Big Bang, Big Problem

Back to taking on the science literacy gender disparity...
i-2bc3c21472bf6e150c2dea81dd68e1bd-danica.gif
Correct answers to scientific literacy questions, by sex: 2006
(by percent)

The continents have been moving their location for millions of years and will continue to move. (True)
Male 85
Female 75

All radioactivity is man-made. (False)
Male 77
Female 64

The universe began with a huge explosion. (True)
Male40
Female27*

* that right folks, almost 3/4 of female respondents answered incorrectly

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THEORY COSMOLOGY-GRACELIANA

cosmo estruturante and desintegrante
Author - Ancelmo Graceli Luiz.

Ancelmoluizgraceli@hotmail.com
Tel. 27- 32167566 Street Itabira, nº 5, Itapemirim Set, Rose of the
Penha, Cariacica, -269, E.S. cep.29143 Brazilian, professor,
graduation in philosophy and theoretical researcher. Published books
ASTRONOMY, and WORLD Of the PHYSICAL INTERACTIONS.

Collaborator - Marcio Piter Rangel.

Presented work the SECT- Spirit Brazil Saint. E the Brazilian Society
of Physics. Introduction published in the WEB for the Vestibule Brazil
Factor - Channel Profile. In day 30.01.2008. If other theories with
beddings and you formulate had had acceptance, why these will not
have? Therefore, it possesss all the beddings and all the forms of
calculations, and that the reality and the comment until today reached
are confirmed with. With more than one hundred and ten formulas, the
most varied forms of if calculating one same phenomenon, with more
than two hundred beddings in all the areas of the modern physics.
Also, with new forecasts inside of cosmology and astronomy.

Presented the Magazine of Education of the SBFISICA. Soced. Bras. de
FÃsica. Brazilian Journal of Physics - SBFISICA

In cosmology the universe is defended that if structure as a stream of
production and destruction of astros. In astronomy it is defended that
the movement is produced by the proper energy of astro. INTRODUCTION.

OF THE ALMOST NOTHING EVERYTHING CAN APPEAR - EXCEPT GOD.

The UNIVERSE Is An AUTO CREATION, HOWEVER, A WORKMANSHIP Of This
TRANSPORT ALONE CAN HAVE the POWER Of the CREATOR.

This theory goes of meeting to the harmony and cosmic eternity in
detriment to the chaos and the finitude of the universe considered for
the theory of the great explosion. While one enters in stream of
disintegration and reintegration with little energy, others are born
more distant from the aglutinação of the dense space.

COSMO ESTRUTURANTE And DESINTEGRANTE.

Graceliano Model. The universe is constant and infinite stream.

First part.

THEORY Of the BUBBLE OF DENSE SPACE And ENERGY.

While in the theory of the great explosion the universe if expands
from a point of the space and a small amount of energy, and is the one
only - OF OUTSIDE FOR INSIDE - In the theory of the bubble universe if
it contracts from the dense space to produce the substance and the
energy of some points of the infinite of the space, in a constant
production of new universes in some points of cosmo. Or either, it
contracts itself to produce the substance stops later forming the
astros and if expanding for the maser. E is some universes in infinite
points of cosmo in infinite phases.

Of birth in the phase bubble of dense space - phase estruturante-Na
energy phase, In the phase of substance and the phase of
disintegration, unfastening and removal in the space for the proper
maser of the density of the substance. E reintegration forming
secondary from the material radiated for the elementary school.

PASSES FOR FORMATION Of the SUBSTANCE, ELEMENTS, ASTROS And The
UNIVERSES.

Thus, the dense space if contracts until to be filamentoso - the
diffuse substance arrives - dense substance - energy - diffuse cores -
astros - nuclear fusing - chemical elements - of light elements in
weighed - maser - reengrupamentos in new astros, secondary - it comes
back if to disintegrate - and the process continues until if becoming
diffuse substance.

COMMENT.

We do not feel the action of the dense space because we are in a
universe in a phase that

already it was changedded into substance.

FORMULA FOR CONTRACTION OF DENSE SPACE.

The dense space if contracts and diminishes of size to produce the
substance, and if it gives in a contraction and infinite reduction,
that can be calculated with formulates of the infinitesimal limit. But
one it has all left, divided for all, thus infinitely.

Dense space ED - total part p dense space if structuralizing. Thus,
infinitely, until changedding into energy and substance.

