that the Redshift of some quasars actually puts the age of the Universe at 28 billion years! See above. Because of this fact and previous calculations of the age of the oldest stars which are in a similar range, it can not be ruled out that the computer program used for collecting light data from stars from modern telescopes in the âKey Projectâ may have been written in such a way as to deliberately give false values in order to increase the Hubble Constant and thereby reduce the age of the Universe as calculated by the âstandard candlesâ method.
The U.S. so-called âintelligence communityâ organized the so-called âKey Projectâ in order to cover up the cyclic nature of the Universe from Big Bang to Big Crunch. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was built primarily for the âKey Project.â This is an important point. The capitalist dictatorship chose Wendy Freedman to lead the project rather than the obvious choice, Allan Sandage, the legendary, most preeminent and world-renowned astrophysicist as well as the number one authority on the Hubble Constant along with his internationally renowned group of astrophysicist colleagues. See above. The reason was that Sandageâs studies up to that point had shown the Universe to be âbetween 14 and 18 billion years old, depending on what is assumed about the mass of the Universe.â This corresponds to a Hubble Constant, which he and colleagues had repeatedly calculated to be 55 +or-5 as cited above. An older age and smaller Hubble Constant, of course, would mean that the Universe contained easily enough matter to permit the Big Crunch, which is the key point the capitalist propagandists want to discredit because that would rule out a single creation and make the existence of a god, for which there is no scientific evidence whatsoever, even more unlikely! This is the actual statecraft behind the âKey Project.â (See further below.)
Freedmanâs initial claim that the Universe was only 8 billion years old was obviously fraudulent, as have been all of her subsequent âestimations.â All of Freedmanâs estimations of the age of the Universe and the Hubble Constant have been designed to try to fraudulently invalidate (!) the Big Bang, the Big Crunch especially and the cyclic nature of the Universe in particular. The preposterous claim of an 8 billion year age is a direct attack on the Big Bang, which has been verified worldwide. In her initial unrestrained enthusiasm to falsify and misinterpret her own data (see above) Freedman forgot about the 1.) Red shift discovered by Edwin Hubble (see below) and 2.) the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which is the residual effect of the Big Bang both of which exist as irrefutable evidence for the Big Bang origin of the Universe! In January 2003 Freedman was made the Director of the Carnegie Observatories located in Pasadena, California where Allan Sandage works thereby placing her above him as a maneuver to make her fraudulent estimates of the Hubble Constant appear more authoritative in the public eye!
Note that even AFTER the 1965 discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Penzias and Wilson and its confirmation by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite in 1989 that its measurement produced a curve precisely matching a Planck curve, which most scientists have accepted as proof that the radiation is indeed from the beginning of the universe, the capitalist dictatorship has still made efforts to continue to try to deny the existence of the Big Bang, even publishing books with 466 pages (!) attacking the Big Bang such as the 1991 rubbish: âThe Big Bang Never Happenedâ (!) by the totally discredited Eric Lerner. Anyone using simple inductive reasoning would immediately begin to smell a rat! Since the capitalist dictatorship and its media have not been able to refute the Big Bang they have now focused all their efforts in trying to refute the Big Crunch. The capitalist dictatorship has a long history of political meddling and sabotage in virtually all fields of scientific and medical research and a history of using scientific advances against the masses in order to control them and also to reduce the population according to their own perceived needs, e.g. from Bio-warfare to Bio-fuels (through enforced starvation, falsely portrayed as seeking âenergy independenceâ and âclean energy.â).
NASA Propagandists Have Now Concocted the Fraudulent âtheory of the
Big Ripâ In Order to Try to Counter the Reality of the Big Crunch and
The Information which Appears Here now Found All Over the Internet!
