Automated solid-phase synthesis of biomolecules defines 20th century biology. I previously covered a protecting group that is ubiquitous in DNA synthesis, but the Nobel was actually awarded for peptide chemistry.
Fmoc is sort of to amino acids what DMT is to DNA. In amino acid synthesis, you take off stepwise protecting groups (fmoc) with base and release your peptide with acid, but in DNA, you take off stepwise groups (DMT) with acid and release your DNA with base.
Fmoc, like DMT, is useful because you can watch it come off because it's colored (well, Fmoc absorbs UV, DMT cation is kool-aid orange). Off an automated synthesizer, Boc is much less of a pain.
Ahhh the trusty fmoc group. May I never have to do extensive peptide synthesis again because it it sooo tedious. But fmoc works great, with the exception of N-methylated amino acids and proline. Then you better check to make sure you have fully deprotected the fmocs.