ED - P/ED... until arriving to be energy and substance.

Thus, we have the formula for formation of the substance, energy and
for origin of the universe.

INFINITE UNIVERSES IN PHASES ESTRUTURANTES And DESINTEGRANTES.

FIRST THEORY Of the ORIGIN And NATURE Of the SUBSTANCE.

It was always looked by the philosophers and Greek chemistries, later
for the modern physics an explanation for the origin, nature and
essence of the substance, where the world at times was divided in form
and structure, spirit, mind and substance, therefore I show the first
theory of that the substance can appear and of that it is formed, that
here is of filaments of dense space, always looked to the substance
for the substance and dividiz it infinitely of the atom of the Greeks
until the hundred of particles that they are catalogued today. Comment
- no theory displayed until today obtained to give a recital from that
it originated the substance. All leave soon of the estimated one of
something.

CALCULATION OF FORMATION OF SUBSTANCE And FOR COSMO ESTRUTURANTE.

To be able of contraction of the dense space = amount of dense
space/cosmological time = estruturante substance and cosmo and phases.

CALCULATION FOR COSMO DESINTEGRANTE.

To be able of disintegration = amount of substance, temperature,
fusing core to estelar, maser and energy/cosmological time.

Pd*[qm ]/t c.

DENSE SPACE And SUBSTANCE, And ENERGY And ASTROS.

Universe not formed from great explosion, but yes of space dense,
space dense is all space that in it surrounds them, that we have the
notion that it is a great emptiness, but is not, it possesss density,
and of it the substance and the energy if they had originated to form
the first astros, galaxies and accumulations.

ROTATION And TRANSLATION Of the UNIVERSE.

The expansion is false, is in the truth a translation and rotation and
a minimum of removal.

What we have the notion of a great expansion of the universe is in the
truth the translation and rotation of exactly. Therefore, if it is
infinitely old and had started if to expand at the moment of supposed
a great explosion, the astros would be so distant ones of the others
that nor its light would be capable to be picked-up by any type of
telescope.

The FORMAT Of the UNIVERSE.

The disposal of the galaxies in disks with the systems of stars also
in disk test that the universe is a estruturação process and passes
for streams, therefore had appeared at one alone moment in a great
explosion the format of the universe would be spherical, or either
with all the astros in one same distancia of a center, and as also
with the same translation and rotation.

Comment. Already we have here a recital of the origin and of that
material cosmo if formed. Beddings not displayed until today for other
theories.

The ENERGY PRODUCES the MASER THAT PRODUCES the REMOVAL MINIMUM.

It has yes a minimum removal proceeding from the action of the maser
and high temperatures, removal produced for the processed energy for
nuclear fusing in the inward of the astros.

UNIVERSE OF ENERGY ESTRUTURANTE. OR UNIVERSE OF CONTRACTION And
DISINTEGRATION.

The universe passes for two processes - first of the formation of the
substance and the energy for the contraction of the filaments of the
dense space.

As of the formation of the astros, its processes of energy and
production of temperature to the ratio that the substance if
agglutinates, with the agglutinated substance are produced great
amount of energy and temperature, giving sprouting the maser and the
consequent disintegration of astro in the space. For that the universe
is a stream of estruturante energy, where first if it contracts stops
later if disintegrating and if moving away ones from the others,
always in lesser portions.

It is A STREAM WHY IF I CONTRACTED OF DENSE SPACE UNTIL the SUBSTANCE,
OF SUBSTANCE IN ASTRO, IF IT DISINTEGRATES IN MASER, IT COMES BACK the
REINTEGRAR-SE IN LESSER ASTROS And WITH LITTLE DIÃMETRO And ENERGY,
THAT DESINTEGRAR-SE COMES BACK. E STREAM CONTINUES INFINFINITAMENTE.
UNTIL IF BECOMING DIFFUSE SUBSTANCE.

The same process passes particles and atoms.

The PRODUCTION Of SECONDARY For the MASER And the ATMOSPHERE.

Part of the maser if also transforms into atmosphere, that always goes
to direct for the equator, where goes to form cinturões of gases as
it is the Jupiter case, or in a more advanced period of training the
cinturões go to form rings that is the Saturn case and Uranus, of
these rings go to form small accumulations of gases, that always more
will go to agglutinate themselves more and, where will appear the
first rarefied cores, and the aglutinação process continues, where
the secondary ones start to appear exactly before if forming, as gases
they already possess translation and rotation and if they move away
from the elementary schools. Or either, before existing as astro the
secondary one already develops its translation.