NASA in a new propaganda blitz using their standard Big Lie technique in order to try to refute the information, which appears here and all over the Internet, has pushed back hard with the totally discredited claims on the National Geographic Channel beginning in March 2009 that 1.) âdark matterâ forms a supposed âfilamentous superstructureâ of the universe from the very beginning of the Big Bang until the present 2.) the fictitious âdark energyâ will supposedly eventually âbecome so strongâ that it will overcome all 4 primary forces including the strong force, which holds quarks and gluons together to form protons, neutrons and other particles, so that that the entire Universe will then supposedly âfly apart ripping apart galaxies, stars, planets and eventually every speck of matter in a fantastical end to timeâ in what the fraudulent propagandist Robert Caldwell describes as âthe Big Rip.â This is also known as the theory of the flat universe. There is no âfilamentous superstructure of the universe held together by dark matter.â And phantasmagorical images of galactic superclusters do NOT prove the existence of a âfilamentous superstructureâ and are simply a photographic effect due to the enormous luminosity of such dense accumulations of stars. As mentioned above the great wall of galaxies is not due to a âdark matter superstructureâ but is simply due to the irregularities in the Big Bang explosion, which was not uniform as in any explosion. Such brainwash already appears in the astrophysics textbooks of the capitalist dictatorship! We recommend that it be exposed as a Big Lie whenever and wherever it is encountered.
The capitalist cosmologists/propagandists have demonstrated that they can not coherently reply to any of the arguments advanced in this Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics except through contrived, feigned ignorance, information overload and MORE totally outrageous, bizarre Big Lies, which require a religious-like faith (in the case of dark energy and dark matter, for example ) to actually believe themâtheir overall objective in the first place as explained here. So do not be intimidated by the doctoral degrees which they award themselves or the exalted positions held by these above-mentioned frauds in order to try to legitimize their lies and to try to control and monopolize this field as they try to do with all others. These false propagandists/ âcosmologistsâ keep up a truly relentless barrage of lies in the major media and even physics journals and on TV with a never ending stream of phantasmagoric images blending and cascading one into another to try to help prove their scripted Big Lies, for example, the existence of âdark matter,â which they laughably claim is so dominant that it forms the âsuperstructure of the universeâ but which they supposedly have only been able to detect as âtwo tiny pulses of heat deposited over the course of two years...â New York Times, December 18, 2009, a frankly pathetic false âfindingâ which the article admits is âno proofâ but âtantalizingâ (?) an adjective carefully chosen to try to make it appear as if everyone were are all rooting to try to prove their Big Lie. The reality is that there is no âdark matter.â Claims on the National Geographic Discovery Channel and elsewhere in April-May 2010 that âgravitational lensing and cosmological expansion ratesâ have âconfirmedâ its existence are totally fabricated! Gravity, not dark matter, is responsible for ALL gravitational lensing and that is where it gets its name. And there is NO âlarge halo of unseen matter (an oxymoron!) extending beyond the visible stars.â But according to Michio Kaku & Co., âDark matter is in a struggle with dark energy and dark energy wins in the end in the Big Rip!â Not a WORD about gravity! And according to Michio Kaku and the NASA propagandists, eventually stars will all simply âblink out and the universe will be darkâ¦again!? The age of stars will be over!â Kaku just makes it up in a jumble as he goes along. Anything for his cause! But what is his cause? See below.
It can also be predicted that the capitalist dictatorship will take over the science, if they have not already done so, of the new Large Hadron Collider, the worldâs largest and highest energy particle accelerator in Geneva, Switzerland, when it finally goes on line in order to try to continue to concoct the existence of âdark matterâ and âdark energyâ as well as the âHiggs Boson,â the so-called âgod particle,â which is reputed to be âthe particle which may impart mass to all other particles after the Big Bang.â The Higgs Boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model in particle physics. At present there are NO known elementary scalar particles in nature. There are numerous Higgsless models, which do not depend on the Higgs Boson or Higgs Field. The top contender presently is the Three-Site Higgsless model. Whether or not the Higgs Boson exists or does not exist, its importance has been completely overstated in any case, in order that in the event of its discovery the media may falsely claim to have âprovedâ the existence of âgod!â In any case, the Higgs Boson has absolutely nothing to do with âgodâ and no reputable physicist has ever made such a claim. The capitalist dictatorship is desperate and reeeediculous! So do not be intimidated by their Big Lies.
Through brazen false arguments and bizarre false analogies these phony âcosmologistsâ who control the airways and media, have even attempted to up the ante and generate maximum confusion by trying to brainwash people into believing that the laws of physics and theoretical astrophysics, such as the Laws of Quantum Mechanics, the Special Theory of Relativity and General Theory of Relativity, etc. are ânot immutableâ and are in a process of âconstant evolutionâ supposedly like species of animals in Charles Darwinâs âThe Evolution of Species.â The laws of physical science are thus directly compared to the evolution of species of animals! Einstein therefore supposedly only has âtemporary relevanceâ giving virtually every kind of science fiction a basis in âreality.â (See: âBeyond Einstein,â Discover Magazine, April 2010). Einstein is also falsely quoted as believing in god: âlearning to read the laws of physics is like reading the mind of god.â See comprehensive section on Einstein below.
