“What we need is more people who specialize in the impossible.” -Theodore Roethke
In math, if you prove a theorem, that theorem is as good as gold. But in physics, a theorem may or may not be 100% valid.
It depends, for example, on whether your "proof" describes all the relevant phenomena at play in your system. For example, Goldstone's theorem predicts that any broken symmetry will lead to the creation of massless particles. Yet when we actually break, say, the electroweak symmetry, the particles we get out are some of the most massive ones in the entire Universe!
There are plenty of other examples, including a "theorem" that "proves" where the Universe came from. Don't be fooled, and don't trust your theoretical proof, only on Starts With A Bang at Medium.
@Ethan: I am so glad to see I'm not the only one who has made this mistake :-) The number 1E+100 is a "googol", and the number 1E+(1E+100) is a "googolplex".
Hopefully new data will always be available to improve our best theory's, and someone around to criticize them!
One of the most consequential mechanisms of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of the quantum properties among particles. This mysterious effect allows two or more particles to behave as one, no matter how far apart they are.
This phenomenon could be responsible for many significant aspects of our lives such as the forward flow of time, thermodynamics and how everyday objects acquire mass, yourself included, and could finally explain why the fundamental particles of matter have the mass they do. -
Oftentimes, the interaction between two electrons causes their individual properties, such as spin, to become "entangled". If you then change the spin of one particle it will instantly affect the spin of the other, regardless of the distance between them.
More than 50 years ago, the first hint of Higgs was inspired by the study of superconductors - a special class of metals that, when cooled to very low temperatures, allow electrons to move without resistance.
About a decade ago, a theory of entanglement of electrons was offered to explain one of the defining traits of superconductivity: the Meissner effect. This quintessential property of superconductivity will levitate a magnet above a piece of superconducting material. The magnetic field emanating from the magnet induces a current in the surface of the superconductor, and this current effectively excludes the magnetic field from the interior of the superconducting material, causing the magnet to hover in the air.
The key concept that has been explored here is “exclusion of the force carrier”. When entanglement excludes the force carrier, then the nature of the interaction of the particle with the force carrier that participle is associated with is changed.
Physicists believe that the source of this mass is something called the Higgs field that fills the universe and is mediated by a particle known as the Higgs boson. These bosons are thought to exist in a "condensed" state that excludes the mediator particles such as gluons in the same way that a superconductor's entangled electrons exclude the photons of a magnetic field.
A Bose Condensate is always associated with a type of boson or in other words “a force Carrier”. The Higgs field is comprised of Higgs bosons that are entangled and condensed. That Higgs field excludes photons in varying degrees based on the type of sclerotic that is producing those force carriers. This Higgs field interacts the the force carriers of the strong force and the weak force as well as the electromagnetic force. This degree of exclusion defines the mass of the particle.
This exclusion by the Higgs field is what gives the mediator particles an effective mass, and also limits their range of influence. But no one understands how the Higgs field excludes, say, gluons.
Entanglement could be the answer. Entanglement could be how the condensation of the Higgs bosons and exclusion of the mediators requires entanglement between the Higgs bosons. Entanglement may be linked to the mass of not just the mediator particles, but all fundamental particles. Different particles would interact differently with the entangled Higgs bosons, providing different "effective masses" for each particle.
The entanglement of the polariton a hybrid of light an matter in the form of a soliton and its projection of entanglement might be another analogous mechanism that excludes the force carriers of both the weak and strong force.
This mechanism of entangled exclusion of force carriers could be the chief mover of how low energy nano reactions work.
The Higgs Mode in Disordered Superconductors
Close to a Quantum Phase Transition
Through the use of 2 dimentional topological superconductors, the Higgs field is detected using a Quantim Phase transition in a condensed matter system.
The study of the properties of disordered superconductors is a subject of ongoing intense activity, mostly because it is viewed as being one of the few physical systems that can be tuned through a two dimensional quantum critical point, which is not mean-field-like. The softening of the Higgs mode is a direct proof that the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) is a quantum critical point in which a diverging timescale is detected. Evidently, the vicinity to the Quantum Phase Transition (QPT) offers a unique opportunity to study the nature of the low energy collective excitations in superconductors. Going beyond disordered superconductors, this finding can play a role in tracing collective excitations in other quantum critical condensed matter systems and might influence and inform related fields such as Bose-condensed ultracold atoms, quantum statistical mechanics and high energy physics.
OK, axil, what was the point of the cut 'n paste job from some introductory text here?
Pretense at relevancy?
The purpose of the post above is to show that both the Higgs field and the LENR reaction emerge from the same quantum mechanical mechanism: quantum entanglement of spin.
Furthermore, coordinated electron motion is the ultimate source of the Higgs field as revealed in a superconductor. In like manor, the LENR reaction will emerge from a condensed matter spin condensate that acts to screen the force carriers of the both the strong and the weak forces.
When we break the electroweak symmetry, out comes, among others, the photon. Last time I checked it was massless.
My point, axil, is that quantum entanglement has been used to explain many things, including superconductivity, for many years. In other words, "it didn't need to be shown".
LENR has had damn near EVERYTHING used to "explain" it, leaving only Unicorn Farts and Pixie Dust left to try, because the believers do not know what the hell is going on,but "know" that it's fusion.
Quantum entanglement will not explain any non-fusion fusion going on because it doesn't remove the requirement for all particles to remain in existence or decay via one of the weak transitions, all of which require neutrons or beta particles to leave the system when they clearly do not.