TEST For FORMAT And DINÃMICA Of the ATMOSPHERE.

This can be confirmed with the Land, where its atmosphere already less
concentrates more in the equator and in the polar regions, proceeding
from the magnetism of the Land and centrifuga action of the rotation,
and that the atmosphere possesss proper dynamics. That it will be
filamentará until arriving to give beginning to a new satellite.
However this is not for today. The MAGNETISM Of the ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
SPEEDS UP the FORMATION Of the SECONDARY One.

If it was not the magnetism and the centrifuga action of the rotation
of the astros, its secondary ones would delay time not to form
themselves. Therefore the magnetism and action centrifugam act in the
production of the filaments of gases for the equator and in the
production of these filaments in the esferificação process, where
rarefied cores will appear, until forming new astros.

E the stream continues of disintegration of the elementary school for
maser proceeding from the energy production, for the production of
atmosphere and aglutinação in filaments for the magnetism and
centrifuga action of the rotation of proper astro until arriving the
esferificação, also through the magnetism of the gases.

PHASES OF THE STREAM.

1 - with the contraction of the filaments of the dense space to form
the substance and after the produced substance if form in astros. With
the formed astros they pass if to disintegrate as form of maser and
temperature.

2- the material of the disintegration comes back if to contract and to
produce astros lesser, and of these other minors the process
continues. This if confirms where the astros possess the spherical
format. Therefore the rounding sample that had a slow process of
formation through materials that had appeared of are for inside, where
slowly for aglutinação astro was if structuralizing. They confirm
because the cores are denser and the Land is formed by layers and
cores.

In the case of the production of the planets for the Sun, the
atmosphere nor arrived if to form, and the maser was soon if
filamentando to esferificar and to appear the planets.

INFINITE UNIVERSE In the AGE, the SPACE, And the PROCESSING.

The esferificação test that astro was produced by layers of material
of maser for juxtaposition - one on the other, for that the cores are
denser, that were already proven in the physics of the atom. E the
rounding test that took much more time this circular formation, then
the universe is a much more slow and constant process that if can
imagine. Thus, the rounding of the universe proves the theory of the
stream and that all the universe of today did not appear at one alone
moment, they are some universes in some phases if processing and if
structuralizing, while some age for lose and energy processing, others
they appear for the dense space. These phases if confirm for the
current comment, thus the universe are infinite in the origin and the
end, the space and its processing.

PHASES OF THE UNIVERSE. UNIVERSES BUBBLE ESTRUTURANTE And FLUXONÃRIO.

1- Origin - universe bubble of dense space and bubble of energy. 2-
Type - estruturante fluxonário, if contracts to produce the substance
from the bubble of the dense space. Later if it after expands the
contraction and production of energy, temperature and maser. 3- Form
to exist - production processes energy. 4- Amount - some types in some
phases, of the bubble until astro almost without energy. 5- Size -
infinite in the production of new universes, the infinite in the space
and the time. 6- Form - infinite and varied forms, of bubbles, gases,
diffuse energy, dense and less dense substance, astros, rings, maser,
atmosphere, etc. 7- estruturante of the substance and cosmo.

MAGICAL CREATION - SUBSTANCE From The DENSE SPACE.

Before if speaking of the creation of the universe, it must be spoken
of the creation of the energy and the substance, therefore it was from
the substance that appeared the astros.

ROUNDING And ESFERIFICAÃÃO Of the ASTROS.

The esferificação of astros the test that,

1- It was formed for a slow process to have the spherical format, of
the the opposite it would not be.

2- It was formed of minimum parts that had been if joust locating to
form astro, of the the opposite would not have the round formation.
One sees that while Saturn and Uranus possesss rings of gases in the
route of the equator, Jupiter it possesss an atmosphere stack that is
in movement in the route of the equator, where if confirms the origin
of the astros for components of the elementary school.

3- the astros are older of the one than if it thinks. E its core is
denser of the one than the exterior part, and the planet Land is
formed by formed layers on.

4- Fiz a calculation for the age of the Land, however was taken in
account only the removal, and not it time for the esferificação,
that probably was very bigger.

5- Test that the universe has its origin through very small elements,
that had been if joining to form the astros, as minimum parts of
maser, gases, light and leftovers of great temperatures.