The author of the Discover Magazine article moreover disingenuously announces: âphysicists should not spin any theories that require the existence of things such as multiverses, that cannot be disproved.â This carefully contrived statement implies that because âmultiverses,â etc. supposedly cannot be disproved these fraudsters do not have to actually PROVE any piece of science fiction currently being passed off as âscience.â They imply that is the duty of genuine theoretical physicists to disprove every false theory used to bombard the public domain by the misnamed, so-called âintelligence communityâ led by heavily hyped characters such as Michio Kaku or Stephen Hawking. The Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics disproves their primary concoctions and it is a rule of the Court that a witness caught in one lie in testimony does not merit any further credibility by the Jury. This is especially true in science where it is clear that, above all else, Kaku, & Co., are straining at the leash to inject confusion into basic physics and are forced to tell many lies in order to try to achieve their objectives. Their motives to create confusion are explained above. The title of the Discover Magazine article was incidentally borrowed from the very title of a 1987 book by âintelligence communityâ fraudster, Michio Kaku, wherein Kaku tried to popularize so-called âString Theory,â concocted in the effort to try to supplant Quantum Mechanics. See below. It should be noted that Kaku, who hides his specious, bogus so-called âBeyond Einstein science,â behind a phony slick and unctuously triumphal presentation, is equally at home passing off science fiction e.g. âparallel universes, time warps, time travel and the tenth dimensionâ as science as he is relentlessly fabricating false theories designed to compete with and supplant the natural laws of physics and to confuse as many people as possible behind a mantle of genuinely false knowledge. Based on only ONE non-cyclic Big Bang, Michio Kakuâs âString Theoryâ is thus a back door to Creationism! Michio Kaku now openly describes himself as a neo-creationist! See below.
There is no such thing as âDark Energyâ. And there was no âinflationary epochâ in the Big Bang, which supposedly âcaused the Universe to expand faster than the speed of light.â It did not! The so-called âTheory of Inflationâ which attempts to supplant entirely the standard model of the Big Bang with âdark energyâ AKA âvacuum energyâ is also a total fraud! (See below) Nor has the Universe suddenly increased its rate of expansion as falsely claimed by these frauds as supposed âproof of its existence.â Just the opposite! The rate of expansion of the Universe has continued to slow since the Big Bang! All previous observations have indicated that is the case! While the Red Shifts of the most distant galaxies do indicate they are receding much more rapidly than closer galaxies this is because their light originated closer to the time of the Big Bang when the expansion rate was greater, but that is not the situation today. It should therefore be noted that although we may be able to receive light from galaxies which started its journey near the beginning of star formation and galactic formation, that light does not portray the reality at this point in time of the galaxy which was the source of that light. The reality is that today most of the Universe is undoubtedly relatively uniform in its development today except where, for example, there are huge clouds of gas from super novae explosions or where there are huge accumulations of matter such as the Great Wall of galaxies, the latter of which formed due to the irregularities which occurred in the Big Bang just as in any other explosion. In other words the light from our own galaxy, the Milky Way, would appear to an observer from the most distant galaxies to be receding at the same rate that their light is receding from our own galaxy! This should be a no-brainer but is rarely if ever mentioned. The only viewpoint which is ever mentioned is from the Earth as if it were the center of creation. Which it is not!
The Universe is not open! Just like the Earth itself the spatial curvature of the Universe is NOT FLAT! It is CLOSED! In reality there are no âmultiple universes,â which âpop out of Black Holesâ or by any other explanation. A Universe arises ONLY from a Big Bang! Although mass is infinite in a Black Hole (see above), Critical Mass does not exist! Critical Mass is attained only in the Final Singularity, when all matter in the Universe comes together in one spot in the Big Crunch prior to the Big Bang. The point when Critical Mass is reached is the point when a Big Bang occurs! See above. This is why the Large Hadron Collider cannot reproduce either the Big Bang or even a Black Hole. The reason for this is that even a Black Hole can form only when a Blue Giant star of sufficient mass collapses. This can not occur in the Large Hadron Collidor no matter how high the energies attained or how âlargeâ the collidor itself may be claimed to be!!