Moreover, your posts, now that they have been revealed to be self-serving trash on the fraudulent e-cat situation, should be going on the proper thread, not this one.
Yes Fry, but the W and Z bosons, which are not massless also result from the symmetry breaking. The theorem in question, I believe, states that ALL particles produced by the symmetry breaking should be massless.
Of course, another reason that a mathematical theorem could produce a result that does not agree with observation is that the mathematical framework that we originally thought was appropriate for the physical situation is, in fact, not appropriate. That possibility should never be totally discounted, although I certainly understand that all possible alternative answers would be explored before reaching that conclusion.
Why is it so hard for today's science to understand how the collective action of electrons can affect the nature of the weak and strong forces inside the nucleus.
The mechanism of superconductivity gives us a clue. Both Its theory and it behavior inspired Higgs among others to solve the mass problem in particle physics. But amazingly, we have been shown in a recent superconductor experiment that we do not need a large particle accelerator to see the Higgs field at work though a Quantum Phase Transition. A condensed matter superconducting system configured with the appropriate crystal structure will reveal the Higgs field in action. Superconductivity shows that mass is just the shielding of force carriers.
If a crystal structure can produce mass, why cannot a crystal structure and its attendant electron dance produce nuclear rearrangement so that one or more nuclei can achieve a lower energy level by converting mass to energy? Neutrons are not required when the forces of nature are being directly manipulated inside every level of the nuclear hierarchy by the proper electron dance. After all since mass and energy are the same thing, both the production of mass and energy are caused by the exclusion of the various force carriers from their attendant subatomic nuclear resident particles.
Nice fair and balanced article that was informative.
Ethan: Kudos for your continuing posts that enable non-physicists to better grasp reality. I share some with highly educated folks with varied backgrounds, and this one brought several positive responses. My studies were in Philosophy half a century ago, but I keep up as best I can. Thanks!
Why is it so hard for today’s science to understand how the collective action of electrons can affect the nature of the weak and strong forces inside the nucleus.
Because merely claiming that this happens doesn't mean you've explained how it happens, never mind proved it.
And you STILL refuse to see that any such shielding doesn't stop neutrons, electrons, alpha particles and gamma ray photons being released when fusion happens.
Why is it so hard for the e-cat blind faithful to understand that they have to prove their proposition, rather than make up any old "it could be..." claims? It's because they can't prove, only tapdance on the false surface of the next wild-ass guess of pseudoscientific wordsalad as to what might be happening.
What "might be happening" isn't proof it IS happening, any more than claiming that the fusion products you'd normally seen are hidden by the invisible pink unicorns eating them up as they grace around the atom. It's not up to me to prove the unicorns aren't doing it, it's up to you to show the unicorns exist.
One replication of Rossi's reactor has been done, and planning for many more replications are in progress.
Pictures of Rossi's one megawatt plant. This plant is in test now and will be certified for general sale at the beginning of next year.
The test results on Rossi's 32 day third party test showed isotopic shifts of lithium and nickel as reaction byproducts, with no unstable isotopes produced and no radiation produced during the test.
Nope, it's not a replication, since there isn't enough information TO replicate.
Part of the reason for the confusion is none of you have the faintest clue as to why it's happening.
But take this over to the right thread or fuck off here instead if you refuse to keep on topic:
and stop polluting threads with your bullshit.
I am most like Stephen B here in that I am trying to keep up, not just here. What I notice most is that Wow has asked Axil to find his way to the right thread. If I WERE ignorant enough to barely not understand, I would ask Axil why he continues w/o responding how/why to the Wow request to find the correct thread. It may then become a courtroom which would become the next out of thread. Its takes longer to navigate to accurate answers when processing a 20 while reading 21 material under the pretense of 21 presenting itself as a 20. Axil, please come back, not to the courtroom but, w 100% related material, otherwise even 95% will do.
Since his final product was made of waste, many believed he was producing toxic waste and thus he was subjected to many arrest and persecutions.
Amazing re-writing of history. He was arrested because his company left a polluted wasteland that cost a fortune to clean up.
Rossi claimed he could take 10 tons of normal organic waste, i.e., (paper, wood, plastic, food, tires, industrial waste, etc.), put it into one of his machines and 24 hours later he would have – 2 tons of crude oil identical to normal crude oil pumped from the ground, 2 tons of gas (not gasoline, but similar to natural gas), and 6 tons of coal, identical to the normal coal mined from the ground.
What happened with that technology?
After having Rossi’s patent evaluated for over a year the Italian courts ruled the patent was worthless and nonsense. All Rossi did was store toxic and hazardous waste in many place in Italy. As a result, Rossi spent over 9 years in jail, on house arrest, and on probation. Rossi was convicted of many crimes in relation to that project. Some of them were overturned by the courts but many were not. The clean up costs for all of the pollution caused by Rossi, paid by the local jurisdictions and governments is well over $60 Million Euro. Over 300 companies were charged with violations relating to disposal of hazardous waste as a result of their association with Rossi.
Rossi was convicted and sentenced to 8 months in jail on pollution charges; this was never overturned by higher courts.
Rossi pled guilty for some lesser crimes such as keeping false records, not paying taxes, etc. These were never overturned by higher courts.
In 1994 all of Rossi’s land and buildings related to his business were confiscated and sold or became the property of the local jurisdictions. Rossi lost all appeals for the return of his property. (This was the second confiscation, not the one in 1989-1990.)
All of Rossi’s permits and licenses to buy-sell-process waste were revoked.
There was more later, but you have to wonder: why would anyone trust this guy?