6- the universe is had There if forming for minimum parts, as energy
and substance, of inside for exterior part is with the cores denser
than the crust -. A much more old, round and infinite universe in the
end and origin time, the infinite in relation its production, then,
that it would never appear at one alone moment in a great explosion.

MASER IN THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY.

Thus, with the format of the astros if it has plus a test of the
theory of the estruturante fluxonário universe. For compression of
the dense space, and disintegration for the maser and temperature, and
a new compression of this maser in the space, forming new lesser
astros, as planets, satellites and comets. E the estruturante and
desintegrante process continues producing asteroids and others that
will always be disintegrated producing astros and lesser asteroids.

Universes alone of dense space, gases, energy, diffuse substance,
substance exist and astros and gases, light and maser, with this if it
confirms the theory here supported of that the universe does not have
age, therefore it is an infinite production and disintegration of
itself exactly. E while some disintegrate others in other points of
the infinite of the space starts if to form slowly for the dense
space.

If cosmo was produced at one alone moment, the astros would not have a
spherical form so defined, some would be long and flattened others.

ON The DENSE SPACE, SUBSTANCE And ENERGY.

The energy exists in function of the substance, since its production
until its carrier also for air, therefore the substance contains and
produze the energy, therefore the energy does not have as to exist
without the substance, and the substance if originates and is
densificado dense space.

SUBSTANCE And ENERGY = DENSE SPACE DENSIFICADO.

It does not have as to speak of a universe that if it originates from
a small ball in a great explosion, therefore which the origin of this
ball, and gives where came the energy for explodiz it.

The great explosion contains varies contradictions and lack of origin
beddings, cause and effect.

INTERPLANETARY And SPACE ATMOSPHERE.

The interplanetary space is constituted of gas to one [ pressure of
ten raised to less 19 terrestrial atmospheres ]. That is a route that
the space is not an emptiness without density, pressure, and is not a
vacuum.

PLEA. If the gravitation attracted the astros, all the satellites
would be plumb between the planet and the Sun, therefore the planet
would hold of a side and the Sun of another one, and would be
constantly in eclipse. Therefore that the dynamics depends on the
energy and maser of astro. To see theory of the energeticidade and
maser.

THUS WE HAVE THE PHASES OF THE UNIVERSE.

The filamentosa space phase of density. The energy phase space
filamentosa. The phase of the materiality - chemical atoms, and
elements. The phase of immense astros, with little density, and little
maser. The phase of the aglutinação, where the substance was if
agglutinating, magnifying the internal temperature and the maser. The
phase of the disintegration for the internal temperature and maser.
The phase of formation of new astros for the aglutinação of the
expelled material of the maser of the first astros, thus we see that
it is a stream and process of integration, disintegration and new
aglutinações.

DIRECT FORMATION For The DENSE SPACE, And FORMATION OF SECONDARY For
The FORMED SUBSTANCE ALREADY.

The material that already became astro after does not come back to be
dense space the disintegration, but this material if integrates
forming new lesser astros.

Thus it has two processes. 1- the process of direct formation for the
dense space. 2- and the process for the disintegration of astro
already produced, that it goes to reintegrate themselves and to form
other minors.

Thus, the dense space is an immense one all, as an immense jelly
without definite form. The universe is a process of direct form for
the dense space, and a cycle process, where some are disintegrated and
part of its material goes to construct others. With this we see that
the origin, production and time of the universe are infinite, and the
system of production of universes is much more old of that if it
imagines, in trillions of years.

E that exists some types of universes, ones of dense space, field of
energy without substance, field of energy with substance, universes of
atomic cores, gases, substance and astros if disintegrating and
integrating others.

COSMIC EVOLUTION And EVOLUTION Of The CHEMICAL ELEMENTS.

Thus, the universe is a constant production and of cosmic evolution,
direct production and disintegration, and secondary production of
integration in new astros, while the chemical elements go if
processing and evolving.

ON the REMOVAL.

The universe did not suffer a great explosion to produce its removal,
but yes, the removal is product of the maser, rotation and of the
great temperatures, that stimulate the astros for front, modifying its
orbit. Or either, the nuclear fusing, the production of temperature
and maser produce the lowermost removal between the astros. For that
it has a ratio enters the distancias of the planets and satellites.

PLEA.