Stephen Hawkingâs claimed existence of âexploding miniature Black Holes,â which âpermit particles to leak out in a quantum processâ (!), eventually causing Black Holes to âEVAPORATEâ (!), due to the pretentiously designated, so-called: âHawking Evaporation,â or to âfinally explode entirelyâ is based on fraudulent âString Theoryâ related mathematics and is baseless nonsense. Note that so-called âHawking radiationâ has NEVER BEEN OBSERVED and is ENTIRELY FICTITIOUS! Hawkingâs wild claims were based on the fact that on a visit to the USSR in 1974 the Soviet physicist Alexander Starobinsky told Hawking that according to Heisenbergâs Uncertainty Principle, rotating black holes should create and emit particles. (!) Oh? But the truth is that in a Black Hole or âSingularityâ the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and ALL LAWS OF PHYSICS DO NOT APPLY and DO NOT EVEN EXIST! Starobinsky WOULD have known that fundamental fact and it cannot be ruled out that in the middle of the Cold War he may have recognized that Hawking was such a nut-job ego tripper that he would fall for virtually anything in order to make a big splash for himself in physics. And the question immediately arises, if Starobinsky really thought he had made such a profound discovery why didnât he come out with it himself? In any case there is no radiation whatsoever of any type emitted from any Black Hole itself! Nevertheless, such absurd and ridiculous claims are given credence in the media and given a heavy push on the phony âscienceâ magazines and TV shows mentioned above and on websites which permit NO COMMENT!
It was also announced on the highly discredited âNaked Scienceâ National Geographic (Discovery) Channel with NO PROOF WHATSOEVER and with no legitimate counter-arguments ever permitted, the totally bizarre claim that Michio Kakuâs âString Theoryâ is âthe best explanation of the origin of the Universe,â which it most certainly is NOT! On that program Hawking and âString Theoristsâ absurdly stated: âthe Big Bang occurred when gravity weakenedâ (!) because âafter the Big Bang gravity (supposedly) entered the 7 to 9 extra dimensions (in âString Theoryâ) and was weakened.â Duh! Such rubbish! (!) Finally, after presenting one concoction after another for almost an hour falsely dressed up as âscience,â the April 20, 2010 âNaked Scienceâ program (which is to be repeated!), apparently in a pathetic attempt to try to save face and keep some semblance of credibility among the growing majority of those who see through their lies, concluded with the unexpected disclaimer: âThere is only one catch! There is no proof for any of this!â Right! But since then there have been no more disclaimers of these relentlessly pushed Big Lies! Parenthesis added.
There is also no âtime travelâ in a practical sense either despite the phenomena of time dilation described in Einsteinâs Special Theory and gravitational time dilation described in Einsteinâs General Theory, which was actually confirmed in the Pound-Rebka experiment. And there are no âwormholes.â These fraudsters intone Einsteinâs name by falsely claiming that there are âtwo valid solutionsâ to the General Theory of Relativity which contain âwormholes.â This is a Big Lie! Neither âsolutionâ cited is actually valid! The first type falsely postulated, the âSchwarzchild wormhole,â which they also falsely designate with the label âEinstein-Rosen bridgesâ (!?), depends on a Black Hole, âwhich has no charge and no angular momentum!â But ALL Black Holes rotate and thus have angular momentum! (See above.) The second type, the so-called âtraversable wormholes,â would require the existence of âexotic (non-baryonic) matter,â which does NOT exist and which itself would violate energy conditions specified in the General Theory and would require changing space-time topology and would require regions of negative energy, which also do not actually exist in the known Universe. At best this is all mathematical imaginings of those who want to be âthe next Einstein.â Einstein himself realized that his later mathematical attempts to formulate a Grand Unified Theory were simply incorrect and were not leading in the right direction. In addition, there are no âstrings.â âString Theoryâ is a mathematical attempt to try to refute, compete with and supplant, NOT EXPLAIN, the Theory of Quantum Mechanics, the foundations of particle physics which were established during the first half of the twentieth century by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Albert Einstein, etc.! See below for the most likely ready solution to the Grand Unified Theory.
