There are 38 new articles on PLoS ONE today. Below are some of my own picks, but you look around, read what you like, rate, comment and annotate:
Determining what seabirds have eaten is typically accomplished with stomach flushing. Here, Deagle and colleagues use non-invasive DNA-based analysis of faeces as an alternative way to examine the diet of Macaroni penguins on Heard Island in the southern Indian Ocean. Their results show that the technique can detect changes in the birds' diet over time and suggest it will be useful in long-term monitoring studies.
Many plants release compounds that evaporate easily and defend the plant against insects by attracting natural enemies of those insects. This study examined the attraction of leafminer parasitoids to plants damaged by leafminers. The results reveal that the compound hexenol, released by diverse plant species following mechanical damage, attracts a leafminer parasite to the plant.
A central theoretical goal of epidemiology is the construction of spatial models of disease prevalence and risk, including maps for the potential spread of infectious disease. We provide three continent-wide maps representing the relative risk of malaria in Africa based on ecological niche models of vector species and risk analysis at a spatial resolution of 1 arc-minute (9 185 275 cells of approximately 4 sq km). Using a maximum entropy method we construct niche models for 10 malaria vector species based on species occurrence records since 1980, 19 climatic variables, altitude, and land cover data (in 14 classes). For seven vectors (Anopheles coustani, A. funestus, A. melas, A. merus, A. moucheti, A. nili, and A. paludis) these are the first published niche models. We predict that Central Africa has poor habitat for both A. arabiensis and A. gambiae, and that A. quadriannulatus and A. arabiensis have restricted habitats in Southern Africa as claimed by field experts in criticism of previous models. The results of the niche models are incorporated into three relative risk models which assume different ecological interactions between vector species. The "additive" model assumes no interaction; the "minimax" model assumes maximum relative risk due to any vector in a cell; and the "competitive exclusion" model assumes the relative risk that arises from the most suitable vector for a cell. All models include variable anthrophilicity of vectors and spatial variation in human population density. Relative risk maps are produced from these models. All models predict that human population density is the critical factor determining malaria risk. Our method of constructing relative risk maps is equally general. We discuss the limits of the relative risk maps reported here, and the additional data that are required for their improvement. The protocol developed here can be used for any other vector-borne disease.
Transcriptional regulation of the genes in metabolic pathways is a highly successful strategy, which is virtually universal in microorganisms. The lac operon of E. coli is but one example of how enzyme and transporter production can be made conditional on the presence of a nutrient to catabolize.
With a minimalist model of metabolism, cell growth and transcriptional regulation in a microorganism, we explore how the interaction between environmental conditions and gene regulation set the growth rate of cells in the phase of exponential growth. This in silico model, which is based on biochemical rate equations, does not describe a specific organism, but the magnitudes of its parameters are chosen to match realistic values. Optimizing the parameters of the regulatory system allows us to quantify the fitness benefit of regulation. When a second nutrient and its metabolic pathway are introduced, the system must further decide whether and how to activate both pathways.
Even the crudest transcriptional network is shown to substantially increase the fitness of the organism, and this effect persists even when the range of nutrient levels is kept very narrow. We show that maximal growth is achieved when pathway activation is a more or less steeply graded function of the nutrient concentration. Furthermore, we predict that bistability of the system is a rare phenomenon in this context, but outline a situation where it may be selected for.
Good shout Bora,
PloS ONE alone are publishing on average, 30 - 40 peer reviewed Papers a week. I simply don't have the time to fully study the ones that are of some interest to me.
On the other hand, just these, I received email notification of my weekly digest of Nature Papers.
Both outlets send out a broad range of great reading material for those interested in browsing through.
Level playing field? Obviously not, as only one (of the above) currently allows the *average reader* to eerrr actually read !!!
God I hate Toll Access....