If the universe had suffered to a great explosion alone the galaxies
would be if moving away, and the lesser astros as planets, comets and
satellites would not be if moving away, and the gradual removal proves
that all the astros if find in removal ones in relation to the others,
thus, all the astros if they find in removal proceeding from its
energy, maser and external temperature.

PLEA.

APPEARANCE To the RED For the EFFECT DOPPLER For the ROTATION And
TRANSLATION Of the COSMO.

The front that the universe does not meet in expansion, but yes in
minimum removal will be seen more, and what it is detected as
appearance to the red nor it is this removal. Therefore it is
insignificant in whom he refers to to the shift in the space, and what
it gives the appearance to the red in Doppler effect is the shift of
the translation and rotation of astros and galaxies in the space.

REMOVAL FOR THE ACTION OF THE MASER.

We see then that, the universe is a constant creation for filaments of
dense space of new new substances and the cosmos for the aglutinação
of the casting and reintegrated materials already, while other cosmos
more evolved if disintegrates for maser and high temperature, other
lesser astros if they integrate with the material of that already they
had been disintegrated and that they go to develop a next orbit to
that gave to origin and initial impulse to it, for the maser and
intense temperature. Thus one forms a direct production for the dense
space, and a production for cycle of disintegration and integration
for the disintegrated material, while the chemical elements evolve. E,
while the universe if widens for the maser produced for the proper
astros. E not for supposed a great explosion, therefore the removal is
a process continues for the action of the maser, therefore that it
decreases gradually and the initial impulse only tends to lose
intensity. While the material universe if expands, the universe of
filaments of the dense space if contracts, or either, it has two
reverse situations.

The maser is proceeding mainly from the interactions of nuclear fusing
in the inward of the astros. Or either, the same phenomenon - the
maser - that it produces the orbit and the dynamics of the planets and
satellites, also produces the widening of the universe and produces
new astros, and is the producer of the structure of them, and of new
chemical elements. One concludes thus, that cosmo is infinite in its
origin and will be in its future, as also he is infinite in the space
and the new production of the cosmos, and new chemical elements. The
process of slow creation goes against the process of instantaneous
creation considered by the great explosion. To prove the displayed
thesis above it is simple, is alone to evidence that the expansion if
finds in decreasing progression. However as already it was seen, the
universe if finds in production and removal and not in expansion.
Thus, while one is disintegrated and gone to produce others in other
cantos of the universe the dense space if it processes giving to
origin the galaxies of space gases. Thus, the universe is a process of
direct birth for the dense space, of already been born, and birth of
born others from already. Everything occurs for a direct hashing of
the substance in the origin, is a fluxonária hashing in the
production of new chemical elements, new astros and new orbits. Second
part.

ON the SUBSTANCE.

M = ED = and/t - substance is equal the solidiquicado dense space,
that is equal to the energy divided for the time.

The substance is made solid energy dense space, or either, the
chemical particles and elements are in the truth the dense space if
processing energeticamente and producing solidification. E in a more
advanced evolutivo period of training. Thus, the substance passes for
a evolutivo process, and the substance - made solid energy dense space
- always meets in an improvement, and passes for a slow and unified
process therefore that all the substance and the structure of the atom
are equal.

PHASES OF FORMATION OF THE ASTROS.

Our universe did not initiate lowermost previous to a great explosion,
but yes, infinitely great, entering in a contraction to produce the
substance, passing for made solid energy that is the substance, it
stops later structuralizing itself in particles, elements chemical,
and finally astros.

Or either, the universe did not form astros instantaneamente,
therefore that the astros and atoms possess cores.

First it is formed energy, later the substance and finally the astros,
different of that it defends the great explosion.

Thus, the universe passes of the contraction. 1- of the space for
energy and the substance. 2- of the substance for astros.

After the disintegration through the maser and intense temperatures.
It passes to the integration, where new astros are formed from the
material of the maser. Thus, the universe and a stream of production
cycles and estruturação and evolution, through. 1 - Contraction and
solidification. 2 - Chemical evolution. 3 - Disintegration, removal
and dynamics of the universe for the energy and maser. 4 - E
integration in new astros.

E that the orbit, the dynamics, the removal and the disintegration of
the universe are proceeding from the energy and maser, becoming the
universe of flattened structure, where the astros already are
structuralized and in gradual removal as he is ours, while others are
to circulate and in formation through gases, and others with
tentáculos as great galaxies.

COSMOFÃSICA and ASTROPHYSICS.

PRODUCER OF ITSELF.