On July 22, 2010 on the so-called âHistory Channelâ Michio Kaku brazenly also falsified the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle! That principle states simply that pairs of physical properties, such as position and momentum, cannot simultaneously be known to arbitrary precision. The more precisely one property is measured, the less precisely the other can be measured. In other words, the more you know the position of a particle, the less you can know about its velocity, and the more you know about the velocity of a particle, the less you can know about its instantaneous position. In his false presentation of âparallel universes,â which also involved countless other falsifications of basic physics, Kaku stated that Heisenberg stated that one particle can be in two positions simultaneously! Heisenberg never ever even suggested that!
Recent Findings Document that the Mass of the Universe
Increases as Matter Enters a Black Hole and the Final Singularity!
This Finding Totally Refutes Infinite Expansion of the Universe
And âString Theory!â The Fact That Neutrinos Have Mass Also
Provides Further Basis For the Big Crunch!â
The false claim that there is supposedly insufficient matter in the Universe to permit the Big Crunch to take place is entirely refuted by 2 discoveries. Perhaps even more significant than the work on neutrinos discussed below is the paper published on November 21, 2008 in Science. More than 99% of the visible mass of the Universe is made up of protons and neutrons. Recent calculations of the mass of the nucleus found that matter, which is composed of protons and neutrons, which are in turn are composed of quarks held together with gluons by the strong force, normally exists as 95% energy, according to the formula from Einsteinâs Special Theory of Relativity: E=mc2! This provides further confirmation for the Big Crunch! Why? The reason, not drawn as a conclusion by the authors of the paper, is that in a Black Hole and moreover in the final Black Hole, the âSingularity,â that relationship would be 100% reversed, with all matter existing in the form of mass: m=E/c2. The mass of the Universe would therefore increase according to these findings as matter enters a Black Hole as energy shifts to its mass equivalent! (Science, November 21, 2008, Vol. 322, 5905:1198-1199 and 1124-1127. Obviously this is the precise opposite of what occurs in a nuclear explosion where matter is converted entirely to energy according to the equation E=mc2. On the other hand such tidbit reports as âExcess Particles From Space may Hint at Dark Matter,â (Science, Vol. 322, 5905:1173) are only red herrings meant to titillate, to keep attention diverted away from focusing on key findings of genuine significance. There is no such thing as âdark matter.â In another important point, the Second Law of Thermodynamics does NOT prevent the Big Crunch because 1.) the energy of the Universe is entirely converted to mass in Black Holes and the Final Singularity in accordance with Einsteinâs equation solved for mass: m=E/c2 and 2.) ALL laws of physics break down and do not apply in a Black Hole! There is no exception for the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
The discovery that neutrinos have mass also provides a further basis for the Big Crunch. This fact was first reported on July 1, 1998 by a collaboration of 120 U.S. and Japanese physicists at the Neutrino 98 meeting in Takayama, Japan and submitted to Physical Review Letters. (By Super-Kamiokande Collaboration (Y. Fukuda et al.) Phys.Rev.Lett.81:1562-1567,1998.) Neutrinos have sufficient weight to allow the Big Crunch! The experiment measured the differences in mass of the three types of neutrinos to be 0.1 eV or greater. The group reported that the simplest interpretation of the solar and atmospheric results is that the heaviest neutrino has a mass of 0.1 eV. However, they reported that since oscillations between the 3 types of neutrinos depend only on the differences in mass it is possible that the masses of all three neutrinos are fully 1 eV or greater, but that it is the mass differences which are much smaller. (They allow for the âpossibility.â How nice! They know that the majority of physicists do not simply automatically accept the interpretation which is first proffered.)
This makes the most sense and is of course suppressed for political reasons. (See below.) If the mass of the neutrino is 1 eV that would mean that neutrinos account for more mass in the Universe than all of the protons and neutrons put together easily supplying the supposed âmissing matterâ necessary for the Big Crunch. As mentioned the critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity. In addition, the fact that neutrinos have mass also provides the basis for the Grand Unified Theory which links the gravitational force described in the General Theory of Relativity with the strong and the weak forces and electromagnetism described in the Theory of Quantum Mechanics. Einstein struggled and failed to formulate this theory, but it has already been shown that at high enough energies electromagnetism and the weak force are the same force known as the electroweak force. It is theorized that if energies are increased even further and neutrinos acquire mass, which has now been fully documented, all the known forces will reduce to the same force thus providing the basis for the Grand Unified Theory. This high energy level existed only during the very early expansion of the Universe known as the Planck Epoch, which existed up to 10 to the negative 43rd seconds after the Big Bang, where the four fundamental forces â electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and gravi