First of five student guest posts by Kristen Coleman
Every morning as I prepare for class, I go through the same internal dialogue, “to wear or not to wear my hearing aide.” I am forced to do this because when I was a child I, like most American children (about 80% by age 3 as estimated by the American Academy of Family Practitioners, AAFP), suffered from otitis media and my treatment resulted in hearing loss. The treatment I underwent was called tympanostomy with ventilation tube insertion, which has rapidly become the most common reason for general anesthesia in children in the United States. However, the AAFP reports that meta-analysis of studies exploring the effectiveness of this procedure indicate that benefit is only marginal at best. So why is it that our children are being exposed to this potentially quality of life altering procedure, if there is little benefit? In order to explore the reasons, we must delve further into the disease in question.
Previously, it had been commonly thought that chronic otitis media was characterized by a virus-laden sterile effusion behind the ear drum; meaning that bacteria were not thought to be present and thus, antibiotic therapy was not indicated. Now we know that chronic otitis media is most commonly due to infection of the middle ear by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza, Moraxella catarrhalis, (all of which are bacteria) or respiratory viruses. The organisms contribute to the buildup of fluid and pus behind the ear drum that is characteristic of this disease. Dr. Kim Stol and collaborators have reported findings that demonstrate that immune inflammatory response, measured through the presence of immune mediators called cytokines, may play a role in the damage to the ear during bacterial infection that commonly results in hearing loss or diminishment. As demonstrated by the research of Dr. Lusk of the University of Iowa, this immune-mediated damage can persist even after surgical intervention if bacteria persist in the middle ear, making medical management of the bacteria through antibiotic therapy even more essential.
Due to this evidence, the AAFP and other leading organizations that publish guidelines for treatment recommend antibiotic therapy as the gold standard of care for children suffering from chronic otitis media. These guidelines indicate rigorous treatment with high doses of antibiotics such as amoxicillin/clavulanate, cephalosporins and macrolides. If these antibiotics do not offer relief, clindamycin and tympanocentesis (removal of fluid from behind the ear drum with a needle) are then warranted. It is only when all of these medical treatments fail that tympanostomy tubes may be an appropriate option. However, it has been reported by researchers at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City that of the 682 children who received tympanostomy tubes as treatment for chronic otitis media in their study in 2002, only 7.5% did so in accordance to the guidelines set forth by these organizations, and that most of these operations occurred before adequate attempts at antibiotic management of the disease could be utilized. In the study performed by Dr. Stol, it was reported that of the 116 participants in the study who were suffering from chronic otitis media, only 6.9% had received a recent antibiotic prescription, despite the fact that 53% of these patients were suffering from a bacterial form of the disease that may have responded favorably to antibiotic therapy.
As for me and my story, I had an initial round of ventilation tubes places in my ear drums when I was 6 years old, along with an adenoidectomy which was thought to help diminish my ear infections. My family was told that my disease was due to a virus and I was not prescribed any antibiotics prior to my surgical procedure. These tubes fell out the next year, and my chronic otitis media still had not resolved. More permanent tubes were placed in my ears at age 8 and these became lodged in my ear drums until college, all the while I suffered from chronic fluid and pain in my ears. When I had the tubes removed at age 19, my ear drums were permanently scarred and I had to undergo a bilateral tympanoplasty in which a surgeon tried to patch the holes in my ear drums, to no avail. All of this resulted in me having to wear a hearing aide in order to hear adequately at the age of 28.
As the report from Mount Sinai Medical School indicates, the discrepancy between practice and guidelines, as well as the overuse of surgical management in lieu of less-invasive medical management cannot be in the best interest of the children suffering from this disease, and steps need to be taken in order to educate physicians and families alike as to the most appropriate steps for treatment of this chronic disease in order to save our children from having stories like mine.
1.Stol, Kim et al. Inflammation in the Middle Ear of Children with Recurrent or Chronic Otitis Media is Associated with Bacterial Load. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. Volume 31, Number 11, pages 1128-1134. November 2012.
2.Lusk, Rodney P. et al. Medical Management of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media Without Cholesteatoma in Children. Layngoscope: February 1986.
3.Keyhani, et al. Overuse of tympanostomy tubes in New York metropolitan area: evidence from five hospital cohort. Mount Sinai Medical School. BMJ: 2008.
4.American Association of Family Practitioners. www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1650.html
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Great post! Have you heard about the new guidelines on treating ear infections? http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2013/02/25/172588359/pediatricians-urge…
The new practice guidelines wisely discourage needless use of antibiotics, but for children with frequent repeat infections, they recommend going right to shoving tubes into the kids rather than using antibiotics. As this guest column so eloquently notes, that can have permanent repercussions. Before our current state of permanent war began, I remember hearing that the military had rejected some potential recruits for having tubes in their ears. I don't know if they still do that or not, but it certainly seems to me that parents shouldn't be needlessly rushed into making decisions, for a child too young to grant consent, that could permanently limit his or her future options in life.
It seems to me that tympanostomy is more popular in the US than in Europe. I must admit that this article is the first time I've even heard the term tympanostomy. Over here antibiotics seem to be "the weapon of first choice" and tympanostomy is treated as the last resort.
Recent research has associated chronic ear infection with biofilm formation. The biofilm protects bacteria from the antibiotic. They do no damage while in the biofilm, but they eventually come out of the biofilm, become planktonic and created infection - again!
The key is finding a way to disrupt or destroy the biofilm while killing the bacteria with the antibiotics. There are a number of potential therapies being studied in the US, but in Europe they are beginning to employ. Take a look at the research. Very hopeful.