The universe is an alive and dynamic system of production and
estruturação, where it produces its proper energy for its
functioning, estruturação and dynamics, being that the energy
magnifies to the ratio that goes carrying through its functioning, and
is a stream system, where the same interaction that produces the
elements chemical, produces the astros for fusing. E also produces
fields, maser, high temperatures, dynamics, orbits, structures of the
astros, and the removal in the universe. Or either, it is a producer
of itself, its structure and its functioning. Thus, it is a constant
production of integration and disintegration.

AGE OF THE UNIVERSE.

With this, it can be deduced that the universe does not possess an
origin determined in the time, much less in some place of the space,
and it does not possess an origin determined in the estruturação of
the substance and the astros that compose it. However, it has infinite
age, therefore the dense space always was there and producing energy,
substance, until arriving the astros.

FORM OF BEING OF THE UNIVERSE

Of contraction for the dense space. Of removal for the maser.
Of aglutinação for the material of the maser.

The universe passes for streams while it produces the chemical
elements in the interactions of nuclear fusing in the center of the
astros, where produces energy when processing the physical
interactions and to produce its structure of astros, orbits and
dynamics.

ON the MOVEMENT

If the related movement this with the maser, high
temperatures, and physical interactions in the inward of the astros
that are untied in the dense space to develop its dynamics. Soon the
movement is natural and dynamic, and varies as the situations of
energy production where if it finds astro. E if the dynamics obey a
stream, then the movement is dynamic, disforme and variable.

ON The DENSE SPACE.

Dense space produces the substance, while the produced substance
already produces the astros and the chemical elements go being casting
in the secondary stars and.

ON the SUBSTANCE

The substance is filaments of the contracted dense space, that
go to structuralize the chemical universe in substance, astros,
elements, maser, high temperature, and in the dynamic auto universe.

ON the COSMO

The universe is auto dynamic and while it produces the energy
the physical interactions go being processed, and the maser acting and
spreading the substance, the astros are in dynamics for the proper
energy and maser, the chemical elements evolve and if they improve,
improving the substance and structuralizing the universe, cosmo if
contracts for the dense space, and if it widens for the action of the
maser, then the universe is alive and auto dynamic.

ON the TIME

The time does not exist, what it exists is the timer of the
memory marked for the functioning of the brain as conscience form of
that happens between intervals of events. We can consider the
secondary time as something, that it exists in function of the
functioning of the conscience produced for the functioning of the
brain. The speed of the timer of the man is the speed of functioning
of the human brain.

ON the REMOVAL And WIDENING Of the COSMO.

Thus, the dynamics of the universe is proceeding from the constant
maser, therefore that its widening if finds in decreasing progression.
E the astros had appeared of the aglutinação of the dense space,
while the maser and the high temperatures disintegrate the astros.
Soon in the future and this part and period of training of the
universe where in we find them the astros will be more cold and
lesser.

Was this survey designed by guys in the first place? The phrase "man-made" is not exactly neutral in a survey assessing gender differences (although if that language was problematic it looks like it helped the women in this case). The term "explosion" is not an indisputable description of the inflationary origin of the universe. Etc...

By Nick (Matzke) (not verified) on 15 Apr 2008 #permalink

The survey saddens and concerns me.

Female biologist here.

I would have probably put 'false' for that last one, just because the answer seems way, way too simple. And maybe it is just that simple, I guess I got it wrong.

Maybe females are actually better educated when it comes to both the known facts of cosmology and the various problems with cosmological theories?

First off, Big Bang defenders point out that the BB was not an explosion, but a sudden expansion of space-time (so even just on a technicality the answer is false).

Second, the unknowns are incredible. We are the Mr. Magoo's of the universe. Perhaps female respondents were more likely to take this into account rather than brashly assume that we have already sorted out the "answer in the back of the book".

Third, the Big Bang has been in serious trouble since at least 1998, when we found out that red-shift patterns indicate that not only is the universe expanding, but that the expansion is accelerating, against every prediction of the BB.

Of course, defenders were quick to add all kinds of dark matter and energy to solve this problem, but the fact remains that this is a finding that the BB did not predict and does not explain. On earth, we would get rid of such a failed theory. In cosmology though.....

By Jason Failes (not verified) on 15 Apr 2008 #permalink

As an aspiring astrobiologist, I love what Jason wrote:

We are the Mr. Magoo's of the universe.

I suspect language is indeed problematic in this question, and also--dare I say it--that religion may have some influence.

On the gender disparity, yesterday Charles suggested this lecture by Rebecca Watson of skepchick.org which I found extremely interesting...

Of course, defenders were quick to add all kinds of dark matter and energy to solve this problem, but the fact remains that this is a finding that the BB did not predict and does not explain. On earth, we would get rid of such a failed theory. In cosmology though.....

I know of few instances in which a theory would be discarded based on a single difficulty unless there's another theory ready and waiting that explains the difficulty, which is not the case in cosmology. For every problem with the Big Bang, there are ten with Steady State.

Maybe females are actually better educated when it comes to both the known facts of cosmology and the various problems with cosmological theories?

this is why there are so many more women who complete degrees in physics & astronomy. oh, oops, that's not true.

yes, saying that the big bang is an explosion is pretty much not even wrong. but does anyone really think that the higher "false" answers from females are due to greater cosmological sophistication about the nature of space???

next time we see males performing poorly in reading i'll argue that it's really due to the popularity of experimental narrative fictional techniques, so the tests aren't capturing their subtle and nuanced comprehension skills.

and if any of you really believed that female cosmological sophistication is the primary reason for these data, i await your support for physis & math programs targeted toward all those unsubtle males, since females are already ahead of the game. right?

let's keep it real.

I'm with Joshua - it's misleading to say that "the Universe began with a huge explosion". That is a caricature of Big Bang theory. I'd have found it difficult to answer that question. I'd have assumed that anyone who has read nothing about it would answer "true" and anyone who knows anything about contemporary cosmology would be very tempted to say "false". To be fair, I probably would have said "true" in the end, but it's still a bad question, and that makes it hard to draw inferences from how people answered.

Merriam-Webster's second definition for explosion is "a large-scale, rapid, or spectacular expansion or bursting out or forth". The big bang was certainly a large-scale, rapid, or spectacular expansion and thus an explosion by that definition.

parenting parenting parenting: toys and books are gendered extremely to skew boys toward an interest in science... take a look at the "recommended" toys for boys and girls on most toy web sites.

by the time science comes up in school, girls are less confident and less interested. in some cases, teachers give boys more encouragement in subjects like science (though it's usually already too late).

I'd have found it difficult to answer that question.

why are we talking about this? most people are stupid, they don't know the diff. between inflation or non-inflation, etc. they don't that the universe doesn't have a center and so forth. a very small proportion of individuals (male and female) would stumble around the non-trivial semantic point that the big bang is not precisely an "explosion." but that's only on the margins, the bigger reality is that most people are stupid and have a weak grasp of cosmology.

fixating on the not-even-wrong aspect of the q

Third, the Big Bang has been in serious trouble since at least 1998, when we found out that red-shift patterns indicate that not only is the universe expanding, but that the expansion is accelerating, against every prediction of the BB.

Of course, defenders were quick to add all kinds of dark matter and energy to solve this problem, but the fact remains that this is a finding that the BB did not predict and does not explain. On earth, we would get rid of such a failed theory. In cosmology though.....

Hmm. No. Dark matter was 'added' quite some time ago, for the very simple reason that multiple different lines of evidence suggested its existence. It was not introduced to explain the current acceleration; indeed, it couldn't, since it has the same effect as any other mass; it tends to decelerate the expansion of the Universe.

The equations governing the Big Bang always allowed for the existence of something like dark energy, and this has been known since the beginning. Inflationary models, which pre-date the observations you refer to by a couple of decades, get their accelerated expansion in precisely the same way the current observed acceleration is explained. What's new is precisely the observations that such an effect is still in play, rather than confined to the earliest stages of the Big Bang. And here, again, there exist multiple lines of evidence which line up rather nicely.

a very small proportion of individuals (male and female) would stumble around the non-trivial semantic point that the big bang is not precisely an "explosion."

While an even smaller proportion would be perfectly happy with 'explosion,' but would quibble over 'began.' And possibly 'Universe.'

I do take razib's point, but it seems prima facie unbelievable that three quarters of the women in this survey hadn't heard of the Big Bang. I don't think I know anybody of either sex who is that ignorant.

I agree that the explanation can't be that all these women were super-sophisticated about how the Big Bang should best be described. OTOH, I wouldn't be surprised if at least some had a naive sense, from something they'd heard or seen on TV or whatever, that "Big Bang" is some kind of, like, metaphor or something and it wasn't, like, you know, really, like, an explosion type explosion. (I'm trying to channel this mentality, perhaps not successfully.) That would be my first thought as to why a lot of people who are not at all sophisticated about science would nonetheless give the arguably-correct answer "false".

But yeah, in the end I guess it's mainly, even if not entirely, appalling ignorance about the emerging scientific picture of the universe we find ourselves in. I give in. Sigh.

Apart from the gendered nature of the data, these science literary results really do seem to show that many or most people just don't see themselves as living in the same universe that people with at least basic scientific literacy see themselves as living in.

Just a question to those here that have a problem with the word "explosion"....Do you have the same problem with the word "inflation"? I'm glad someone gave a definition of the word explosion which seems to fit.

but it seems prima facie unbelievable that three quarters of the women in this survey hadn't heard of the Big Bang. I don't think I know anybody of either sex who is that ignorant.

1) some of them might know what a big bang is, but reject the idea because they're stupid.

2) who you know is pretty irrelevant. almost no one hangs with a random slice of the population. 20% of the white american population things interracial marriage should be against the law; i doubt i know many of those people. 95% of the population in the USA believes in god or a higher spirit; probably around 30% of the people i'm close too do. so?

I am not a MOND advocate, nor a steady-state model adherent, nor a fundie, nor undereducated, nor, as Razib would put it, "stupid."

I'm just someone who's read everything he can on physics, cosmology, and the BB theory and come to the conclusion that it just doesn't add up:

The history of the BB is littered with incorrect predictions, ad hoc additions, and sloppy claims of victory when accurate "retero-dictions" were finally hammered out.

We have observed no "age of darkness", and it doesn't look like we will any time soon.

Large-scale structures are too large to have been formed in only 14 billion years.

The CMB is virtually indistinguishable from black-body radiation, and there are several indicators that it is influenced by celestial objects in the "foreground".

If dark energy, or something about the nature of space-time itself, causes galactic scale structures to repel, why assume a time when they were all in one place to begin with? Moreover, if universal expansion is accelerating, and we project that back in time, we do not get a moment of superfast inflation, but rather an asymptotic approach to zero velocity the further back in time one goes.

Our observations are terrible (compared to the observations we would like to get. We make large-scale errors like this all the time:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/06/050601082015.htm
http://www.usyd.edu.au/news/84.html?newsstoryid=2163), our assumptions often badly incorrect, our theories woefully incomplete, and the BB is itself a one-off historical event that we cannot observe directly.

Again, given all this, why do we assume we have the "answer in the back of the book" with the BB?

Because we like to have an answer, any answer, even a wrong one, rather than live with the uncertainty of withholding judgment until something definitive comes around. Because we like to have a beginning, a middle, and an end, and our imaginations are limited as such by our terrestrially-evolved human brain.

As with most things in nature, the real answers concerning cosmological origins are likely to be both completely unexpected and far more elegant than what we have today.

By Jason Failes (not verified) on 17 Apr 2008 #permalink

Whoops, you will have to remove the ")," from the second html to get it to work right. sorry.

By Jason Failes (not verified) on 17 Apr 2008 #permalink

The girls spend too much time blogging and chatting. They just need to spend more time reading science news, scientific papers etc.. If browsing arXiv is too boring, then why not read the physics arXiv blog? :)

By Count Iblis (not verified) on 19 Apr 2008 #permalink

Aldous Huxley published his most famous novel Brave New World in 1932. The book is a cautionary tale of a dystopian future version of London, Huxley's hometown, in the year 2540. The book's vision is of a country ruled entirely by the government, and all conflict, suffering and ultimately, all free thought is against government's regulations. In brief, it's about what the world would look like of no one was able to choose for themselves, voice their opinions, or live how they saw fit, all being hampered by a governments' iron fist. Huxley was criticized for his work, and still is to this day. Whether or not it was controversial, parallels exist in modern America, although not nearly as pervasive. The American government and state governments are beginning to impose many restrictions through legislation. For instance, certain areas in Los Angeles are off limits to fast food restaurants. Burger stands aren't the only businesses starting to be zoned out; payday loan lenders are also feeling the pinch. Many state and national legislators are pledging to do away with this vital services if elected. They're trying to get elected to serve their own self interest. Where do we, as people, draw the line at where the government can't tell us what to do?

By David Johnston (not verified) on 20 Oct 2008 #permalink